Calosoma (Callisthenes) kuschakewitschi (Ballion, 1870)

C. kushakevitchi, C. elegans and C. panderi are a similar enough group of species. All of them have raised border of the pronotum, and have rather short and wide elytra with a relatively broad margin.
C. kuschakewitschi can be distinguished among the other species of the group because the lateral margin of pronotum is narrower at the rear part and the lateral margin of elytra is almost smooth.
The cluster represented by C. kuschakewitschi contains a number of populations that all have the sculpture of their elytra of triploid type with striae marked by weak punctures and with flat intervals, feebly incised by transverse wrinkles. However these populations are slightly diversified in general body shape, because of the shape of the pronotum, or because the segments of the male anterior tarsi are differently dilated.
C. kuschakewitschi lives in various localities in south-central Kazakhstan and penetrates in Uzbekistan and Kyrghyzstan.


Calosoma (Callisthenes) kuschakewitschi kuschakewitschi (Ballion, 1870)

Callisthenes Kuschakewitschi Ballion, 1870: 323 (described from Kara Tau, Tschemkent) lectotype ♂ (from Tashkent) in Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien (Obydov, 2002: 44)
Calosoma (Callisthenes) Kuschakewitschi var. decolor Morawitz, 1886: 87 (type locality: Taschkent) syntype ♂ in Zoological Museum of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg (Obydov, 2002: 44)
Calosoma (Callisthenes) Reichei sensu Solsky, 1874: 24 (nec Guérin Méneville, 1842) (from Issyk-Kul and Akmolinsk)
Calosoma (Callisthenes) Solskyi Zaitzev, 1918: 268 (nomen novum pro reichei sensu Solsky, 1874)
Calosoma (Callisthenes) kuschakewitschi Breuning, 1928: 66
Calosoma (Callisthenes) kuschakewitschi var. decolor Breuning, 1928: 66
Callisthenes panderi kuschakewitschi Lapouge, 1932: 374
Callisthenes kuschakewitschi Jeannel, 1940: 192
Callisthenes kuschakewitschi decolor Jeannel, 1940: 192
Callisthenes kuschakewitschi sidzhakensis Obydov, 2008: 23 (type locality: Ugamsky Mt. ridge, Sidzhak vill.) holotype ♂, paratypes 1♂ 1♀ in Timiryazev State Museum of Biology, Moscow

Length 20-31 mm. The various populations collected inside C. kuschakewitschi kuschakewitschi are characterized by an uniformely rounded pronotum having its maximum width in the middle part or just above it, by a rather squat body shape and by relatively short elytra. The hairy pads, on the ventral side of the articles of the anterior tarsi of males, are normal.
It is found along Kara Tau mountain range. In the southern part of this distribution area, on the border between Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan (Ugamsky ridge), Obydov (2008: 23) has described as Callisthenes kuschakewitschi sidzhakensis a population which shpuld have more developed mandibles, of squat form and with stronger micro-sculpture.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Kazakhstan. Aksu Zhabagly (SB), Karatau Mts. 20km W Zhanatas (SB), Chimkent (Obydov, 2002: 45)
Uzbekistan. Korzhantau range (SB), Chatkal Mts. near Janghiabad, 2300m. (sub decolor SB), Tashkent (Breuning, 1928: 66), Sidzhak village (sub C. kuschakewitschi sidzhakensis, Obydov, 2008: 23)

Notes: Brachypterous. It lives in the steppes and alpine forests from 1200 to 2300m above sea level. Adults are active from March to June, according to the altitude.
The species is named after the Russian entomologist Jacob Alexander Kuschakewitsch (1826–1866).

Calosoma (Callisthenes) kuschakewitschi kuschakewitschi
(Ballion, 1870)
S. Kazakhstan, Talass Ala Tau, Aksu Djabagly, 11.V.74
Calosoma (Callisthenes) kuschakewitschi kuschakewitschi
(Ballion, 1870)
S. Kazakhstan, Talass Ala Tau, Aksu Djabagly, 11.V.74


Calosoma (Callisthenes) kuschakewitschi plasoni (Born, 1917)

Callisthenes alexanderi Heyden (nomen nudum). Original material: 1 specimen (from Alexander-Gebirge) in Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Müncheberg (ex coll. Kraatz) (Döbler 1975: 148)
Calosoma (Callisthenes) kuschakewitschi ssp. Plasoni Born, 1917: 12. Original material: 10 specimens (from Semirjetschensk), no repository given
Calosoma (Callisthenes) kuschakewitschi var. plasoni Breuning, 1928: 66
Callisthenes kuschakewitschi plasoni Jeannel, 1940: 192
Calosoma (Callisthenes) kushakewitschi pseudokarelini Mandl, 1954: 164 (type locality: Alexandergebirge) holotype ♂ in Naturhistorischen Museum Wien

Length 18-28 mm. The pronotum of C. kushakewitschi plasoni, as it happens in any populations other than the typical one, is narrowed in varying degree in the rear part, having in any case its maximum width before its half. Moreover, in the case of C. kushakewitschi plasoni, the hind angles of pronotum are broad, the elytra slightly elongated and the head is proportionally larger. The setal pads on the ventral side of the segments of the male anterior tarsi are normally developed and the upper side of the body is blackish or of dark or, in some rare case, of light bronze colour.
Kabak (Kryzhanovskij & al. 1995: 34, note 147) studying a paratype of C. pseudokarelini has established its synonymy with C. plasoni, later confirmed by Obydov (2002: 49) by examining the type.
C. kushakewitschi plasoni is found in the Kirghiz Mountains on the border between Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Kazakhstan. Jambyl prov. Kyrgyz Ala Too (Alexander range) (SB); Lugovaya (Obydov, 2002: 48); Taraz (= Džambul) (Obydov, 2002: 48)
Kyrgyzstan. Bishkek (= Frunze), Chon-Aryk, 900m (SB); S. Bischek (Kyrgyz Ala Too mountain range) (sub decolor; SB); Ala Arča (40km S. Bishkek)1500-1700m. (EM, SB), 30Km SE Bishkek (Gornaya Serafimovka) (SB), Teskey Ala-Too mountain range (SB), Min-Bulak (SB).

Notes: Brachypterous. It lives in the steppes and woodlands from 700 to 2000m. Adults are active in April-May up to the beginning of June.
The the name of this taxon intends to commemorate Victor Plason (1843-1904) an Austrian entomologist.

Calosoma (Callisthenes) kuschakewitschi plasoni
(Born, 1917)
Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek circ., Chon-Aryk, 900m,
20.04.2000, Irtlak lg.
Calosoma (Callisthenes) kuschakewitschi plasoni
(Born, 1917)
Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek circ., Chon-Aryk, 900m,
20.04.2000, Irtlak lg.
Calosoma (Callisthenes) kuschakewitschi plasoni
(Born, 1917)
Kyrgyzstan, Ala Arča (40km S Bishkek), steppe
1500-1700m, 25.V.1970, K Hurka leg., (coll. EM)
Calosoma (Callisthenes) kuschakewitschi plasoni
(Born, 1917)
Kyrgyzstan, Ala Arča (40km S Bishkek), steppe
1500-1700m, 25.V.1970, K Hurka leg., (coll. EM)


Calosoma (Callisthenes) kuschakewitschi glasunowi Semenov, 1900

Calosoma glasunowi Semenov, 1900: 303 (type locality: Mts Nurata, Sintab); lectotype ♂ in Zoological Museum of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg (Obydov, 2002: 52)
Calosoma (Callisthenes) kuschakewitschi var. glasunovi Breuning, 1928: 66
Callisthenes panderi glasunowi Lapouge, 1932: 375
Callisthenes kuschakewitschi glasunowi Jeannel, 1940: 193
Callisthenes glasunowi Obydov, 2002: 51

Length 26-28mm. The pronotum of C. kuschakewitschi glasunowi reaches its maximum width before the middle and it is narrowed at the base. The elytra are slightly elongated and the colour of the upper side of the body has a lively blue lustre.
In any way, C. kuschakewitschi glasunowi is easily distinguishable from the majority of the other populations of C. kushakewitschi because the segments of the male anterior tarsi are not dilated, or they are only slightly so.
C. kuschakewitschi glasunowi is only found in the mountains of Nuratau in the Dzhizac region of Uzbekistan.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Uzbekistan. Nuratau Mts: Farish vill. 1200m (SB), Sintab vill. (Obydov, 2002: 52)

Notes: Brachypterous. It is located on the mountain slopes at medium altitude (1200m). The adults were collected in May.
The taxon has been named after the Russian entomologist Demetrius Constant Glasunow.

Calosoma (Callisthenes) kuschakewitschi glasunowi
Semenov, 1900
Uzbekistan: Dzhizac region, Nuratau Mts.,
Farish vill., 1200m, 15.05.04, O. Legezin leg.

Calosoma (Callisthenes) kuschakewitschi batesoni Semenov-Tian-Shansky & Redikorzev, 1928

Calosoma kuschakewitschi batesoni Semenov-Tian-Shansky & Redikorzev, 1928: 111 (type locality: inter Kazalinsk et Karkaralinsk), paratypes 3♀ in Zoological Museum of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg (Obydov, 2002: 48)
Callisthenes kuschakewitschi batesoni Jeannel, 1940: 192
Callisthenes kuschakewitschi solskyanus Obydov, 1999: 581 (type locality: Ulanbel); holotype ♂ in Zoological Museum of Moscow University

Length 20-26 mm. C. kuschakewitschi batesoni has slightly wrinkled head and pronotum. The pronotum reaches its maximum width before the middle, as in any populations other than the typical one, but the hind angles are relatively smaller and narrow which makes easier to identify it. The elytra are oval and on the apical part of their shower show traces of a faint roughness.
C. kuschakewitschi batesoni lives in the steppic areas to the East of the Aral Sea, between Irgiz and Kazalinsk. Towards South it occupies the valley of the Sary-Su River. Another population of a slightly smaller size (18-21mm.) and having smoother pronotum, is found farther south, at Ulanbel. This population, that has been described as Callisthenes kuschakewitschi solskyanus, according to its descriptor (Obydov 1999: 581), would have intermediate characteristics between C. kuschakewitschi batesoni and C. kuschakewitschi kuschakewitschi, which indirectly confirms the difficulty to differentiate among the various populations.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Kazakhstan. Kazalinsk (Obydov, 2002: 48); Irgiz (Obydov, 2002: 48); (230km NE of) Kyzyl-Orda, Sary-Su riv. valley (AVT, EM, SB); Ulanbel 150m (sub kushakewitchi solskyanus) (SB); Bol’shie Barsuki, Malye Barsuki (Obydov, 2002: 48)

Notes: Brachypterous. It lives at low altitude 50-100m and appears to be mainly a desert inhabitant. According to the material examined, adults are active in April-May.
The species has been dedicated to the famous English biologist William Bateson (1861-1926).

Calosoma (Callisthenes) kuschakewitschi batesoni
Semenov-Tian-Shansky & Redikorzev, 1928
Kazakhstan, Kyzyl-Orda reg., Sary-Su riv. valley,
7.IV.1997, M Danilevsky leg. (coll. Migliaccio)
Calosoma (Callisthenes) kuschakewitschi batesoni
Semenov-Tian-Shansky & Redikorzev, 1928
(sub kuschakewitschi solskyanus Obydov, 1999)
Ulanbel 150m 24.IV.2000, Danilewsky


Calosoma (Callisthenes) kuschakewitschi akkolicum (Obydov & Gottwald, 2002)

Callisthenes akkolicus Obydov & Gottwald, 2002: 39 (type locality: Karatau, Akkol env.) holotype ♂ in coll. Jan Matějíček (Matějíček i.l.)
Callisthenes akkolicus korelli Obydov, 2004: 113 (type locality: Kirghizia, Kyzyl-Sai)
Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi akkolicum Bruschi, 2014: 254

Length 17-23 mm. Callisthenes akkolicus has been described as a distinct species including a little differenciated subspecies, Callisthenes akkolicus korelli, discovered in a location not too far away. Toghether, they constitute a small and strictly localized population among the distribution areas of the different subspecies of C. kuschakewitschi, north of the distribution area of C. panderi pavlovskii.
The general body shape of C. akkolicum brings it closer to the populations of C. kuschakewitschi having a leaner shape of the body, and, as in these populations, the pronotum of C. akkolicum reaches its maximum width before the middle, with reduced hind angles. Furthermore, C. akkolicum shares other characters common to every population of C. kuschakewitschi such as the flat sculpture of the elytra with weakly trasversally incised intervals and punctured striae, the moderately broad and almost smooth edge of the elytra, the roughness of the head and of the pronotum. Finally, the segments of the male anterior tarsi are very little dilated, while the hairy pads are almost absent as it happens in C. kuschakewitschi glasunowi.
According to Obidov (2002) C. akkolicum displays a series of intermediate characters between the groups of species panderi and kuschakewitschi thus hypothesizing phenomena of introgression that would have given rise to a population with intermediate characters, and we (Bruschi, 2014: 254) had erroneously attributed it to the panderi group. However, the examination of the previously listed characters highlights a much closer relationship with C. kuschakewitschi of which C. akkolicum probably represents an isolated and well characterized population.
It has been found in the plain northeast of Dzambul (Talas and Sairam districts).

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Kazakhstan Talas district, Akkol village (holotype JM; paratype SB; sub Callisthenes pseudokarelini EM); Sairam district, Kyzylsai village (sub akkolicus korelli Obydov, 2004: 113)

Notes: Brachypterous. It lives in grasslands at medium altitude, around 400 m. Adults were collected in May.

Calosoma (Callisthenes) kuschakewitschi akkolicum
(Obydov & Gottwald, 2002)
Kazakhstan, Karatau, Akkol env., 9-10.V.1978, Gottwald leg. (holotype coll. Jan Matějíček)
Calosoma (Callisthenes) kuschakewitschi akkolicum
(Obydov & Gottwald, 2002)
Kazakhstan, Akkol, Džambul, 9-10.V.1978, Gottwald leg.
(coll. E. Migliaccio)

updated January 3 2021

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