Calosoma (Callisthenes) reticulatum (Fabricius, 1787)

Carabus reticulatus Fabricius, 1787: 197 (described from: Europa, lectotype in Natural History Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen)
Calosoma reticulatum Weber, 1801: 20
Callisphaena reticulatum Motschulsky, 1859: 127
Calosoma (Callisthenes) reticulatum Jakobson, 1905: 257
Calosoma (Callisphaena) reticulatum Csiki, 1927: 29
Calosoma (Chrysostigma) reticulatum Breuning, 1928: 82
Callisthenes (Callisphaena) reticulata Lapouge, 1932: 373
Callisthenes (Callisphaena) reticulatus Jeannel, 1940: 184
Callisthenes (Callisphaena) reticulatus earinus Obydov & Putz, 1996: 521 (type: Kazakhstan, Karaganga reg.; Zoological Museum of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg)


Length 22-26 mm. C. reticulatum is distinguished by the presence of wings and the relatively small, transverse and regularly rounded pronotum.
It used to be widespread, but sporadic, in Northern Europe: from Belgium, Holland and Danmark through Austria Germany and Poland, up to Sweden and Baltic coast, but absent from Finland (Andersen et al., 2005: 14), contrary to the opinion of some previous authors (Obidov, 2002: 97; Löbl & Smetana, 2003: 118).
At present, at least as regards the western part of the distributrion area and except for occasional individual findings, populations of C. reticulatum seem to survive in few restricted localities, less troubled by intensive use. In fact, according to the recent literature, we know the existence of the populations of Nederland and East Germany confined in derelict military training areas, now protected areas, and of the one of Öland island in southern Sweden, known and protected since long.
C. reticulatum is also found in Eastern Germany, Poland and Russia from the Baltic coast to western Siberia and in Kazakhstan. From these last regions, that correspond to the easternmost part of the distrubution area, has been described a slightly different population (reticulatus earinus Obydov & Putz, 1996), characterized by shorter, more convex, elytra.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Austria: Neuestadt (SB); Burgenland, Purbach (SB); Niederösterreich: Fischamend, Bruck a.d. Leitha, Zurndorf, Wismutinsel b. Zurndorf (Biologiezentrum Linz in www.gbif.org); Oberösterreich: Mariahilf and Schullerberg near Linz (Dalla Torre, 1877: 18), Leithagebirge, (Breuning, 1928a: 83); Deutsch Jahrndorf (Schweiger, 1990: 148).
Belarus: Western Belarus (Alexandrovich & al., 1996).
Belgium: Antwerp: Postel (Everts, 1903; Breuning, 1928a: 83); Masbourg (Turin & al. 2015: 254).
Bielorussia: Grodno (Obidov, 2002: 97).
Czech Republic: Bohemia (NMP).
Denmark: South Jutland; East Jutland: Vejle, Kolding (Lindroth & Bangsholt, 1985: 49).
Germany: Brandenburg: Oder-Spree distr. (Putz, 1995: 152), Lecshower Heide (http://molbiol.ru/), Bradenburg (EM), Bad Wilsnack, Niedergörsdorf, Angermünde, Spreewald (Löbbecke Museum Düsseldorf in www.gbif.org); Frankfurt district (http://www.carabidae.ru); Mecklenburg: Kalkhorst (Löbbecke Museum Düsseldorf in www.gbif.org), Drewitz, 10 km NNW Malchow (Dieckmann, 1967: 27); Pommern (EM, SB); Sachsen-Anhalt: 5 km north-west Colbitz (Nicolai,1993: 49), Havelberg env. (Putz, 1995: 152); Thüringen: Berlin (Breuning, 1928a: 83), Sömmerda, Erfurt (Hartmann, 2007: 156)
Netherlands: Gelderland prov: Harskamp env; Veluwe area between Hoog Buurlo and Gerritsflesch (Turin & al. 2015: 254); Den Haag (Breuning, 1928a: 83).
Hungary: Vértes hegységben (Vértes Mountains), Csákvár (Csiki, 1906: 125); Mosonmagyaróvár (Csiki, 1944: 105).
Kazakhstan: Karaganda, Akmola, Aktyubinsk, (sub reticulatus earinus, Obidov, 2002: 97); Aktjubinsk reg., Emba env. (sub reticulatus earinus, SB).
Poland: Baltic seashore; Szczecin; Pomeranian Lake District; Wieck env. Chojnice; Mazury Lake District; Lowlands of Wielkopolska-Kujawska; Chodzież; Lower Silesia; West Prussia; Western Sudetes Jedlina-Zdroj env. Wałbrzych (http://baza.biomap.pl/); Gdansk (Obidov, 2002: 97), Przęsin (Löbbecke Museum Düsseldorf in www.gbif.org).
Russia: Orenburg (Breuning, 1928b: 92; Obidov, 2002: 97, sub reticulatus earinus); Tobolsk (Jeannel, 1940: 184); Kalinigrad: Primorsk distr. Russkoe env. (Alekseev, 2008: 158); Riaz, Moscow, Briansk, Smolensk, Tula, Orlov, Kaluga (http:/www.carabidae.org); Daghestan, Kurush (Kryzhanovskij & al. 1995: 34).
Slovakia: Prašice (= Nyitraperjes) (Csiki, 1944: 105).
Sweden: Skǻne (Breuning, 1928a: 83), Foss, Torreby (Lindroth & Bangsholt, 1985: 49); Öland: Stora Alvaret, (http://www.natureeyes.dk/); Ottenby (http://www.pbase.com/).

Notes: Winged. It is diurnal as well as nocturnal, and adults can be captured in pit traps. It is a xerophylus species and a ground dweller. In the past it was collected in a variety of habitats as sandy grasslands, sparse forest of pines, cultivated fields. At present, at least with respect Northern Europe, it is restricted to Calluna heath lands.
Adults are active from May to July, mostly in June. According to Burmeister (1939: 28) oviposition takes place in the same period with an average of 60 to 70 eggs. The development up to the adult stage takes about two months and the beetle overwinters in its hatching cell. The new generation will appear from the end of April to early May. The adult can then still overwinter and remain active for two or three years (Dieckmann, 1967: 27). The larval stages were previously described and figured by Burgess & Collins (1917: 71).

Calosoma (Callisthenes) reticulatum
Fabricius, 1787
Germany, Pommern, ex coll. Reitter
Calosoma (Callisthenes) reticulatum
Fabricius, 1787
Germany, Pommern, ex coll. Reitter
Calosoma (Callisthenes) reticulatum
Fabricius, 1787
Kazakhistan: Aktjubinsk reg., Emba env., 5.V.2014
sub Callisthenes (Callisphaena) reticulatus earinus
Calosoma (Callisthenes) reticulatum
Fabricius, 1787
Kazakhistan: Aktjubinsk reg., Emba env., 5.V.2014
sub Callisthenes (Callisphaena) reticulatus earinus

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