Calosoma (Callitropa) anthracinum Dejean, 1831

C. anthracinum can be distinguished from the other apterous species previously collected by Jeannel (1940) in Blaptosoma for its more elongated body shape.
Jeannel (1940), followed in this by later authors, has considered the population of Guerrero State as the typical one ( anthracinum, including rufinum as a synonim) and interpreted as a subspecies (microgonum) all the other populations, that should differ from the first, mainly because of the barely visible basal dimples on pronotum, the average smaller size and even more slender shape.
At first, considering the low significance of these characteristics, we did not considered necessary the distinction between the two entities (Bruschi, 2013: 182).
Later Lassalle & van den Berghe (2013), have once more, taken into account the matter. They, having examined the male aedeagus of the types have clarified the synonimy of microgonum with rufinum and highlighted the differences of the two taxa with the typical anthracinum suggesting a distinction at species level between them, but we think that they should better be distinguished at the level of subspecies.
In the same publication, the authors described Calosoma (Blaptosoma) barksdalei (Lassalle & van den Berghe, 2013: 164) on two specimens that, from the description and from the images that accompany it, would seem to have some affinity with the populations of the anthracinum group. These specimens can be distinguished by the very slender and elongated shape similar to that of C. (Callitropa) anthracinum rufinum, but even more accentuated. However, always judging from the images, the apex of aedeagus seems similar to the one of C. (Callitropa) anthracinum anthracinum . For these reasons, at least for the moment we prefer to attribute these specimens to a further, distinct, subspecies inside C. anthracinum.


Calosoma (Callitropa) anthracinum anthracinum Dejean, 1831

Calosoma anthracinum Dejean, 1831: 569. (described from Mexique); type material: 1♂ originally in coll Dejean, ex Höpfner; lectotype ♂ designated by Deuve (1978: 247) in Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris [examined]
Calosoma (Callitropa) laeve ab. anthracina Breuning, 1928: 46
Blaptosoma (s. str.) laeve anthracinum Lapouge, 1932: 392
Callitropa (Blaptosoma) anthracinum Jeannel, 1940: 219
Calosoma (Blaptosoma) anthracinum anthracinum Gidaspow, 1959: 286
Calosoma (Blaptosoma) anthracinum (Lassalle & van den Berghe, 2013: 163)

Length 24-27 mm. The populations attributed to the typical form are characterized by the evident basal dimples of pronotum, the average larger size, the elytra slightly more rounded, the apex of aedeagus more stocky and obtuse.
All of these populations seem to be limited to an area between the state of Guerrero and the nearby state of Morelos.
Specimens of C. anthracinum have, however, been observed several times on the island of Hawaii where no native species of Calosoma should exist.
In this regard, it should be remembered that in the first half of the last century various species of Calosoma, some incorrectly or not determined, were repeatedly imported into the islands as auxiliaries in the biological fight against various species of caterpillars.
In particular, several specimens of Calosoma imported from Cuernavaca (Mexico) were released in Waikii in 1923. About twenty years later a specimen was found in the same place and was erroneously determined as C. blaptoides. As such it was later cited by Pemberton (1964:698) and Funasaki et al. (1988: 113).
Other reports from the same area followed until, thanks to the careful analyzes of Liebherr et al. (2023) the import history of the Calosoma species to Hawaii was correctly reconstructed and these specimens were recognized as belonging to C. anthracinum, which had not been identified among the imported species at the time. C. anthracinum is therefore the only species of the genus Calosoma actually acclimated in the archipelago, where it is found in the northern part of the island of Hawaii along the western slope of Mauna Kea.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Hawaiian Islands (United States). Hawaii county: Hawi, Lapakahi, Waimea, Koala Kai (www.inaturalist.org), leeward slope of Mauna Kea (Liebherr et al., 2023: fig. 13).
Mexico. Guerrero: Amula (= Almolonga) (Bates, 1891:225; AMNH); Morelos: Cuernavaca (Lassalle & Van Den Berghe, 2013:164), Jiutepec (www.inaturalist.org).

Notes: Brachypterous. According to Erwin (2007: 87), in Mexico it inhabits montane subtropical mixed oak-pine forest around 1800 m. The examined specimens have been captured from June to August. Instead in Hawaii it lives in mid-elevation grassland habitats (Liebherr et al., 2023) and active adults have been observed from March to June.

Calosoma (Callitropa) anthracinum anthracinum
Dejean, 1831
Mexique (lectotype)
(coll. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma (Callitropa) anthracinum anthracinum
Dejean, 1831
Guerrero, Amula 6000ft, Aug H H Smith 1891
(coll. American Museum of Natural History, New York)
Calosoma (Callitropa) anthracinum
Dejean, 1831
United States Hawaiian Islands
Hawaii county, Lapakahi State Historical Park, March 3.2020
(www.inaturalist.org/observations/39565821)


Calosoma (Callitropa) anthracinum rufinum Géhin, 1885

Calosoma (Blaptosoma) anthracinum var. rufinum Géhin, 1885: 66, note 69. (described from Mexique); type material not stated, presumably in coll. Géhin; lectotype ♂ (Mexique, Toluca) designated by Deuve (1978: 253) in Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris [examined]
Calosoma laeve var. microgonum Bates, 1891: 225 (described from: Jalapa and Mexico city); original material: 3 specimens; syntypes in Natural History Museum, London (Jeannel, 1940: 219)
Calosoma (Blaptosoma) laeve var microgonum Breuning, 1928: 46
Blaptosoma (s. str.) laeve microgonum Lapouge, 1932: 392
Callitropa (Blaptosoma) anthracinum microgonum Jeannel, 1940: 219
Calosoma (Blaptosoma) anthracinum microgonum Gidaspow, 1959: 286
Calosoma (Blaptosoma) rufinum Lassalle & van den Berghe, 2013: 164

Length 22-25 mm. C. anthracinum rufinum is distinguished by the basal dimples of pronoto hardly notable, the average smaller size, the more slender body shape, the apex of aedeagus relatively more elongated and slender.
C. anthracinum rufinum has been sporadically found in various States of central Mexico: Mexico, Puebla, Vera Cruz.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Mexico. Jalisco: Chapala (Gidaspow, 1959: 286); Mexico d.f.: Mexico city (sub microgonum Bates, 1891: 225), Toluca (holotype of rufinum, MNHN); Puebla: Esperanza (AMNH), Atlixco (www.inaturalist.org); Vera Cruz: Jalapa (EM).

Notes. Brachypterous. It lives in the Mexican plateau between 1500 and 2500m.

Calosoma (Callitropa) anthracinum rufinum
Géhin, 1885
Mexique, Toluca (lectotype of Calosoma rufinum Géhin)
(coll.Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma (Callitropa) anthracinum rufinum
Géhin, 1885
Mexico, Vera Cruz (Jalapa) (coll. E. Migliaccio)


Calosoma (Callitropa) anthracinum barksdalei Lassalle & van den Berghe, 2013

Calosoma (Blaptosoma) barksdalei Lassalle & van den Berghe, 2013: 164 (type locality: nord de Guadalajara) holotype ♂ in coll. Lassalle, paratype ♂ in coll. van den Berghe

Length 22-23 mm. As C. anthracinum rufinum it has an elongated body shape, with hardly notable basal dimples of pronotum and reduced hind angles, not extending beyond the basal line, but it can be differentiated by its just transverse pronotum, the elytra distinctly more elongated, the stouter apex of aedeagus.
The only known two specimens, males, were collected north of Guadalajara. It is possible that the quotation of Gidaspow (1959: 286) of Calosoma (Blaptosoma) anthracinum microgonum (= Calosoma (Callitropa) anthracinum rufinum) from Chapala, about 50 km. south of Guadalajara, can be referred to this new subspecies that would be so localized in the central area of state of Jalisco.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Mexico. Jalisco: north of Guadalajara (Lassalle & van den Berghe, 2013: 164)

Notes: Brachypterous. The name of the species has been proposed in honour of Charles Barksdale an American entomologist.

Calosoma (Callitropa) anthracinum barksdalei
Lassalle & van den Berghe, 2013
holotype: nord de Guadalajara, coll. Lassalle
Lassalle & van den Berghe, 2013: 165, pl. 8

updated April 18 2024

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