Calosoma (Callisthenes) kuschakewitschi Ballion, 1870

C. kuschakewitschi, C. panderi and C. elegans are a group of similar enough species, that are found in Kazakhstan, with possible penetration into the neighboring regions of Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and China. All of them have the lateral margin of pronotum raised, and have rather short and wide elytra with a broad margin. C. kuschakewitschi can be distinguished among the other species of the group because the lateral margin of pronotum is narrower at the rear part and the lateral margin of elytra is almost smooth.
The cluster represented by C. kuschakewitschi contains a number of populations that have the sculpture of their elytra of triploid type with striae marked by weak punctures and with flat intervals, feebly incised by transverse wrinkles. However these populations are slightly diversified in body shape, namely in the shape of pronotum, or because the segments of the male anterior tarsi are differently dilated.
C. kuschakewitschi lives in various localities in western Kazakhstan and penetrate in Uzbekistan and Kyrghyzstan.


Calosoma (Callisthenes) kuschakewitschi kuschakewitschi Ballion, 1870

Callisthenes Kuschakewitschi Ballion, 1870: 323 (lectotype: Tschemkent; Zoological Museum of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg)
Calosoma (Callisthenes) kuschakewitschi var. decolor Morawitz, 1886: 87 (syntype: Taschkent; Zoological Museum of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg)
Calosoma (Callisthenes) reichei sensu Solsky, 1874: 24 (nec Guérin Méneville, 1842)
Calosoma (Callisthenes) solskyi Zaitzev, 1918: 268 (nomen novum pro reichei sensu Solsky, 1874) (type: Issyk-Kul and Akmolinsk)
Calosoma (Callisthenes) kuschakewitschi Breuning, 1928: 66
Calosoma (Callisthenes) kuschakewitschi var. decolor Breuning, 1928: 66
Callisthenes panderi kuschakewitschi Lapouge, 1932: 374
Callisthenes kuschakewitschi Jeannel, 1940: 192
Callisthenes kuschakewitschi decolor Jeannel, 1940: 192
Callisthenes kuschakewitschi sidzhakensis Obydov, 2008: 23

Length 20-31 mm. The various populations collected in C. kuschakewitschi kuschakewitschi are characterized by an uniformely rounded pronotum having the maximum width of in its middle part, a rather squat body shape and relatively short elytra. The hairy pads, on the ventral side of the articles of the anterior tarsi of males, are normal.
It is found along Kara Tau mountain range. In the southern part of this distribution area, on the border between Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan (Ugamsky ridge mt), Obydov (2008: 23) has described as Callisthenes kuschakewitschi sidzhakensis a population with more developed mandibles, of squat form and with stronger micro-sculpture.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Kazakhstan: Aksu Djabagly (SB), Karatau Mts. 20km W Zhanatas (SB), Chimkent (Obydov, 2002: 45)
Kyrgyzstan: Alaï mountain range (SB)
Uzbekistan: Korzhantau range (SB), Tashkent (Breuning, 1928: 66)

Notes: Brachypterous. It lives in the steppes and alpine forests from 1200 to 2300m above sea level. Adults are active from March to June, according to the altitude.
The species is named after the Russian entomologist Jacob Alexander Kuschakewitsch (1826–1866).

Calosoma (Callisthenes) kuschakewitschi kuschakewitschi
Ballion, 1870
S. Kazakhstan, Talass Ala Tau, Aksu Djabagly, 11.V.74
Calosoma (Callisthenes) kuschakewitschi kuschakewitschi
Ballion, 1870
S. Kazakhstan, Talass Ala Tau, Aksu Djabagly, 11.V.74


Calosoma (Callisthenes) kuschakewitschi plasoni Born, 1917

Calosoma (Callisthenes) kuschakewitschi ssp. Plasoni Born, 1917: 12 (typ. Semirjetschensk)
Calosoma (Callisthenes) kuschakewitschi var. plasoni Breuning, 1928: 66
Callisthenes kuschakewitschi plasoni Jeannel, 1940: 192
Calosoma (Callisthenes) kushakewitschi pseudokarelini Mandl, 1954: 164 (type: Alexandregebirge; Naturhistorischen Museum Wien)

Length 18-28 mm. In C. kushakewitschi plasoni, as in any populations other than the typical one, the pronotum is narrowed in the rear part, although to varying degrees, having in any case its maximum width before its half. Moreover the hind angles of pronotum are broad, the elytra slightly elongated and the head is proportionally larger. The setal pads on the ventral side of the segments of the male anterior tarsi are normally developed and the upper side of the body is of dark or light bronze colour, differently from the other subspecies, in which it is usually blackish with more or less lively blue lustre.
Obydov (2002: 49) has established the synonymy of C. pseudokarelini with C. plasoni by examining the type.
C. kushakewitschi plasoni is found in the Kirghiz Mountains on the border between Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Kazakhstan: Lugovaia (Obydov, 2002: 48); Talas (= Džambul) (Obydov, 2002: 48);
Kyrgyzstan: Bishkek (= Frunze), Chon-Aryk, 900m (SB); S. Bischek (Alexander mountain range) (sub decolor; SB); Ala Arča (40km S. Bishkek)1500-1700m. (EM, SB), Chatkal Mts., near Janghiabad, 2300m., (sub decolor SB), Issyk Kul (sub decolor, Breuning, 1928: 68)

Notes: Brachypterous. It lives in the steppes and woodlands from 700 to 2000m. Adults are active in April-May up to the beginning of June.
The the name of this taxon intends to commemorate Victor Plason (1843-1904) an Austrian entomologist.

Calosoma (Callisthenes) kuschakewitschi plasoni
Born, 1917
Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek circ., Chon-Aryk, 900m,
20.04.2000, Irtlak lg.
Calosoma (Callisthenes) kuschakewitschi plasoni
Born, 1917
Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek circ., Chon-Aryk, 900m,
20.04.2000, Irtlak lg.
Calosoma (Callisthenes) kuschakewitschi plasoni
Born, 1917
Kyrgyzstan, Ala Arča (40km S Bishkek), steppe
1500-1700m, 25.V.1970, K Hurka leg., (coll. EM)
Calosoma (Callisthenes) kuschakewitschi plasoni
Born, 1917
Kyrgyzstan, Ala Arča (40km S Bishkek), steppe
1500-1700m, 25.V.1970, K Hurka leg., (coll. EM)


Calosoma (Callisthenes) kuschakewitschi glasunowi Semenov, 1900

Calosoma glasunowi Semenov, 1900: 303 (lectotype: Mts Nurata, Sintab; Zoological Museum of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg)
Calosoma (Callisthenes) kuschakewitschi var. glasunovi Breuning, 1928: 66
Callisthenes panderi glasunowi Lapouge, 1932: 375
Callisthenes kuschakewitschi glasunowi Jeannel, 1940: 193
Callisthenes glasunowi Obydov, 2002: 51

Length 26-28mm. The pronotum of C. kuschakewitschi glasunowi reaches its maximum width before the middle and it is narrowed at the base. The elytra are slightly elongated and the colour of the upper side of the body has a lively blue lustre.
In any way, C. kuschakewitschi glasunowi is easily distinguishable from all the other populations of C. kushakewitschi and in particular from C. kushakewitschi plasoni that has a similar body shape, because the segments of the male anterior tarsi are not or only slightly dilated.
C. kuschakewitschi glasunowi is only found in the mountains of Nuratau in the Dzhizac region of Uzbekistan.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Uzbekistan: Nuratau Mts., Farish vill. 1200m (SB), Sintab vill. (Obydov, 2002: 52)

Notes: Brachypterous. It is located on the slopes of the mountain but at medium altitude (1200m). The adults were collected in May.
The taxon has been named after the Russian entomologist Demetrius Constant Glasunow.

Calosoma (Callisthenes) kuschakewitschi glasunowi
Semenov, 1900
Uzbekistan: Dzhizac region, Nuratau Mts.,
Farish vill., 1200m, 15.05.04, O. Legezin leg.

Calosoma (Callisthenes) kuschakewitschi batesoni Semenov-Tian-Shansky & Redikorzev, 1928

Calosoma kuschakewitschi batesoni Semenov-Tian-Shansky & Redikorzev, 1928: 111 (paratype: inter Kazalinsk et Karkaralinsk, Zoological Museum of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg)
Callisthenes kuschakewitschi batesoni Jeannel, 1940: 192
Callisthenes kuschakewitschi solskyanus Obydov, 1999: 581 (type: Ulanbel; Zoological Museum of Moscow University)

Length 20-26 mm. In C. kuschakewitschi batesoni, as in any populations other than the typical one, the pronotum reaches its maximum width before the middle, but it can be identified because of the smaller and relatively narrow hind angles of pronotum. The elytra are oval, relatively short
C. kuschakewitschi batesoni lives in the steppic areas to the East of the Aral Sea, between Irgiz and Kazalinsk. Towards South it occupies the valley of the Sary-Su River. Another population of a slightly smaller size (18-21mm.) and having smoother pronotum, is found farther south, at Ulanbel. This population, that has been described as Callisthenes kuschakewitschi solskyanus, according to its descriptor (Obydov 1999: 581), would have intermediate characteristics between C. kuschakewitschi batesoni and C. kuschakewitschi kuschakewitschi, which indirectly confirms the difficulty to differentiate among the various populations.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Kazakhstan: Kazalinsk (Obydov, 2002: 48); Irgiz (Obydov, 2002: 48); (230km NE of) Kyzyl-Orda, Sary-Su riv. valley (AVT, EM, SB); Ulanbel 150m (sub kushakewitchi solskyanus) (SB); Bol’shie Barsuki, Malye Barsuki (Obydov, 2002: 48)

Notes: Brachypterous. It lives at low altitude 50-100m and appears to be mainly a desert inhabitant. According to the material examined, adults are active in April-May.
The species has been dedicated to the famous English biologist William Bateson (1861-1926).

Calosoma (Callisthenes) kuschakewitschi batesoni
Semenov-Tian-Shansky & Redikorzev, 1928
Kazakhstan, Kyzyl-Orda reg., Sary-Su riv. valley,
7.IV.1997, M Danilevsky leg. (coll. Migliaccio)
Calosoma (Callisthenes) kuschakewitschi batesoni
Semenov-Tian-Shansky & Redikorzev, 1928
(sub kuschakewitschi solskyanus Obydov, 1999)
Ulanbel 150m 24.IV.2000, Danilewsky


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