Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi (Fischer von Waldheim, 1820)

C. panderi, C. kushakevitchi and C. elegans are a similar enough group of species. All of them have raised border of pronotum, and have rather short and wide elytra with a broad margin.
C. panderi includes a number of populations that have the lateral margin of the elytra granulose, as in C. elegans, but that are characterized by the head of normal size, by the noticeably short and convex elytra, raised on the middle in correspondence with the suture, by the elytral sculpture of triploid type with well distinct intervals, interrupted by transverse wrinkles that can form tegulae.
C. panderi is present in the north-western Kazakhstan and, perhaps, in the immediately bordering regions of Russia but it is also found in south-eastern Kazakhstan and penetrates in Kyrgyzstan. The most significant distinction concerns these two groups of populations in the north-west and south east, separated by the vast areas of the Kazakh Upland. However, despite the geographical separation, the morphological differentiation is scarce and we therefore whould prefer the interpretation of Jeannel (1940: 189), that collected all the populations inside the single species C. panderi.
According to this interpretation the typical form (panderi) would be the one found in the north-west Kazakhstan. Further distinctions among the various populations found in the south-east are based on difficult and often inconstant characters, though, in the past some of these populations have even been considered distinct species (Obydov, 2002). Anyhow, taking into account the previously given doubts about the significance of the characters that the literature offers to differentiate these supposed species, one can at most distinguish, on the basis of slight differences in body shape and elytral sculpture, the northernmost populations (karelini) from the ones of south Kazakhstan and north Kyrgyzstan (pavlovskii).
As regards Callisthenes declivis which Obidov (1997: 168) had included in the same group of species, the taxon depends on an erroneous interpretation of the original description and, as explained below, must be considered superfluous.


Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi panderi (Fischer von Waldheim, 1820)

Callisthenes Panderi Fischer von Waldheim, 1820: 85 (described from: sabulis desertorum Kirgisorum ad Orenburg merionalium); unspecified number of specimens of both sexes, repository not stated
Calosoma panderi Dejean,, 1826: 211
Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi Breuning, 1928: 61
Callisthenes panderi Lapouge, 1932: 375
Callisthenes panderi Jeannel, 1940: 189
Calosoma (Callisthenes) cyaneosternum Mandl, 1954: 162 (type locality: Songarei); holotype ♂ in Naturhistorischen Museum Wien (ex coll. Kaufmann) (synonymy established by Kabak, 2022: 678)

Length 18-21 mm. The body shape of C. panderi panderi is short and stocky and its head and pronotum are strongly wrinkled. The elytra are conspicuously widen at the rear part and regularly sloping towards the apex. Their sculpture is characterized by deep striae and raised intervals, interrupted by shallow transverse wrinkles, that do not form tegula. The margin of elytra is coarsely puncturated. The color of the upper body is black purplish with shades of blue.
Calosoma cyaneosternum was described by Mandl (1954: 162) on a single specimen without precise indications of locality. Obidov (2002: 15) examined the holotype and confirmed the synonymy with C. karelini previously proposed by Kryzhanovsky (1962) based on the original description. Finally Kabak (2022: 678) took up the question in detail and on this occasion attributed the specimen to C.panderi.
The presence of the typical populations is documented with certainty only in northwestern Kazakhstan.
Although in fact C. panderi panderi has been generically indicated also from southern Russia (Orenburg), Kabak (2022: 676) doubts its actual presence in Orenburg or its surroundings (Busuluk). Thus, only a few ancient and very generic indications remain ("Tartaria", "Rus. Mer", "Sibir. Occ.") and no recent finds which confirm its presence. Furthermore, the indications from central Kazakhstan reported by Breuning (1928b: 63) and confirmed by Jeannel (1940:189), “Akmolinsk (=Astana): Kyrgyz steppe near Tscharkain”, are also deemed incorrect by Obidov (2002: 139) who considers them presumably referring to specimens of C. panderi karelini

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Kazakhstan. Aktobe reg: Baiganin distr: Zharly (SB); Temir distr: Temir (Obydov, 2002: 14), Shubarkuduk vill. (SB), Šalqar distr: Karabulak vill. (www.inaturalist.org), Mūǧalžar distr: Embi vill. (Kabak, 2022: 677); Atyrau reg. Inder distr: Inder lake (Breuning, 1928b: 61); West Kazakhstan reg: environs of Oral (=Uralsk. Breuning, 1928b: 63), Zelenov distr: Petrovo (Kabak, 2022: 676).

Notes: Brachypterous. It lives in grasslands of low and medium altitudes. Adults were collected. in April-May.
The species has been named after Heinrich Christian Pander (1794-1865), a famous Russian naturalist and biologist of Germanic origin, which also took part in some scientific expedition in Central Asia.

Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi panderi
(Fischer von Waldheim, 1820)
Kazakhstan: Aktiube reg., Zharyi, 10.5.97, Smirnov lgt
Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi panderi
(Fischer von Waldheim, 1820)
Kazakhstan: Aktiube reg., Zharyi, 10.5.97, Smirnov lgt


Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi karelini (Fischer von Waldheim, 1830);

Callisthenes karelini Fischer von Waldheim, 1830: 186 (place of capture, number of specimens, repository not stated)
Callisthenes karelini Fischer von Waldheim, 1846: 487 (described from: Fluvium Lepsa in Songoria rossica); unspecified number of specimens, repository not stated
Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi var. karelini Breuning, 1928: 61
Callisthenes karelini Lapouge, 1932: 375
Callisthenes panderi karelini Jeannel, 1940: 189
Calosoma (Callisthenes) breuningi Mandl, 1954: 163 (type locality: Sergiopol, Semipalatinsk); holotype ♂ in Naturhistorischen Museum Wien
Callisthenes declivis Obydov, 1997: 168 (partim)
Callisthenes karelini vladimiri Obydov, 1998: 21 (type locality: Taldy-Kurgan, Arkharly pass); holotype ♂ in coll. Obydov
Callisthenes karelini breuningi Obydov, 2002: 17
Calosoma (Callisthenes) breuningi Kabak, 2022: 679
Calosoma (Callisthenes) breuningi iliense Kabak, 2022: 684

Length 18-22 mm. In our sense, the name C. panderi karelini refers to the eastern populations that have the same short and stocky shape as C. panderi panderi but their elytra are more arched and steeper, sharply sloping in the apical part. They can be distinguished from the more southern populations of the panderi complex by the raised sculpture of elytra, with deeply incised intervals and slightly elevated sutural border. The color of the upper body is dark bronze with hints of cupric or even dark without metallic reflections.
C.panderi karelini is located on the western slopes of the Dzhungarski Alatau mountains, from the southern end of Trans-Ili Ala Tau to around the Alakol lake in the northeast.
C. panderi karelini is not much variable but various taxa have been named in the past on the basis of minor morphological characteristics. In the northern part of the distribution area (Araguz), Obidov recognized Callisthenes karelini breuningi Mandl, 1954 as a distinct subspecies, that should be characterized by the labrum wider than the clypeus and by a more strong sculpture of elytra, with indistinct foveae on the primary intervals. Moreover, from from Taldykorgan, he himself described (Obydov, 1998:21) Callisthenes karelini vladimiri that should be essentially characterized by a more coarsely puncturated pronotum. In our opinion (Bruschi, 2013: 252), both of them, considering the little relevance and the inconstancy of these characteristics, do not deserve to be distinguished, as later confirmed by Kabak (2022: 681).
As regards Callisthenes declivis to which Obidov (1997: 168) had referred the population of the Ili river and which he had included in the panderi-karelini group of species, Kabak subsequently (2016), established the synonymy of C. declivis with C. elegans and consequently proposed the name C. breuningi iliense at the subspecies level for the Ili River population (Kabak, 2022: 684). However, the differentiation is based on minor and inconstant characteristics consisting essentially in the smooth elytral sculpture on the disc along the suture and in the predominantly dark color of the upper body without metallic luster.
Finally, it should be noted that Fischer von Waldheim, prior to the detailed description (Fischer von Waldheim, 1846: 487), mentioned among Karelin's collections a Callisthenes karelini (Fischer von Waldheim, 1830: 186), described as much smaller than C. panderi, but without adding further elements to identify it. Most Authors, pursuant to article 12 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, considers this one a valid description of the taxon but Kabak (2022: 682), having analyzed the possible places in which Karelin carried out collections in those years, believes that the mention of Fischer von Waldheim should be referred to a specimen of C. panderi. The name karelini, subsequently used also in the more extensive 1846 description, would therefore become synonymous with panderi and Kabak proposes replacing it with breuningi being the first useful name cited for this taxon.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Kazakhstan. East Kazakhstan reg. Kurším distr: Topolevka (Kadyrbekov et al, 2017: 65); Ayagoz distr. (sub karelini breuningi Obydov, 2002: 17); Almaty reg. Aksu distr: Matay (SB), Sagabuyen (SB); Kerbūlaq distr: Kara-Chok (Obydov, 2002: 106, fig.12-13, sub declivis), Sary-Ozek (SB) (Obydov, 2002: 19, sub declivis); Panfilov distr.(SB); Alakol distr: Lepsinsk (Kadyrbekov et al, 2017: 65; assumed as typical locality by Obydov, 2002: 14), Koktuma (SB), Usharal (= Uch-Aral, Obydov, 2002: 16); Sarkand distr: Sarkand (Kadyrbekov et al, 2017: 65); Taldykorgan (sub karelini vladimiri Obydov, 2002: 16; TL), Almaty distr: (Kapchagay) Ili river (Obydov, 2002: 19, sub declivis), Ili river (SB); Žambyl reg. Korday distr: Korday pass (SB).

Notes: Brachypterous. It lives in grasslands at medium altitude, around 400m up to 1300m. Adults were collected. in April - May.
This taxon was named after Grigorij Silytch Karelin (1801-1872), a Russian naturalist and explorer known for his extensive work in Siberia and in the Caspian Sea region.

Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi karelini
(Fischer von Waldheim, 1830)
Kazakhstan: Panfilov distr., 1.VI.94
Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi karelini
(Fischer von Waldheim, 1830)
Kazakhstan: Alakol lake, Koktuma, 21.IV.97, Toropov leg.
Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi karelini
(Fischer von Waldheim, 1830)
S.E. Kazakhstan, Sary-Ozek, 25.IV.1998, Irtlach leg.
Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi karelini
(Fischer von Waldheim, 1830)
S.E. Kazakhstan, Sary-Ozek, 25.IV.1998, Irtlach leg.


Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi pavlovskii (Kryzhanovskij, 1955)

Callisthenes pavlovskii Kryzhanovskij, 1955: 309 (type locality: Talas); holotype ♂ in Zoological Museum of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg (Obydov, 2002: 20)
Callisthenes pavlovskyi Kryzhanovskij & al., 1995: 58.

Length 17-23 mm. A group of slightly different populations is found further south than the distribution area of C. panderi karelini. The differences are very tenous and mainly consist in the less accentuated sculpture of the elytra that is variable but in which typically the intervals tend to flatten, in the dark color without bronze reflections of upper body and in a little more elongated body shape. Kryzhanovskij (1955: 309) described these populations from the Taraz river valley as a distinc species giving to it the name Callisthenes pavlovskii.
The features that can actually be used to differentiate these populations from C. panderi karelini, as we have already said, are very tenous and can be more or less accentuated from individual to individual. However, we believe it is possible, at least for the moment, to maintain the populations of the Talas River valley that present this characteristics within a distinct subspecies, namelyC. panderi pavlovskii.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Kazakhstan. Žambyl reg. Taraz (= Džambul) (Obydov, 2002: 19), Muyunkum desert N. of Taraz (Obydov, 2002: 19).
Kyrgyzstan. Talas reg. Talas (SB). Besh-Tash river (EM, SB), Kozuchak vill. (SB), Kyzyl-Say (Obydov, 2002: 20)

Notes: Brachypterous. It lives in grasslands at medium altitude, around 700-1000m. Adults were collected. in April - May.
This taxon is named after Yevgeny Nikanorovich Pavlovsky (1884 - 1965) a Russian zoologist, entomologist, academician of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. In this respect it should be also noted that the correct spelling should have been pavlovskyi which explains because it has sometime been cited as such by some entomologists including the author himself in a later publication (Kryzhanovskij & al., 1995: 58).

Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi pavlovskii
(Kryzhanovskij, 1955)
Kirghizstan: Talas mt. rng., Kash-Tash river 1.000 m., 15.V.2003
Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi pavlovskii
(Kryzhanovskij, 1955)
Kirghizstan: Talas mt. rng., Kash-Tash river 1.000 m., 15.V.2003

updated December 31 2023

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