Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi Fischer von Waldheim, 1820

C. panderi, C. kushakevitchi and C. elegans are a similar enough group of species, that are found in Kazakhstan, and that penetrate into the neighboring regions of Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and China. All of them have raised border of pronotum, and have rather short and wide elytra with a broad margin.
C. panderi includes a number of populations that have the lateral margin of elytra granulose, as in C. elegans, but that are characterized by the head of normal size, by the noticeably short and convex elytra raised on the middle in correspondence with the suture, by the elytral sculpture of triploid type with intervals that are always well distinct and interrupted by transverse wrinkles, that in some case can form tegulae.
The distinction among the described populations, even if each has been attributed to a well defined area, is based on difficult and not always constant characters. However in the opinion of Obydov (2002), these populations constitute different species, to which must be added one more taxa, later described by him, namely C. akkolicum (Obydov & Gottwald, 2002: 39).
Taking into account the previously given doubts about the constance of the characters that distinguish these supposed species, we consider some of them slightly differeciated populations of a single entity, and others we think that are superfluous.
The typical population should be the more northern one, that is C. panderi panderi; in the south-east of this areal we find C. panderi karelini, and going to the west we find C. panderi rostislavi, C. panderi pavlovskii and C. panderi akkolicum. In the last two western populations, the sculpture of the elytra gradually flattens and the body becomes slightly more elongated.


Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi panderi Fischer von Waldheim, 1820

Callisthenes Panderi Fischer von Waldheim, 1820: 85 (described from: desertorum Kirgisorum ad Orenburg)
Calosoma panderi Dejean,, 1826: 211
Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi Breuning, 1928: 61
Callisthenes panderi Lapouge, 1932: 375
Callisthenes panderi Jeannel, 1940: 189

Length 18-21 mm. The body shape of C. panderi panderi is short and stocky and its head and pronotum are strongly wrinkled. The elytra are regularly sloping towards the apex and their sculpture is characterized by deep striae and raised intervals that are interrupted by shallow transverse wrinkles, that do not form tegula. The margin of elytra is coarsely puncturated. The color of the upper body is black purplish with shades of blue.
It is found in northwestern Kazakhstan, and penetrates in southern Russia.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Kazakhstan: Aktobe reg. Zharyi (SB); Temir (Obydov, 2002: 14) Inder lake (Breuning, 1928b: 61); Astana (=Asmolinsk), Taraz (=Aulie Ata) (Jeannel, 1940: 189)
Russia: Orenburg (Breuning, 1928b: 61); Orenburgskaya oblast: Uralsk (Jeannel, 1940: 189); Busuluk (Obydov, 2002: 14)

Notes: Brachypterous. It lives in grasslands of low and medium altitudes. Adults were collected. in April-May.
The species has been named after Heinrich Christian Pander (1794-1865), a famous Russian naturalist and biologist of Germanic origin, which also took part in some scientific expedition in Central Asia.

Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi panderi
Fischer von Waldheim, 1820
Kazakhstan: Aktiube reg., Zharyi, 10.5.97, Smirnov lgt
Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi panderi
Fischer von Waldheim, 1820
Kazakhstan: Aktiube reg., Zharyi, 10.5.97, Smirnov lgt


Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi karelini Fischer von Waldheim, 1830

Callisthenes karelini Fischer von Waldheim, 1830: 186 (described from: Fluvium Lepsa in Songoria rossica)
Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi var. karelini Breuning, 1928: 76
Callisthenes karelini Lapouge, 1932: 375
Callisthenes panderi karelini Jeannel, 1940: 189
Calosoma (Callisthenes) cyaneosternum Mandl, 1954: 162 (type: Songarei; Naturhistorischen Museum Wien)
Calosoma (Callisthenes) breuningi Mandl, 1954: 163 (type: Sergiopol; Naturhistorischen Museum Wien)
Callisthenes karelini vladimiri Obydov, 1998: 21 (type: Taldy-Kurgan, Arkharly pass; coll. Obydov)
Callisthenes karelini breuningi Obydov, 2002: 17

Length 18-22 mm. The name C. panderi karelini refers to a group of populations that have the same short and stocky shape as C. panderi panderi but their elytra are more arched and steeper, sharply sloping in the apical part. They can be also distinguished by the raised sculpture of elytra, with deeply incised intervals and slightly elevated sutural border. The color of the upper body is dark bronze with hints of cupric.
This group of populations is highly variable and numerous entities have been distinguished in the past on the basis of minor characteristics.
In the general revision of Obydov (2002) some of these entities were considered synonymous, as in the case of Calosoma (Callisthenes) cyaneosternum Mandl, 1954.
The one that Obydov considers as the typical population is located on the northern slopes and plains at the foot of the mountains Dzhungarski Alatau. However, two populations, that occupy the extreme north and west respectively of this areal, were regarded by him as distinct subspecies. In the North (Aiaguz), relatively isolated, he accepts as a subspecies Callisthenes karelini breuningi Mandl, 1954, that should be characterized by the labrum wider than the clypeus and by a more strong sculpture of elytra, with indistinct foveae on the primary intervals. From the west he himself (Obydov, 1998:21) described Callisthenes karelini vladimiri, that should be characterized by a coarsely punctuated pronotum.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Kazakhstan: Panfilov distr.(SB); Lepsinsk, Koktuma (Obydov, 2002: 16); Taldykorgan (sub karelini vladimiri Obydov, 2002: 16); Ayagoz (sub karelini breuningi Obydov, 2002: 16) Alakol lake: Koktuma (SB), Dzhunger mts.: Sagabuyen env (SB)

Notes: Brachypterous. It lives in grasslands at medium altitude, around 400 - 600m. Adults were collected. in April - May.
This taxon is named after Grigorij Silytch Karelin ( 1801- 1872), a Russian naturalist and explorer known for his extensive work in Siberia and the Caspian Sea region.

Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi karelini
Fischer von Waldheim, 1830
Kazakhstan: Panfilov distr., 1.VI.94


Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi rostislavi Semenov, 1906

Calosoma rostislavi Semenov, 1906: 262 (holotype: Ili river; Zoological Museum of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg)
Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi var. declive sensu Breuning, 1928: 76 (partim)
Callisthenes declivis sensu Obydov, 1997: 168
Calosoma (Callisthenes) rostislavi Kabak, 2016: 798

Length 17-21 mm. Based on the original description Obidov believed it possible to identifify C. declivis with the population of the Ili river that Semenov (1906: 262) described as C. rostislavi.
Later Kabak (2016), having examined the specimens on which Dohrn (1884: 405) based his description, recognized them as belonging to some population of C. elegans elegans and restored the name C. rostislavi for the population of the Ili river, that we conseder as a population belonging to the panderi - karelini group.
C. panderi rotislavi is characterized by the fact that, at the base of elytra near the scutellum, the intervals between the suture and the first primary one are confused and flatten, giving the impression of the presence of a smooth and shiny area.
The same happens with the next following two populations. C. panderi pavlovskii and C. panderi akkolicum. Also in all these populations the elytral sculpture is slightly less raised. However, C. panderi rostislavi, is easily distinguished because it has the rear lateral margin of pronotum elevated and broad, having protruding hind angles as C. panderi panderi and C. panderi karelini.
C. panderi rostislavi lives in Kazakhstan on the right bank of the middle course of the river Ili. The supposed presence inside the Chinese border (Yining) deserves to be further verified, as it is based on very ancient catches, and possibly on specimens belonging to some population of C. elegans,.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Kazakhstan: Qapsjaghai distr: Ili river; Saryozek distr: Saryozek (SB), Kara-Chok (Obydov, 2002: 18); Talgar distr: W Malai-Sary Mts., 700 m., (Obydov, 2002: 18); Tūrar Rysqūlov distr: Kurdai pass (SB)

Notes: Brachypterous. C. panderi rotislavi lives in grasslands at medium altitude, from 400 to 900-1000m. but in some cases it has also been found above 2000m. Adults were collected. in April - June.
The name intends to remember the brother of the author.

Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi rostislavi
Dohrn, 1884
S.E. Kazakhstan, Sary-Ozek, 25.IV.1998, Irtlach leg.
Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi rostislavi
Dohrn, 1884
S.E. Kazakhstan, Sary-Ozek, 25.IV.1998, Irtlach leg.


Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi pavlovskii Kryzhanovskij, 1955

Callisthenes pavlovskii Kryzhanovskij, 1955: 309 (type: Talas; Zoological Museum of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg)
Callisthenes pavlovskyi Kryzhanovskij & al., 1995: 58.

Length 17-23 mm. Compared to C. panderi rostislavi with which it shares many features, C. panderi pavlovskii, jointly with C. panderi akkolicum, is characterized by less elevated and relatively narrow lateral margin of pronotum, with hind angles, barely exceeding the basal line. The color of the upper body is dark purple without bronze reflections. Most individuals present a slightly more elongated shape. The relief of the sculpture of elytra is variable but typically the intervals tend to flatten. These characteristics are accentuated in C. panderi akkolicum
C. panderi pavlovskii is the westernmost population and occupies the valley of the River Talas.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Kazakhstan: Talas (= Džambul) (Obydov, 2002: 19); Talas mt. rng.(Kash-Tash river 1.000 m, Talas vill.) (EM, SB)

Notes: Brachypterous. It lives in grasslands at medium altitude, around 900-1000m. Adults were collected. in April - May.
This taxon is named after Yevgeny Nikanorovich Pavlovsky (1884 - 1965) a Russian zoologist, entomologist, academician of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. In this respect it should be also noted that the correct spelling should have been pavlovskyi which explains because it has sometime been cited as such by some entomologists including the author himself in a later publication (Kryzhanovskij & al., 1995: 58).

Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi pavlovskii
Kryzhanovskij, 1955
Kirghizstan: Talas mt. rng., Kash-Tash river 1.000 m., 15.V.2003
Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi pavlovskii
Kryzhanovskij, 1955
Kirghizstan: Talas mt. rng., Kash-Tash river 1.000 m., 15.V.2003


Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi akkolicum Obydov & Gottwald, 2002

Callisthenes akkolicus Obydov & Gottwald, 2002: 39 (holotype: Karatau, Akkol env., coll. Jan Matějíček)
Callisthenes akkolicus korelli Obydov, 2004: 113 (holotype: Kirghizia, Kyzyl-Sai)

Length 17-23 mm. C. panderi akkolicum constitutes a small and strictly localized population, characterized by the leaner shape of the body, with an almost flat sculpture of elytra with weakly incised intervals and punctured striae.
It has been found in the plain northeast of Dzambul (Akkol).
Given the proximity of C. kushakevitchi distribution area, Obydov (2002) hypothesized phenomena of introgression that would have given rise to a population with intermediate characteristics.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Kazakhstan: north of Džambul, Akkol, (holotype JM; paratype SB; sub Callisthenes pseudokarelini EM); Sairam district, Kyzyl-Sai (sub akkolicus korelli Obydov, 2004: 113)

Notes: Brachypterous. It lives in grasslands at medium altitude, around 400 m. Adults were collected in May.

Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi akkolicum
Obydov & Gottwald, 2002
Kazakhstan, Karatau, Akkol env., 9-10.V.1978, Gottwald leg. (holotype coll. Jan Matějíček)
Calosoma (Callisthenes) panderi akkolicum
Obydov & Gottwald, 2002
Kazakhstan, Akkol, Džambul, 9-10.V.1978, Gottwald leg.
(coll. E. Migliaccio)


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