Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans Kirsh, 1859

C. elegans, C. panderi and C. kushakevitchi are a similar enough group of species, that are found in Kazakhstan, with possible penetration into the neighboring regions of Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and China. All of them have raised border of pronotum, and have rather short and wide elytra with a relatively broad margin.
The cluster represented by C. elegans contains a number of populations that all have the lateral margin of elytra rugose, a massive head and a transverse pronotum that, in most cases, has pronounced posterior lobes. The elytra are oval, in some cases their sculpture is raised of triploid type with strongly scaly, not always clearly aligned, intervals, in other cases it is flat and it can be of triploid type or it tends to become of pentaploid type by doubling of the tertiary interval.
C. elegans is a quite variable species and many populations have been described that not always are clearly different from each other. For purposes of this discussion we prefer to collect them inside few subspecies, which approximately correspond to the ones proposed by Jeannel (1940) with some minor adjustment.


Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans elegans Kirsh, 1859

Callisthenes elegans Kirsh, 1859: 197 (described from: Songorei)
Callisthenes declivis Dohrn, 1884: 405 (described from: Ili, Issik Kul; lectotype: Turkestan, Muzeum i Instytut Zoologii PAN, Warszawa)
Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi var. elegans Breuning, 1928: 63 (partim)
Callisthenes karelini elegans elegans Lapouge, 1932: 376
Callisthenes elegans elegans Jeannel, 1940: 104
Callisthenes elegans saryarkensis Kabak, 1992:74 (holotype: Koksengir mount, Karaganda distr.; Zoological Museum of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg)
Callisthenes elegans kolshengelicus Obydov, 1997: 167 (holotype: Koshengel; ex coll. Obydov)
Callisthenes elegans valentinae Obydov, 1997: 167 (holotype: Kapchagai, left bank of the Ily river; ex coll. Obydov)
Callisthenes elegans purpureus Obydov, 2002: 37 (holotype: Mezhdurechensk; ex coll. Obydov)
Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans Kabak, 2016: 796

Length 18-32 mm. The various populations collected in C. elegans elegans are characterized by the long-oval elytra, whose upper surface is a just a little arched, with elytral sculpture of triploid type and elevated, incised and imbricate intervals. The color of the upper part is more or less dark, always with copper reflections.
The bulk of these population, further characterized by larger body (24-32 mm.), and by absent or barely detectable foveae on the primary intervals, is located in southern Kazakhstan to the south of Lake Baikal and penetrates in Kyrgyzstan (Bishkek). Some small populations barely distinguishable because of the smaller size (18 to 23.5 mm.), more stocky body shape and more detectable foveae on the primary intervals, are found in isolated stations further north, near the village of Kolshengel (Callisthenes elegans kolshengelicus Obydov, 1997: 167), and on the left bank of Ill river (Callisthenes elegans valentinae Obydov, 1997: 167). Still on the banks on the left bank of Ill river Obidov (2002: 37) described Callisthenes elegans purpureus, with less elevated scupture and brightly colored.
South of the lake Baikal in Dzhezkazkgan, near Koksengir mountain, another population, namely Callisthenes elegans saryarkensis (Kabak, 1992: 74), is composed by dark colored individuals, that have less detectable sculpture of the elytra except for the slightly more raised primary intervals.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Kazakhstan: Kurdai mountains 1400m (SB); Betpak-Dala desert, near Shalgija (sub elegans saryarkensis) (SB); Karaganda distr., Koksengir mount (sub elegans saryarkensis) (Obydov, 2002: 28); S. Balkash lake, Kolshengel (sub elegans kolshengelicus) (SB); Kapchagai, left bank of Ili river (sub elegans valentinae) (SB); Mezhdurechensk, W of Kaskelen river (sub elegans purpureus) (Obydov, 2002: 37).
Kyrgyzstan: Bishkek (= Frunze) (Obydov, 2002: 28).

Notes: Brachypterous. It lives on hills and semi-desert steppe of low and medium altitudes from 200 to 600m., but, on mountain foothills, goes up to 900-1400m. Adults were collected in April-May, or until July, in the higher altitudes.
The larva has been described by Shilenkov & Berlov (1987).

Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans elegans
Kirsh, 1859
S.E. Kazakhstan, 1.400m., Chu Yili mount.,
Kordai pass, 30.IV.2000
Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans elegans
Kirsh, 1859
Kazakhstan, Kurdai 1.300m., 11.V.97, Danilevsky leg.

Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans elegans
Kirsh, 1859 (sub elegans valentinae Obydov, 1997)
S.E. Kazakhstan, Ili river, Kapchagai env., 29.IV.2000
Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans elegans
Kirsh, 1859 (sub elegans valentinae Obydov, 1997)
S.E. Kazakhstan, Ili river, Kapchagai env., 29.IV.2000
Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans elegans
Kirsh, 1859 (sub elegans kolshengelicum Obydov, 1997)
S.E. Kazakhistan, S. Balkash lake, Kolshengel env.,
28.IV.2000, S Toporov leg.
Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans elegans
Kirsh, 1859 (sub elegans kolshengelicum Obydov, 1997)
S.E. Kazakhistan, S. Balkash lake, Kolshengel env.,
28.IV.2000, S Toporov leg.
Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans elegans
Kirsh, 1859 (sub elegans saryarkensis Kabak, 1992)
Kazakhistan, Shalgiia, 300m., 7.V.1996, M Danilevsky leg


Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans karagaicum Lapouge, 1924

Callisthenes Karelini karagaicus Lapouge, 1924: 37 (type: Karagai Tau; Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi var. karagaicum Breuning, 1928: 64
Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi var. declive Breuning, 1928: 76 (partim)
Callisthenes karelini elegans karagaicus Lapouge, 1932: 376
Callisthenes elegans declivis Jeannel, 1940: 104 (partim)
Callisthenes karagaicus Obydov, 1997: 169

Length 18-22,5 mm. Both, C. elegans karagaicum and C. elegans manderstjernae, are chiefly characterized by the almost flat elytral sculpture gradually becoming of pentaploid type.
C. elegans karagaicum can be distinguished, with a careful comparative examination, because the rear angles of the pronotum are better defined and protruding from the baseline, and because the foveae, corresponding to the primary intervals, are clearly visible, large and with green cupric bottom. The color of the upper part of the body is dark brown, with a faint cupric reflection.
C. elegans karagaicum that gathers together the southernmost populations of the species, and that Obidov considers in itself a separate species, is limited to the Naryn mountain range in Kyrgyzstan, and so it is relatively isolated from other populations.
As for the previously used name of declive, Obydov attributed it to a population of the panderi - karelini group, but later Kabak (2016: 798) established the sinonimy with C. elegans elegans.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Kyrgyzstan: Naryn. (sub Calosoma usgentensis SB), Semir jetschensk (sub elegans declivis SB) , 20km N. Naryn town, (SB), environ de Narine (EM SB), Narynsk (sub panderi m. karagaicus SB), Altai, (sub elegans declivis SB); Kugart (Obydov, 2002: 38).

Notes: Brachypterous. It lives around 1200-1800m. altitude. Adults were collected. from May to July.

Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans karagaicum
Lapouge, 1924
Kirghizstan: Tian Shan, 20km N. Taryn town, 27.V.1998
Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans karagaicum
Lapouge, 1924
Kirghizstan: Tian Shan, 20km N. Taryn town, 27.V.1998


Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans manderstjernae Ballion, 1870

Callisthenes elegans Manderstjernae Ballion, 1870: 323 (described from: Wernoje)
Callisthenes karelini vernojensis Lapouge, 1924: 38 (holotype: Wernyi; Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi var. elegans Breuning, 1928: 63 (partim)
Callisthenes karelini elegans manderstjernae Lapouge, 1932: 376
Callisthenes elegans manderstjernai Jeannel, 1940: 104
Callisthenes elegans danilevskii Obydov, 1997: 165 (holotype: Kaskelen riv.; ex coll. Obydov)
Callisthenes elegans keminensis Obydov, 2002: 36 (holotype: Kemin; coll. Danilevski)

Length 25-35 mm. C. elegans manderstjernae has an almost flat elytral sculpture gradually becoming of pentaploid type, the rear angles of pronotum rounded and just projecting from the baseline and the sculpture of the elytra is characterized by primary intervals with shallow foveae difficult to detect with bottom of the same dark colour of the remaining surface of the elytra that is dark with faint cupric or blue reflections.
C. elegans manderstjernae is located on the slopes of the Zailijski Alatau mountain range, in a region between the spreading areas of C. elegans elegans and of C. elegans semenovi. Therefore it is not surprising that there are populations who have intermediate characters with those of these two entities.
To the west, where C. elegans manderstjernae meets the areal of C. elegans elegans, we have a populations characterized by smaller size and by slightly more raised sculpture of elytra, that Obydov (2002: 36) described as Callisthenes elegans keminensis.
On slopes of the mountains Zailijski Alatau, near the distribution area of C. elegans semenovi, lives a population of large size body with sculpture of elytra still tending to pentaploid type but slightly more confused (Callisthenes elegans danilevskii), whose upper body is of a darker color, with weak cupric reflexions.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Kazakhstan: Zailijisky mount. Chulik vill., 800m. (SB); E Chu-Ili Mts, 10km NW Ulken Sulutor (SB); Kemin (Obydov, 2002: 36 sub elegans keminensis); N. W. Zailijisky mount, Kaskelen river, 1800m (sub elegans danilewskii) (SB) 170km W Alma Ata (=Almaty), (sub semenovi danilevskii) (SB); Wernyi (=Almaty) (holotype of Callisthenes karelini vernojensis MNHN), Ala Tau, Semir jetschensk, (sub elegans declivis EM).

Notes: Brachypterous. It lives from 600 to 2300m. altitude. Adults were collected. in April – June, with small variations in relationship with the altitude of its habitat.
The species is named after General Alexander von Manderstjerna (1817-1888) a Russian entomologist. Sometime (Jeannel, 1940: 104) the species has been cited as manderstjernai that represents the correct spelling that should have been used in the original description.

Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans manderstjernae
Ballion, 1870
S.E. Kazakhstan, Zailijisky mount. Chulik vill., 800m., 5.V.2000
Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans manderstjernae
Ballion, 1870
S.E. Kazakhstan, Zailijisky mount. Chulik vill., 800m., 5.V.2000
Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans manderstjernae
Ballion, 1870
Wernyi
(holotype of Callisthenes karelini vernojensis Lapouge, 1924)
(coll. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans manderstjernae
Ballion, 1870 (sub elegans danilevskii Obydov, 1997)
S.E. Kazakhstan, Zailijisky mount. rg., Kaskelen river
1800m, 15.V.2000 (coll. Migliaccio)
Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans manderstjernae
Ballion, 1870 (sub elegans danilevskii Obydov, 1997)
S.E. Kazakhstan, Zailijisky mount. rg., Kaskelen river
1800m, 15.V.2000, R Kadyrbekov leg


Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans subtilestriatum Mandl, 1954

Calosoma (Callisthenes) subtilestriatum Mandl, 1954: 163 (holotype: Kuldsha; Naturhistorischen Museum, Wien)
Callisthenes subtilestriatus Obydov, 1997: 169

Length 24-25 mm. C. elegans subtilestriatum has been described as distinct species, and as such has been considered by Obydov (1997: 169). However it has many common features with the other populations of C. elegans , of which, presumably, is the most easterly penetration.
C. elegans subtilestriatum is characterized by the short elytra with the upper surface noticeably arched and steep, sharply sloping in the apical part. The intervals are almost flat, separated by puncturated striae.
It has been described from northern China (Yining).

Examined specimens and literature’s data
China: Kuldscha (= Yining) (Mandl, 1954: 163); Monts Boro-Khoro, 50km East of Yining (= Kuldzha), env. de Nilka (Obydov, 2002: 38); Kuldja (sub declive Breuning, 1928b: 61), Kuldsha, Borochoro Gebirge (SB).

Notes: Brachypterous. It lives around 1500m. altitude. Adults were collected. in April-May.

Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans subtilestriatum
Mandl, 1954
lectotype: Kuldsha; Naturhistorischen Museum, Wien
(photo Obidov, http://www.zin.ru)


Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans semenovi Motschulsky, 1859

Callisthenes Semenovi Motschulsky, 1859: 128 (described from: Dzungarei Ala Tau) (neotype: Zoological Museum of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg)
Callisthenes Ssewertzowi Ballion, 1870: 323 (described from: Wernoje)
Calosoma (Callisthenes) Ballioni Solsky, 1874: 24 (described from: Kokatau)
Callisthenes marginatus Ballioni Csiki, 1927: 27
Calosoma elegans ab. amethystinus Semenov-Tian-Shansky & Redikorzev, 1928: 111 (type: Charin riv.; Zoological Museum of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg)
Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans semenovi Semenov, 1935: 273
Callisthenes karelini elegans semenowi Lapouge, 1932: 375
Callisthenes elegans semenovi Jeannel, 1940: 104
Callisthenes semenovi Kryzhanovskij, 1962: 177
Callisthenes elegans ballioni Obydov, 1997: 164
Callisthenes elegans semenovi Obydov, 2002: 31
Callisthenes elegans amethystinus Obydov, 2002: 35

Length 18,5-34 mm. Under the name semenovi are collected various populations of C. elegans that also have the rear angles of pronotum widely rounded, and flat elytral sculpture with barely visible imbrication. They can be easily distinguished at first glance because the surface of the upper body is alive with bright metallic luster, even if they can be highly variable in size and color.
C. elegans semenovi is located on the center-northern slopes of the Zailijski Alatau mountains.
Near Alma-Ata we find the typical population, consisting of large individuals (27-34 mm.), with barely visible foveae on the primary intervals and whose color of the upper body is a metallic green or greenish bronze. To the north, in the hills and the plains between Alma Ata and the left bank of the river Ill, dwells a population, that Obydov (1997: 164) considers as a subspecies under the name of Callisthenes elegans ballioni. This population is of a smaller size (18.5-24 mm.), has more pronounced foveae on the primary intervals and a less bright metallic copper color.
Finally, to the East, from the plains of the valley of the river Charyn, another population has been described, Callisthenes elegans amethystinus, that is small to medium sized and that has a characteristic lively blue color of the upper body.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Kazakhstan: Alma ata (=Almaty) distr. (EM, SB); North Zailijisky mount. range, Talgar env. 2000m, (SB); Zailijisky range, Aksai river (sub elegans ballioni; SB); Zailijisky range, Sugety valley, Kokpek vill. (sub elegans amethystinus; SB).

Notes: Brachypterous. It has been found in the plain and hills, at around 550m altitude up to 1000-1200m in the foothills of the mountain. Adults were collected from April up to July.
The taxon has been named after Pyotr Petrovich Semenov-Tian-Shansky (1827 – 1914) a Russian geographer and statistician who managed the Russian Geographical Society for more than 40 years. In the years 1856/57 he explored the mountains of the Tian Shan of which he published the first systematic description. The reputation of this monograph was such that half a century later Nicholas II of Russia authorized him to add the epithet "Tian-Shansky" to his last name. His son Andrey Petrovich Semenov-Tian-Shansky (1866–1942) become, in his turn, an important entomologist and described many taxa of the genus Calosoma.

Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans semenovi
Motschulsky, 1859
South Kasachistan, Alma ata distr., 15.5.78
Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans semenovi
Motschulsky, 1859
South Kasachistan, Alma ata distr., 15.5.78
Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans semenovi
Motschulsky, 1859 (sub elegans ballioni Solsky, 1874)
S. Kazakhstan, Zailijisky mount. rg., Aksai river,
10.V.2000, Kadyberkov
Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans semenovi
Motschulsky, 1859 (sub elegans ballioni Solsky, 1874)
S. Kazakhstan, Zailijisky mount. rg., Aksai river,
10.V.2000, Kadyberkov
Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans semenovi
Motschulsky, 1859 (sub elegans amethystinus Obydov, 2002)
S.E. Kazakhstan, Zailijisky mount. range,
Sugety valley, Kokpek vill., 10.V.2000


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