Biological notes

Calosoma sycophanta, from Curtis, British Entomology, 1823-1840: plate 330Most of species of Calosoma are winged and in some cases they fly very well. On that respect it is enough to recall the case of Calosoma (Campalita) algiricum that lives in North Africa and Middle East, but some times is also found on the Italian coast or in the Peloponnesus, presumably aided by winds and currents of air.
The winged species can be active by day or at night and they are attracted by the artificial lights, sometimes in huge quantities. Usually they feed on larvae of Lepidoptera, in the trees or shrubs or on the ground. The activity period of adults is therefore linked to that of the prey. In case of major infestations of caterpillars, or larvae of other insects, adults of some species of Calosoma have been noted for their sudden appearance and large numbers.

Calosoma (Orinodromus) gestroi refugee under waterOn the contrary, some species and various subgenera have reduced wings, unfit for flight, or do not have at all. For convergent evolution such subgenera remind the appearance and the manner of life of Carabus. They are therefore adapted to life in the ground or under stones. Calosoma (Orinodromus) gestroi, even seems to prefer, at least for part of the active period, a semi-aquatic lifestyle (Vigna Taglianti and Bruschi, 1986: 15). A similar behavior was reported (Landry, 1976) for Calosoma (Chrysostigma) calidum, that, if threatened, takes refuge in the water where it can remain submerged for a couple of minutes.
For each species it will be indicated the distribution area and, in relation to that, the provenance of the specimens examined. The phenology will be stated on the basis of literature and material examined. The micro habitat, the lifestyle, the food preferences will also be reported. The informations are given on the basis of existing literature and where possible (and so specified in the text) they are based on direct observations in nature.