Calosoma (Callitropa) atrovirens Chaudoir, 1869

Length 22-28 mm. C. atrovirens, as other species previously collected by Jeannel (1940) in Blaptosoma, is characterized by the squat and convex body shape. In particular, C. atrovirens shares with C. laeve, a very bulky form and a strongly transverse pronotum, but it can be easily identified taking into account the presence of large dots on the head, from the vertex towards the eyes.
Jeannel (1940:218) had distinguished three subspecies (atrovirens, obscurum and explanaticolle). Gidaspow (1959: 282) considered superfluous explanaticolle, which should have differ from obscurum because of more elongated, and by more arched sides of pronotum, and she clarified the geographical distribution of species.
Most of subsequent authors agreed on the identity of the two supposed subspecies, but the name obscurum, that for priority reason could not be used, was replaced by explanaticolle.
The populations that would be considered typical are the oriental ones that are characterized by slender body and by the dark green color of the upper body, while those attributable to explanaticolle would be limited to the central western part of the Sierra Madre Occidental, and are distinguished from the typical ones by the black color, at most faintly greenish on body margins, and by the more squat shape.
But it happens that the only certainty is that the color varies from the eastern populations to the western ones, from dark green, spread over the entire upper body, to black or reddish black with faint greenish reflections at the margins of pronotum and elytra. The body shape instead varies greatly inside a same population and can not be used effectively as a diagnostic character.
However, considering that, as noted by Jeannel (1940: 218), the progressive loss of color is, in this case, the indicator of an evolutionary process in progress, we believe for the purposes of this discussion that these populations could be dealt with at subspecific level.


Calosoma (Callitropa) atrovirens atrovirens Chaudoir, 1869

Calosoma atrovirens Chaudoir, 1869: 372 (described from: interieur du Mexique); type material: 2♂♂ and 1♀; originally in colls Chaudoir et Sallé; 1 syntype in Museum and Institute of Zoology, Warsaw (Mroczkowski, 1960: 377); lectotype ♂ (no locality label) designated by Deuve (1978: 251) in Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris [examined].
Calosoma laeve ab. atrovirens Breuning, 1928: 44
Blaptosoma (s. str.) laeve atrovirens Lapouge, 1932: 393
Callitropa (Blaptosoma) atrovirens Jeannel, 1940: 217
Callitropa (Blaptosoma) atrovirens Gidaspow, 1959: 282
Callitropa (Blaptosoma) atrovirens Erwin, 2007: 88

Length 25-30 mm. C. atrovirens atrovirens is characterized by the dark green colour of the upper side of the body and, on average, by a more elongated shape.
The label of the lectotype shows no locality details and the author in the description gives generically “interieur du Mexique” as the origin of the specimen. In the past most of the known specimens came from Hidalgo. However, according to more recent data, C. atrovirens atrovirens has a larger distribution area and the populations that would be considered typical are the oriental ones (Eastern Guanajuato, Hidalgo Puebla, Queretaro, Tapaulimas (Ciudad del Maiz, on the border between San Luis Potosi and Tapaulimas).

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Mexico. interieur du Mexique (lectotype MNHN); Guanajuato: 10 km NW of Leon, 58 km S of San Luis de La Paz (UASM), Cortijos de la Gloria, Pénjamo, Atarjea, Xichú, Xoconoxtle (www.inaturalist.org/); Hidalgo: Tula (SB), Zimapán (www.inaturalist.org/); Mexico: Teotihuacan (UASM); Morelos: Tepoztlán (UASM); Puebla: Tlaxaca (UASM); Querétaro: Santiago de Querétaro, Pie de Gallo, Huimilpan (www.inaturalist.org/obs), Landa de Matamoros (UASM), Colón, San Juan del Río, Tolimán, Cadereyta de Montes (www.inaturalist.org); San Luis Potosí: Lagunillas (UASM), San Nicolás Tolentino (www.inaturalist.org); Tapaulimas: NW of Ciudad del Maiz (Gidaspow, 1959: 282)..

Notes: Brachypterous. Lives on oak forests on midlands between 1100 and 1300m. Active adults have been observed in July-August up to October-November

Calosoma (Callitropa) atrovirens atrovirens
Chaudoir, 1869
interieur du Mexique (lectotype)
(coll. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma (Callitropa) atrovirens atrovirens
Chaudoir, 1869
Hidalgo, Tula


Calosoma (Callitropa) atrovirens explanaticolle Bates, 1891

Calosoma (Blaptosoma) atrovirens var. obscurum Géhin, 1885: 65 note 68 (distribution: Mexique inter.) type material 1♂, presumably in coll. Géhin; lectotype ♂ (from Oaxaca) designated by Deuve (1978: 252) in Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris [examined] (preoccupied by Calosoma auropunctatum var. obscurum Letzner, 1850)
Calosoma laeve var. explanaticolle Bates, 1891: 225 (described from: Tupataro, in Guanajuato) Type material: ♂♀, deposited in British Museum of Natural History, London (Jeannel, 1940: 217)
Calosoma laeve ab. atrovirens Breuning, 1928: 44
Calosoma laeve ssp. explanaticolle Breuning, 1928: 44
Blaptosoma (s. str.) laeve explanaticolle Lapouge, 1932: 393
Callitropa (Blaptosoma) atrovirens explanaticolle Jeannel, 1940: 217
Callitropa (Blaptosoma) atrovirens obscurum Jeannel, 1940: 217
Callitropa (Blaptosoma) atrovirens obscurum Gidaspow, 1959: 282
Callitropa (Blaptosoma) atrovirens explanaticolle Erwin, 2007: 88
Calosoma (Blaptosoma) atrovirens obscuroides Lassalle & van den Berghe, 2013: 163 (unnecessary nomen novum pro obscurum Géhin, 1885).

Length 22-28 mm. Unlike the populations attributable to the typical form, those of C. atrovirens explanaticolle have the upper side of the body always devoid of metallic lustre showing a black or reddish black colour. These populations are found in some States of the Sierra Madre Occidental (Aguascalientes, Durango, Western Guanajuato , Jalisco, Michoacan, Zacatecas).
Recently, Lassalle & van den Berghe (2013: 163), came back to the distinction between obscurum and explanaticolle and, based on the morphological characteristics of the holotype of C. obscurum, especially the considerable width of the pronotum and the stronger marks on the head, they have reassessed it at subspecies level and renamed obscuroides. The holotype is the only known specimen and its provenance from Oaxaca is dubious.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Mexico. Aguascalientes: around the city (Lassalle & van den Berghe, 2013:163); Durango: Alemán, reserva La Michilia (sub atrovirens, Ball & Shpeley, 1991: 43); Guanajuato: around Guanajuato city, Jerecuaro (Lassalle & van den Berghe, 2013:163), Tupataro (Breuning, 1928b: 46); Jalisco: Lagos de Moreno (UASM),Tepatitlan (AMNH), Chapala (Gidaspow, 1959: 283), Huiscuilco (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/31033897); Michoacán: nearby Moralia (EM, GP, SB), Zitacuaro (UASM), Sahuayo de Morelos (Lassalle & van den Berghe, 2013:163), Jiquilpan (AMNH), Tzintzuntzan, Villamar (www.inaturalist.org); Oaxaca (holotype of obscurum, MNHN), San Juan Bautista Suchitepec (www.inaturalist.org); Zacatecas: 17 km S Villanueva (AVT), Laguna Balderama (= Valderrama) (Gidaspow, 1959: 283).

Notes: Brachypterous. It has been found in decidous forests and pastures, walking in the grassland or under stones, between 1100 and 2400m. Active adults have been observed from June to November (Erwin, 2007: 88)
One specimen of the genus Calosoma has recently and unexpectedly been observed and photographed (www.inaturalist.org/obs./122880255) at Waimea in Hawaii island where native species of Calosoma do not exist. Various characteristics led us to attribute this specimens to the subgenus Callitropa. Moreover the relatively slim shape, the smooth elytra, the dark color and the clearly visible, elongate dimples near the pronotal angles suggest, although not conclusively, C. atrovirens explanaticolle.
So, C. atrovirens explanaticolle could be one of the many species of Calosoma, imported in Hawaii by the United States Agricultural Services in the twenties of last century on an experimental basis. This species, as well as C. laeve, that has been already reported from a nearby locality, were however not mentioned among the imported species at the time, possibly because they have been confused with others.

Calosoma (Callitropa) atrovirens explanaticolle
Bates, 1891
Mexique, Oaxaca (lectotype of Calosoma obscurum Géhin, 1885)
(coll. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma (Callitropa) atrovirens explanaticolle
Bates, 1891
Mexico, Michoacan, env. Moralia, VII.2008, Lassalle leg.
Calosoma (Callitropa) atrovirens explanaticolle
Bates, 1891
Mexico, Michoacan, env. Moralia, VII.2008, Lassalle leg.

updated July 28 2022

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