Calosoma (Callisthenes) pentheri Apfelbeck, 1918

Originally described as distinct species, pentheri and relictum are very similar and their overall look is reminiscent of a small Calosoma (Callisthenes) reticulatum.
Also Jeannel (1940) considered them as distinct species.
However if you take into account the contiguity of habitats and the small amount of morphological differences, including the minimal differences in the apex of the ligule, it seems more likely that they are two conspecific populations, although slightly differentiated, as already hypothetically suggested, by Breuning (1928:76).


Calosoma (Callisthenes) pentheri pentheri Apfelbeck, 1918

Calosoma (Microcallisthenes) pentheri Apfelbeck, 1918: 161 (type: Prokletijagebiet; Magyar Természettudományi Múzeum, Budapest)
Calosoma (Callisthenes) pentheri Breuning, 1928: 75
Callisthenes pentheri Lapouge, 1932: 376
Microcallisthenes (s. str.) pentheri Jeannel, 1940: 178
Callisthenes (Microcallisthenes) pentheri Obydov, 2003: 20

Length 15-17 mm. The sculpture of the elytra of pentheri pentheri is characterized by primary intervals in chain-like elevations, interrupted by large foveae, well distinct and more raised than the others. The secondary and tertiary ones are lower, dissolved in granules but distinctly aligned. The color of the upper body is bronze or greenish, but always with cupric foveae. The the apex of penis is thin and elongated and the ligule is slightly inflected at the end.
pentheri pentheri has been found in the south of Montenegro and northern Albania.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Albania: Prokletija (Prokletije) planina (type, Breuning, 1928b: 75, Gueorguiev, 2007: 30)
Montenegro: Cakor planina (SB); Bjelasica planina: Zekova Glava (Drovenik, 1978: 146); Greben planina (EM); Prokletije planina: Maja Rosit (Drovenik, 1978: 147) .

Notes: Brachypterous. It is found in alpine zone from 2200 to 2500m altitude, on praries and meadows. Adult have been found in June.
The species is named after Arnold Penther (1865–1931) an Austrian naturalist that conducted zoological and botanical investigations in South Africa, Rhodesia, Asia Minor, Mesopotamia and the Balkan Peninsula.

Calosoma (Callisthenes) pentheri
Apfelbeck, 1918
Montenegro, Bjelasica planina, G. Mesaros lg, 26.VI.91
Calosoma (Callisthenes) pentheri
Apfelbeck, 1918
Montenegro, Bjelasica planina, G. Mesaros lg, 26.VI.91

Calosoma (Callisthenes) pentheri relictum Apfelbeck, 1918

Calosoma (Microcallisthenes) relictum Apfelbeck, 1918: 161 (type: Schar Dagh; Naturhistorisches Museum Wien)
Calosoma (Callisthenes) relictum Breuning, 1928: 76
Calosoma (Callisthenes) pentheroides Roubal, 1932: 19
Callisthenes relictus Lapouge, 1932: 376
Microcallisthenes (s. str.) relictus Jeannel, 1940: 178
Calosoma (Callisthenes) relictum schurmanni Breuning, 1977: 48
Callisthenes (Microcallisthenes) relictus Obydov, 2003: 20

Length 13-20 mm. pentheri relictum is easily sorted out because of the less raised and more irregular sculpture of elytra. The primary intervals consist in chain-like elevations, interrupted by large foveae; but they are poorly defined and never higher than the others. The secondary and tertiary ones are dissolved in confused grains. The color of the upper body is most frequently green, and always the foveae of the primary intervals are concolor. The penis is very similar to that of pentheri pentheri but the apex is less thin and the ligule has a rounded end.
It is located in northern Macedonia and in some neighboring regions of Montenegro and Albania.
.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Albania: Korab Mt., Tejas (Gueorguiev, 2007: 30), Korab planina (SB).
Macedonia: Šar planina (EM); Ceri Pasina planina (Drovenik, 1978: 147); Bistra planina (SB); Tetovo (EM, SB); Mazed (SB); Turcin (paratype of relictum schurmanni ) (SB).

Notes: Brachypterous. It lives in the alpine zone from 2100 to 2700m altitude, on praries and meadows. It is preferably nocturnal but in some cases has been observed in activities in daytime. Adult have been found from May to July.

Calosoma (Callisthenes) relictum
Apfelbeck, 1918
Macedonia, Turcin, Schurmann, V.72
Calosoma (Callisthenes) relictum
Apfelbeck, 1918
Macedonia, Tetovo 2.000m. Sama, 7.VI.76

Back