Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans (Kirsh, 1859)

C. elegans, C. panderi and C. kushakevitchi are a similar enough group of species, characterized by the raised border of the pronotum, and by the rather short and wide elytra with a relatively broad margin.
The cluster represented by C. elegans contains a number of populations that all have a rough lateral margin of the elytra, a massive head and a transverse pronotum with well developed posterior lobes. The model of the elytral sculpture is triploid, except in the individuals of two groups of populations where it tends to become of pentaploid type by doubling the tertiary intervals. As for the other characteristics of the sculpture, they are extremely variable: either all the intervals are raised with deep transversal wrinkles, the primary ones being interrupted by more or less large dimples, or all the intervals are very little raised or completely flattened; the striae are preserved as fine rows of dots or are more less completely obliterated, in the last case the primary dimples then usually being more conspicuous. Coloring also is very variable: the upper side happens to be black monochrome or black with reddish or coppery or greenish reflection, or, in other cases, the edges of the pronotum and of the elytra or the entire upper side can be coppery or brass-colored or green.
Following this great variability of size, sculpture and color, many taxa have been described, which already Breuning (1928: 64) suspected might be living together in the same locality. Actually while few populations living in clearly circumscribed areas are morphologically differentiated enought, many others living in intermediate areas have less defined or mixed characteristics. According to Obidov (2002), all these minute morphological differences would justify the distinction of most of these populations at the subspecies level.
For the purposes of this discussion, we prefer to gather these populations in a few groups (subspecies) on the basis of the of the prevalent characteristics of the elytral sculpture. As a general rule, in the western populations all the intervals are raised, strongly scaly and clearly aligned, while, in the eastern ones the intervals become progressively flat, and the striae are replaced by fine rows of dots. As previously noted by Obidov (1997: 170), these populations follow one another from west to east, progressively modifying their characteristics, from southern Kazakhstan to Xinjiang in China (elegans s. str., manderstjernae, semenovi, rostislavi and subtilestriatum), while in the south there is a relatively isolated population in central Kyrgyzstan (karagaicum).


Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans elegans (Kirsh, 1859)

Callisthenes elegans Kirsh, 1859: 197 (described from: Songorei)
Callisthenes declivis Dohrn, 1884: 405 (described from: Turkestan); lectotype ♂, paralectotypes 1♂, 1♀ (designed by Kabak, 2004) in Muzeum i Instytut Zoologii. Polskiej Akademii Nauk, Warszawa (Kabak, 2016: 798)
Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi ssp. elegans Breuning, 1928: 63 (partim)
Callisthenes karelini elegans elegans Lapouge, 1932: 376
Callisthenes elegans elegans Jeannel, 1940: 194
Callisthenes elegans saryarkensis Kabak, 1992:74 (type locality: Koksengir mount, Karaganda distr.); holotype ♂ in Zoological Museum of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg
Callisthenes elegans kolshengelicus Obydov, 1997: 167 (type locality: Koshengel); holotype ♂ ex coll. Obydov
Callisthenes elegans valentinae Obydov, 1997: 167 (type locality: env. Kapchagai, left bank of the Ily river); holotype ♂ ex coll. Obydov
Callisthenes elegans keminensis Obydov, 2002: 36 (type locality: Kemin); holotype ♂ in coll. Danilevski
Callisthenes elegans purpureus Obydov, 2002: 37 (type locality: Mezhdurechensk left bank of the Kaskelen river); holotype ♂ ex coll. Obydov
Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans Kabak, 2016: 796

Length 18-32 mm. The various populations collected in C. elegans elegans are characterized by the conspicuously developed posterior lobes of the pronotum and by the long-oval elytra, whose upper surface is a just a little arched, with elytral sculpture of triploid type and with elevated, incised and imbricate, intervals. The color of the upper part of the body is more or less dark, always with copper reflections.
The bulk of these populations, further characterized by larger body (24-32 mm.), and by absent or barely detectable foveae on the primary intervals, is located in southern Kazakhstan from the arid areas north of Lake Baikal to Kyrgyzstan (Bishkek).
Kabak (2016), having examined the specimens on which Dohrn (1884: 405) based his description of C. declivis, recognized them as belonging to the nominotypical population of C. elegans.
As regard to the various subspecies recognizes by Obidov, north West of the lake Baikal in the Karagandy region, near Koksengir mountain, we find one relatively isolated population that Kabak (1992: 74) has named Callisthenes elegans saryarkensis, and that is composed by dark colored individuals, having grainy intervals of the elytra in which the slightly more raised primary intervals stand out. Further south, near the village of Kolshengel, Obydov (1997: 167) described with the name Callisthenes elegans kolshengelicus a population that is barely distinguishable from the typical one due to the reduced body size (18 to 23.5 mm), and the brighter color of the upper body.
Two more populations, namely Callisthenes elegans valentinae and Callisthenes elegans purpureus, living in the areas of contact of C. elegans elegans with other subspecies, can be interesting from the point of view of the evolutionary dynamics of the species. They are found towards east, near the distribution area of C elegans semenovi and C. elegans manderstjiernae. Both have less elongated body shape and a slightly less raised elytral sculpture, as it occurs in eastern subspecies, but these characteristics are too tenuous and not always constant, to justify further taxonomic distinctions.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Kazakhstan. Karagandy reg: Shalgiya (near Karazhal) (SB), 10km SW from Mynaray village (SB), Koksengir mount (Obydov, 2002: 28; sub elegans saryarkensis), 40km S. Zhana-Arka (Obydov, 2002: 28; sub elegans saryarkensis); Žambyl reg: Korday 1400m (SB), Khantau (SB), Zhaisan (Jaysan) vill. (SB); Almaty reg: Kolshengel (SB) (Obydov, 1997: 167, sub elegans kolshengelicus), Kapchagay env. (SB) (Obydov, 2002: 30; sub elegans valentinae), Mezhdurechenskoye (Mezhdurechensk) (Obydov, 2002: 37, sub elegans purpureus)
Kyrgyzstan. Chuy reg.: Tokmok (Obydov, 2002: 27)

Notes: Brachypterous. It lives on hills and semi-desert steppe of low and medium altitudes from 200 to 600m., but, on mountain foothills, goes up to 900-1400m. Adults were collected in April-May, or until July, in the higher altitudes.
The larva has been described by Shilenkov & Berlov (1987).

Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans elegans
(Kirsh, 1859) (sub elegans kolshengelicum Obydov, 1997)
S.E. Kazakhistan, S. Balkash lake, Kolshengel env.,
28.IV.2000, S Toporov leg.
Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans elegans
(Kirsh, 1859) (sub elegans kolshengelicum Obydov, 1997)
S.E. Kazakhistan, S. Balkash lake, Kolshengel env.,
28.IV.2000, S Toporov leg.
Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans elegans
(Kirsh, 1859)
S.E. Kazakhstan, 1.400m., Chu Yili mount.,
Kordai pass, 30.IV.2000
Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans elegans
(Kirsh, 1859)
Kazakhstan, Kordai 1.300m., 11.V.97, Danilevsky leg.

Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans elegans
(Kirsh, 1859) (sub elegans valentinae Obydov, 1997)
S.E. Kazakhstan, Ili river, Kapchagai env., 29.IV.2000
Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans elegans
(Kirsh, 1859) (sub elegans valentinae Obydov, 1997)
S.E. Kazakhstan, Ili river, Kapchagai env., 29.IV.2000
Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans elegans
(Kirsh, 1859) (sub elegans saryarkensis Kabak, 1992)
Kazakhistan, Shalgiya, 300m., 7.V.1996, M Danilevsky leg
Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans elegans
(Kirsh, 1859) (sub elegans saryarkensis Kabak, 1992)
Kazakhistan, Dzhezkazkgan reg., Shalgiia, 7.V.1996


Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans manderstjernae (Ballion, 1870)

Callisthenes Manderstjernae Ballion, 1870: 323 (described from: Wernoje); unspecified number of specimens, repository not stated
Callisthenes karelini vernojensis Lapouge, 1924: 38 (described from: Wernyi); unspecified number of specimens in coll. Lapouge; lectotype ♀ designated by Deuve (1978: 255) in Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris [examined]
Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi var. declive Breuning, 1928: 65 (partim)
Callisthenes karelini elegans manderstjernae Lapouge, 1932: 376
Callisthenes elegans manderstjernai Jeannel, 1940: 194
Callisthenes semenovi manderstjernae Obydov, 1997: 164
Callisthenes semenovi danilevskii Obydov, 1997: 165 (type locality: Kaskelen riv.); holotype ♂ ex coll. Obydov
Callisthenes elegans manderstjernae Obydov, 2002: 33
Callisthenes elegans danilevskii Obydov, 2002: 34

Length 25-35 mm. The first problem concerns the very definition of Callisthenes Manderstjernae. The type is in fact unavailable (Obidov, 1997: 164) and the description given by Ballion is short and unconclusive. Jeannel redescribed it as a subspecies of C. elegans and identified it with the large dark specimens, with olive or purple metallic reflections, having flat elytral sculpture tending to became of pentaploid model. Jeannel supposed these specimens living in the northern slope of the Zailijski Alatau mountains (Trans -Ili Alatau), from the surroundings of Almaty to the valley of the Charyn river. including amethystinus that he considered a simple chromatic variety.
Later Obidov (2002: 34) believed to recognize C. elegans manderstjernae in the specimens from Kastek pass and limited its distribution range to the western part of the Zailijski Alatau mountains. Previously he had described (Obydov 1997: 165) Callisthenes semenovi danilevskii, which in comparison with C. elegans manderstjernae, should be on average larger, slightly more slender, having a little more flattened elytral sculpture, of pentaploid model.
The characteristics indicated to distinguish the population called danilevskii are, the same as those indicated by Jeannel for manderstjernae. In reality, while there are many specimens of C. elegans manderstjiernae showing a beginning of doubling of the tertiary intervals and therefore a tendency towards a pentaploid model of sculpture, along most of the western Zailijski Alatau mountains, the splitting up line with respect to C. elegans elegans is difficult to identify. There, it is possible to find small populations with more noticeable intermediate characteristics, having more or less dark color and elytral sculpture flattened but again of triploid model. Sometimes the individuals of these populations are difficult to attribute to one or the other of the two subspecies.
However, taking into account their prevailing morphological characteristics, we prefer to treat the whole of of these populations in the context of C. elegans manderstjiernae. The same can be observed for other populations having similar characteristics and living on the south-western slopes of Zailijski Alatau mountains. One of them, characterized by flattened sculpture and dark color, was described as Callisthenes elegans keminensis, but in our opinion, as in the other cases we have talked about, it falls within the range of variability of C. elegans manderstjiernae.
In conclusion C. elegans manderstjernae sensu Jeannel can be described as constituted by medium to large size individuals with an elongated oval body, having an elytral sculpture which gradually tends to flatten. The intervals are visibly imbricated, the striae become confused and the model of elytral sculpture in extreme cases can become pentaploid, as the tertiary intervals tend to double. On the primary intervals there are shallow fovee hardly detectable because their bottom is of of the same color as the remaining surface of the elytra. The upper body is dark with faint cupric reflections. It is located on the western slopes of the Zailijski Alatau mountain as far as the upper Kaskelen river valley.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Kazakhstan. Žambyl reg: Kastek (SB), Ul’ken Sulutor (SB); Almaty reg. Wernyi (Almaty) (type of Callisthenes karelini vernojensis MNHN); Qarasaj distr: Kaskelen river valley, 1800m (SB) (Obidov, 1997: 165 sub sub elegans danilewskii)
Kyrgyzstan. Chuy reg.: Kemin (Bystrovka) 1300m. (SB) (Obydov, 2002: 36, sub elegans keminensis), Kizil-Bayrak 1450m (SB), Ak-Tuyuz (SB).

Notes: Brachypterous. It lives from 600 to 2300m. altitude. Adults were collected. in April – June, with small variations in relationship with the altitude of its habitat.
As regard to Callisthenes elegans danilevskii, Obydov (2002: 6) reports an interesting observation made by its discoverer. The specimens single or in pairs were found in holes dug into the ground down to 30cm deep. That is all the more interesting because, although adult specimens of other species of the subgenus have been observed sheltering in holes dug in the ground, in the other reported cases they remained close to the surface.
The species is named after General Alexander von Manderstjerna (1817-1888) a Russian entomologist. Sometime (Jeannel, 1940: 196) the species has been cited as manderstjernai that represents the more correct spelling, from a grammatical point of view, which should have been used (but that has not been used) in the original description.

Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans manderstjernae
(Ballion, 1870) (sub elegans danilevskii Obydov, 1997)
Kazakhstan, Almaty reg. Kaskalen gorge, 1650m.
(43°05’22”N 76°35’14”E) 1-4.V.2015, Kovalenko lgt.
Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans manderstjernae
(Ballion, 1870) (sub elegans danilevskii Obydov, 1997)
S.E. Kazakhstan, Zailijisky mount. rg., Kaskelen river
1800m, 15.V.2000, R Kadyrbekov leg
Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans manderstjernae
(Ballion, 1870)
S.E. Kazakhstan, E Chu-Ili Mts, 10km NW Ulken Sulutor
1300m, (N43°19’43”, E75°07’02”),4.V.2011, Klimenko lgt.
Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans manderstjernae
(Ballion, 1870)
S.E. Kazakhstan, E Chu-Ili Mts, 10km NW Ulken Sulutor
1300m, (N43°19’43”, E75°07’02”),4.V.2011, Klimenko leg
Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans manderstjernae
(Ballion, 1870)
Kyrgyzstan. S slopes of Zailijisky mts.
Ak-Tur v. 2000m., 24.V.1998
Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans manderstjernae
(Ballion, 1870)) ( sub C. elegans keminensis Obydov 2002)
Kyrgyzstan. Chuy reg. Trans-Ili Alatau mt. Range
Chong-Kemin vall., Kyzil-Bairak 1450m., 11.V.2019 Toporov leg.
Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans manderstjernae
(Ballion, 1870)
Kazakhstan. Almaty prov. val. riv. Kastek
1200-1350m. 6.V,2015 Rutjan lgt.

Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans manderstjernae
(Ballion, 1870)
Wernyi
(holotype of Callisthenes karelini vernojensis Lapouge, 1924)
(coll. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)


Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans semenovi (Motschulsky, 1859)

Callisthenes Semenovi Motschulsky, 1859: 128 (described from: Dzungarei Ala Tau) neotype ♂ designated by Kryzhanovskyi in Zoological Museum of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg (Obydov, 2002: 31)
Callisthenes Ssewertzowi Ballion, 1870: 323 (described from: Wernoje); unspecified number of specimens, repository not stated
Calosoma (Callisthenes) Ballioni Solsky, 1874: 24 (described from: Kokatau) 2 syntypes ♂ ♀ (from Chokand) designated by Obydov (2002: 31) in Zoological Museum of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg (Obydov, 2002: 32)
Callisthenes marginatus Ballioni Csiki, 1927: 27
Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi var. elegans Breuning, 1928: 63 (partim)
Calosoma elegans ab. amethystinus Semenov-Tian-Shansky & Redikorzev, 1928: 111 (type locality: Charin riv.); holotype ♀ in Zoological Museum of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg (Obydov, 2002: 35)
Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans semenovi Semenov, 1935: 273
Callisthenes karelini elegans semenowi Lapouge, 1932: 375
Callisthenes elegans semenovi Jeannel, 1940: 195
Callisthenes elegans manderstjernai var. amethystinus Jeannel, 1940: 196
Callisthenes semenovi Kryzhanovskij, 1962: 177
Callisthenes elegans ballioni Obydov, 1997: 164
Callisthenes elegans semenovi Obydov, 2002: 31
Callisthenes elegans amethystinus Obydov, 2002: 35

Length 18,5-34 mm. C. elegans semenovi, as we define it, occupies the southernmost part of the Almaty region and is composed of a set of populations all characterized by the definitely flat elytral sculpture of triploid type with shallow imbrication, which in some cases is barely visible but anyway always identifiable. The body shape is short and rounded and the color of the upper body is variable from one population to another.
The westernmost populations (Ala Tau and Talgar districts) are those already recognized by Jeannel (1940: 195) and are easily identifiable by the surface of the upper body alive with bright metallic luster. To the south of the city of Almaty, you meet larger individuals (27-34 mm.), with barely visible foveae on the primary intervals and whose color of the upper body is a metallic green or greenish bronze (C. elegans semenovi, aut.). To the north and east, the hills and the plains between the city of Almaty and the right bank of the Ili river are occupied by a population, that Obydov (1997: 164) considered as a distinct subspecies ( Callisthenes elegans ballioni). This population is only distinguishable by the slight smaller size (18.5-24 mm.), the more pronounced foveae on the primary intervals and by a less bright metallic copper color.
More towards east, in the valley of the Charyn river (Talgar and Eńbekšiqazaq districts) there is another population that Obydov (2002: 35) regarded also as one more subspecies (Callisthenes elegans amethystinus). This population, also of medium size (22-25 mm.), differs from the neighboring one (ballioni auct.) only for the dark color of the upper body. Also in this case, however, there are intermediate chromatic forms with dark bronze, green or, rarely, blue green metallic reflections, more common in the border area in between.Therefore, it seems preferable to avoid further distinctions and keep the whole described set within the variability of the subspecies we call C. elegans semenovi.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Kazakhstan. Almaty reg. Ala Tau distr: Boralday (SB), Almaty env. (EM, SB), Alma Arasan (SB); Talgar distr: Talgar env. 2000m, (SB), Eltai village env. (SB), Isaevo vill. 700m. (SB); Eńbekšiqazaq distr: Aqsaj (Aksai) river (SB), Ashohibulak vill. (SB) , Chilik (Shelek) (SB), Chilik river valley (SB), Kokpek vill. (SB), Malybai vill. (Obydov, 2002: 36 sub elegans amethystinus).

Notes: Brachypterous. It has been found in the plain and hills, at around 550m altitude up to 1000-1200m in the foothills of the mountain. Adults were collected from April up to July.
The taxon has been named after Pyotr Petrovich Semenov-Tian-Shansky (1827 – 1914) a Russian geographer and statistician who managed the Russian Geographical Society for more than 40 years. In the years 1856/57 he explored the mountains of the Tian Shan of which he published the first systematic description. The reputation of this monograph was such that half a century later Nicholas II of Russia authorized him to add the epithet "Tian-Shansky" to his last name. His son Andrey Petrovich Semenov-Tian-Shansky (1866–1942) became, in his turn, an important entomologist and described many taxa of the genus Calosoma.

Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans semenovi
(Motschulsky, 1859)
South Kasachistan, Alma ata distr., 15.5.78
Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans semenovi
(Motschulsky, 1859)
South Kasachistan, Alma ata distr., 15.5.78
Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans semenovi
(Motschulsky, 1859) (sub elegans ballioni Solsky, 1874)
S. Kazakhstan, Zailijisky mount. rg., Aksai river,
10.V.2000, Kadyberkov
Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans semenovi
(Motschulsky, 1859) (sub elegans ballioni Solsky, 1874)
S. Kazakhstan, Zailijisky mount. rg., Aksai river,
10.V.2000, Kadyberkov
Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans semenovi
(Motschulsky, 1859) (sub elegans amethystinus
Semenov-Tian-Shansky & Redikorzev, 1928)
Almaty reg. Ashohibulak vill., 1200m. (43°27’41”N 77°47’49”E)
16-17.IV.2017, Kovalenko lgt.
Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans semenovi
(Motschulsky, 1859) (sub elegans amethystinus
Semenov-Tian-Shansky & Redikorzev, 1928)
Almaty reg. Ashohibulak vill., 1200m. (43°27’41”N 77°47’49”E)
16-17.IV.2017, Kovalenko lgt.
Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans semenovi
(Motschulsky, 1859) (sub elegans amethystinus
Semenov-Tian-Shansky & Redikorzev, 1928)
Almaty reg. Ashohibulak vill., 1200m. (43°27’41”N 77°47’49”E)
16-17.IV.2017, Kovalenko lgt.
Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans semenovi
(Motschulsky, 1859) (sub elegans amethystinus
Semenov-Tian-Shansky & Redikorzev, 1928)
Boguty mts. 900m. (43°33’53”N 78°38’16”E), 10.IV.2019

Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans semenovi
(Motschulsky, 1859) (sub elegans amethystinus
Semenov-Tian-Shansky & Redikorzev, 1928)
S.E. Kazakhstan, Zailijisky mount. range,
Chilik vill., 800m., 5.V.2000
Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans semenovi
(Motschulsky, 1859) (sub elegans amethystinus
Semenov-Tian-Shansky & Redikorzev, 1928)
S.E. Kazakhistan, Zailijisky mount. range,
Sugety valley Kokpek env., 2.V.1999, Neforosnyi lgt.,


Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans rostislavi Semenov, 1906

Calosoma rostislavi Semenov, 1906: 262 (described from: vallis fluminis Ili haud procul ab. opp. Dzharkent); holotype ♂ (ex coll. Semenov) in Zoological Museum of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg (Obydov, 2002: 18)
Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi var. declive Breuning, 1928: 65 (partim)
Callisthenes elegans declivis Jeannel, 1940: 195 (partim)
Callisthenes karelini rostislavi Kryzhanovskij & al. 1995: 34
Callisthenes declivis Obydov, 1997: 168 (partim)
Calosoma (Callisthenes) rostislavi Kabak, 2016: 798

Length 17-21 mm. Basing on the original, description C. declivis (Dohrn, 1884: 405) has been longtime errounously identified with the population of the Ili river that Semenov (1906: 262) later described as C. rostislavi.
Both Breuning (1928: 76) and Jeannel (1940: 195) have regarded it as a population inside C. elegans, but Obidov (1997: 168) placed this population at the species level in the panderi-karelini group, followed by most of the later authors. However, recently Kabak (2016), having definitively established the sinonimy of C. declivis with C. elegans elegans, restored the name C. rostislavi as a distinct species.
While sharing most of Kabak's considerations, we prefer to return to the more conservative interpretation of Breuning and Jeannel and we think that rostislavi can provisionally be maintained within the elegans cluster of populations of which it shares various morphological characteristics.
C. elegans rostislavi has relatively voluminous head and a broad wrinkled pronotum with elevated lateral margin, it is further well characterized by the elytral sculpture of a regular scheme of triploid type, with flat intervals separated by fine puncturated striae, the primary dimples being almost indistinguishable. Unlike C. elegans subtilestriatum, to which it superficially resembles, the elytra of C. elegans rostislavi are slightly more oval in shape and more elongated and with a less showy sloping in the apical part. The surface of the upper body is dark with faint metallic reflections.
C. elegans rostislavi is found on the right bank of the middle course of the river Ili, in Kazakhstan and inside the Chinese border (Ili prefecture), where it seems to occupy both the banks of the river (Kabak, personal comunication).

Examined specimens and literature’s data
China. Xinjiang: Pilugi (?) north of Kuldzha (Yining) (Obydov, 2002: 19, sub C. declivis), Sarybutshun (Kabak i.l.), Yili (Ili) river (Yining) (SB), Tianshan mts. (SB).
Kazakhstan. Ili river near Dharkent (Zharkent) (Semenov loc. typ.)

Notes: Brachypterous. C. elegans rostislavi lives in grasslands at medium altitude, from 400 to 900-1000m. Adults were collected from March to July.
The name intends to remember the brother of the author.

Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans rostislavi
Semenov, 1906
China, Xinjiang, Manaogou Yili (Yining), III.2020
Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans rostislavi
Semenov, 1906
China, Xinjiang, Yining, VI.2020
Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans rostislavi
Semenov, 1906
China, Xinjiang, Tianshan mts., VII.2021 (coll. SB)
Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans rostislavi
Semenov, 1906
China, Xinjiang, Tianshan mts., VII.2021 (coll. SB)


Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans subtilestriatum Mandl, 1954

Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi ssp. elegans var. declive Breuning, 1928: 61 (partim)
Calosoma (Callisthenes) subtilestriatum Mandl, 1954: 163 (type locality: Kuldsha); holotype ♂ and 1 paratype ♂ in Naturhistorischen Museum, Wien
Callisthenes subtilestriatus Obydov, 1997: 169

Length 24-25 mm. C. subtilestriatum has been described as distinct species, and as such has been considered by Obydov (1997: 169). However it has many common features with the other populations of C. elegans, of which, is one of the most easterly penetration, together with C. elegans rostislavi to which it is probably very close from a phylogenetic point of view.
C. elegans subtilestriatum is characterized by the rought surface of its broad pronotum and by the short elytra with the upper surface noticeably arched and steep, sharply sloping in the apical part. The elytral sculpture is of triploid type with feebly arched and incised intervals, Where the primary dimples hardly discernible. The intervals are separated by deep puncturated striae. The color of the upper part od the body is dark with copper reflections.
It has been described from the mountains of northern Xinjiang without precise location. However, on the basis of the recent observations, C. elegans subtilestriatum would occupy the mountainous reliefs to the north, north-east of the Ili river, where, at lower altitudes, along the the river valley, C. elegans rostislavi is found.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
China. Xinjiang: mountains north of Kuldja (Yining) (Breuning, 1928: 65, sub elegans declive), Kuldscha (Mandl, 1954: 163); Monts Boro-Khoro, 50km East of Kuldzha, env. de Nilka (Obydov, 2002: 38); Kuldja (SB), Monts Borochoro (SB).

Notes: Brachypterous. It should live around 1500m. altitude. The adults were collected in April-May (Obydov, 2002: 39).

Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans subtilestriatum
Mandl, 1954
holotype: Kuldsha; Naturhistorischen Museum, Wien
(photo Obidov, http://www.zin.ru)
Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans subtilestriatum
Mandl, 1954
Kuldja , Mont Bor., (Yining env. Borohoro Mts. ex coll. Gottwald)
Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans subtilestriatum
Mandl, 1954
Chinese Turkestan, Tienshan, Kuldsha, Borochoro Gebirg.


Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans karagaicum (Lapouge, 1924)

Callisthenes Karelini karagaicus Lapouge, 1924: 37 (described from: Karagai Tau) original material: unspecified number of specimens, repository not stated, possible syntypes in MNHN according to Jeannel (1940: 194) but not to be found (Deuve, 1978: 255)
Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi ssp. elegans var. karagaicum Breuning, 1928: 61
Callisthenes karelini elegans karagaicus Lapouge, 1932: 376
Callisthenes elegans declivis Jeannel, 1940: 195 (partim)
Callisthenes karagaicus Obydov, 1997: 169

Length 18-22,5 mm. C. elegans karagaicum is chiefly characterized by the almost completely flat elytral sculpture, where the primary intervals are easily identifiable by the bronze or green metallic foveae. It is possible to recognize series of clearly visible points which separate three intervals between the primary ones (triploid model of elytral sculpture), but it may happen that in the specimens where the intervals, even flat, are more strongly tegulated, the tertiary ones are confusely doubled.
The color of the upper part of the body is dark brown, or black, with a faint cupric reflection which in some cases can be more easily noticed on the edges of the pronotum and on the shower of the elytra.
At first sight C. elegans karagaicum is not easily distinguishable from other populations of C. elegans that have a flattened sculpture, and dark color, almost black, of the upper body, in in first place from C. elegans manderstjernae. However it can be identified with a careful examination as the lateral borders of the pronotum are large but less raised and the posterior lobes are less developed than in any other populations, and add that the foveae, corresponding to the primary intervals, are always clearly visible, large and with green cupric bottom.
C. elegans karagaicum that gathers together the southernmost populations of the cluster of C. elegans, and that Obidov considers in itself a separate species, is limited to the inner Tien Shan in Kyrgyzstan, and so it is relatively isolated from other populations.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Kyrgyzstan. Naryn reg: Naryn. (SB), Semir jetschensk (SB), 20km N. Naryn town, (SB), environ de Narine (EM, SB), Narynsk (SB), At-Bashi (Obydov, 2002: 38); Jalal-Abad reg: Kugart (Obydov, 2002: 38)

Notes: Brachypterous. It lives around 1200-1800m. altitude. Adults were collected. from May to July.

Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans karagaicum
(Lapouge, 1924)
Kirghizstan: Tian Shan, 20km N. Naryn town, 27.V.1998
Calosoma (Callisthenes) elegans karagaicum
(Lapouge, 1924)
Kirghizstan: Tian Shan, 20km N. Naryn town, 27.V.1998


updated December 26 2021

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