Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi (Fischer von Waldheim, 1820)

C. panderi, C. kushakevitchi and C. elegans are a similar enough group of species. All of them have raised border of pronotum, and have rather short and wide elytra with a broad margin.
C. panderi includes a number of populations that have the lateral margin of elytra granulose, as in C. elegans, but that are characterized by the head of normal size, by the noticeably short and convex elytra, raised on the middle in correspondence with the suture, by the elytral sculpture of triploid type with well distinct intervals mostly raised and interrupted by transverse wrinkles that can form tegulae.
C. panderi is present in the north-western Kazakhstan and in the immediately bordering regions of Russia but it is also found in south-eastern Kazakhstan and penetrates in Kyrgyzstan. The most significant distinction concerns these two groups of populations in the north-west and south east, separated by the vast areas of the Kazakh Upland. Despite the geographical separation the morphological differentiation is scarce and we therefore whould prefer the interpretation of Jeannel (1940: 189), that collected all the populations inside the single species C. panderi.
According to this interpretation the typical form would be the one found in the north-west. Further distinctions among the various populations found in the south-east of this areal (complex of C. panderi karelini) are based on difficult and often inconstant characters, though, in the opinion of Obydov (2002), some of these populations would even constitute different species, namely C. karelini and C. pavlovskii.
Taking into account the previously given doubts about the significance of the characters that should distinguish these supposed species, we dealt with them as slightly differeciated populations of a single entity (C. panderi). As regards Callisthenes declivis which Obidov (1997: 168) had included in the same group of species, the taxon depends on an erroneous interpretation of the original description and, as explained below, must be considered superfluous.


Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi panderi (Fischer von Waldheim, 1820)

Callisthenes Panderi Fischer von Waldheim, 1820: 85 (described from: sabulis desertorum Kirgisorum ad Orenburg merionalium); unspecified number of specimens of both sexes, repository not stated
Calosoma panderi Dejean,, 1826: 211
Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi Breuning, 1928: 61
Callisthenes panderi Lapouge, 1932: 375
Callisthenes panderi Jeannel, 1940: 189

Length 18-21 mm. The body shape of C. panderi panderi is short and stocky and its head and pronotum are strongly wrinkled. The elytra are regularly sloping towards the apex and their sculpture is characterized by deep striae and raised intervals that are interrupted by shallow transverse wrinkles, that do not form tegula. The margin of elytra is coarsely puncturated. The color of the upper body is black purplish with shades of blue.
It is found in northwestern Kazakhstan, and penetrates in southern Russia.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Kazakhstan Akmolinsk (= norther Kazakhstan, Breuning, 1928b: 61); Aktobe reg: Baiganin distr. Zharyi (SB), Temir distr. (Obydov, 2002: 14); Aktyubinskaya distr. Shubarkuduk; Atyrau Region: Inder lake (Breuning, 1928b: 61)
Russia Orenburg (Breuning, 1928b: 61), Uralsk (Jeannel, 1940: 189), Busuluk (Obydov, 2002: 14)

Notes: Brachypterous. It lives in grasslands of low and medium altitudes. Adults were collected. in April-May.
The species has been named after Heinrich Christian Pander (1794-1865), a famous Russian naturalist and biologist of Germanic origin, which also took part in some scientific expedition in Central Asia.

Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi panderi
(Fischer von Waldheim, 1820)
Kazakhstan: Aktiube reg., Zharyi, 10.5.97, Smirnov lgt
Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi panderi
(Fischer von Waldheim, 1820)
Kazakhstan: Aktiube reg., Zharyi, 10.5.97, Smirnov lgt


Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi karelini (Fischer von Waldheim, 1830);

Callisthenes karelini Fischer von Waldheim, 1846: 487 (described from: Fluvium Lepsa in Songoria rossica); unspecified number of specimens, repository not stated
Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi var. karelini Breuning, 1928: 61
Callisthenes karelini Lapouge, 1932: 375
Callisthenes panderi karelini Jeannel, 1940: 189
Calosoma (Callisthenes) cyaneosternum Mandl, 1954: 162 (type locality: Songarei); holotype ♂ in Naturhistorischen Museum Wien (ex coll. Kaufmann)
Calosoma (Callisthenes) breuningi Mandl, 1954: 163 (type locality: Sergiopol, Semipalatinsk); holotype ♂ in Naturhistorischen Museum Wien
Callisthenes karelini vladimiri Obydov, 1998: 21 (type locality: Taldy-Kurgan, Arkharly pass); holotype ♂ in coll. Obydov
Callisthenes karelini breuningi Obydov, 2002: 17

Length 18-22 mm. In our sense, the name C. panderi karelini refers to a group of populations that have the same short and stocky shape as C. panderi panderi but their elytra are more arched and steeper, sharply sloping in the apical part. They can be also distinguished by the raised sculpture of elytra, with deeply incised intervals and slightly elevated sutural border. The color of the upper body is dark bronze with hints of cupric.
This group of populations is not much variable but various entities have been distinguished in the past on the basis of minor characteristics.
In the general revision of Obydov (2002) some of these entities were considered synonymous, as in the case of Calosoma (Callisthenes) cyaneosternum Mandl, 1954.
C.panderi karelini is located on the northern slopes and plains at the foot of the mountains Dzhungarski Alatau, mostly in the Almaty region,.
Two populations, that occupy the extreme north and west respectively of this areal, were regarded by Obydov as distinct subspecies. In the North (Aiaguz), relatively isolated, he accepts as a subspecies Callisthenes karelini breuningi Mandl, 1954, that should be characterized by the labrum wider than the clypeus and by a more strong sculpture of elytra, with indistinct foveae on the primary intervals. From the west he himself (Obydov, 1998:21) described Callisthenes karelini vladimiri, that should be characterized by a coarsely punctuated pronotum. In our opinion, both of them, considering the inconstancy of these characteristics, do not deserve to be distinguished.
Regarding Callisthenes declivis which Obydov (1997: 168) considered as a species of the panderi-karelini group, it has been recognized by Kabak (2016: 798) as a synonym of C. elegans elegans. Moreover, two different taxa would seem to have been included under this name: the specimens coming from the north of Lake Issyk-Kul should probably be attributed to the typical form of panderi karelini while those of the middle course of the Ili river in Khazakstan and in China (Xinjiang) belong to rostislavi of the elegans group.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Kazakhstan. Almaty reg. Žańaqorgan distr: Sary-Ozek (SB) (Obydov, 2002: 19, sub declivis), Kerbūlaq distr: Kara-Chok (Obydov, 2002: pls 12-14, sub declivis), Aksu distr: Matay (SB), Sagabuyen (SB), Panfilov distr.(SB); Alakol distr: Lepsy (Lepsinsk) (Kadyrbekov et al, 2017: 65; assumed as typical locality by Obydov, 2002: 14), Koktuma (SB), Sarkand distr: Sarkand (Kadyrbekov et al, 2017: 65); Kurším distr: Topolevka (Kadyrbekov et al, 2017: 65); Taldykorgan (sub karelini vladimiri Obydov, 2002: 16); East Kazakhstan reg. Ayagoz distr. (sub karelini breuningi Obydov, 2002: 17); Žambyl reg. Korday pass (SB).

Notes: Brachypterous. It lives in grasslands at medium altitude, around 400m up to 1295m. Adults were collected. in April - May.
This taxon was first mentioned in a simple list (Fischer von Waldheim 1830: 186) and then properly described (Fischer von Waldheim, 1846: 487) and named after Grigorij Silytch Karelin (1801-1872), a Russian naturalist and explorer known for his extensive work in Siberia and in the Caspian Sea region.

Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi karelini
Fischer von Waldheim, 1830)
Kazakhstan: Panfilov distr., 1.VI.94
Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi karelini
Fischer von Waldheim, 1830)
Kazakhstan. Saryozek distr: Saryozek, 25.IV.1998, Irtlach leg.


Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi pavlovskii (Kryzhanovskij, 1955)

Callisthenes pavlovskii Kryzhanovskij, 1955: 309 (type locality: Talas); holotype ♂ in Zoological Museum of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg (Obydov, 2002: 20)
Callisthenes pavlovskyi Kryzhanovskij & al., 1995: 58.

Length 17-23 mm. C. panderi pavlovskii is barely distinguished because of a slightly less accentuated upper body sculpture. The color is dark without bronze reflections. Most individuals present a slightly more elongated shape. The relief of the sculpture of elytra is variable but typically the intervals tend to flatten.
All these characteristics vary from individual to individual and can only be recognized by examinig the whole of a population. However, considering the relative geographic isolation, we think that C. panderi pavlovskii , which occupies the valley of the Talas river, can be maintained as the westernmost population of the south eastern group.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Kazakhstan. Žambyl reg. Taraz (= Džambul, Obydov, 2002: 19) (= Aulie Ata, sub. panderi, Jeannel, 1940: 189)
Kyrgyzstan. Talas reg. Talas (SB). Besh-Tash river (EM, SB), Kozuchak vill. (SB)

Notes: Brachypterous. It lives in grasslands at medium altitude, around 900-1000m. Adults were collected. in April - May.
This taxon is named after Yevgeny Nikanorovich Pavlovsky (1884 - 1965) a Russian zoologist, entomologist, academician of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. In this respect it should be also noted that the correct spelling should have been pavlovskyi which explains because it has sometime been cited as such by some entomologists including the author himself in a later publication (Kryzhanovskij & al., 1995: 58).

Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi pavlovskii
(Kryzhanovskij, 1955)
Kirghizstan: Talas mt. rng., Kash-Tash river 1.000 m., 15.V.2003
Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi pavlovskii
(Kryzhanovskij, 1955)
Kirghizstan: Talas mt. rng., Kash-Tash river 1.000 m., 15.V.2003

updated February 20 2021

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