Calosoma (Calosoma) frigidum Kirby, 1873

Calosoma frigidum Kirby, 1873: 19 (syntype: Drummond's Island, Canada; Natural History Museum, London)
Calosoma frigidum levettei, Casey, 1897: 344 (holotype: Indiana; National Museum of Natural History, Washington)
Calosoma (Syncalosoma) frigidum, Breuning, 1927: 180
Calosoma (Calosoma) frigidum, Lapouge, 1932: 401
Calosoma (Calosoma) frigidum Jeannel, 1940: 87
Calosoma (Calosoma) frigidum, Gidaspow, 1963: 245

Length 19-27 mm. It is a neo Arctic vicarious of C. inquisitor of which is very similar. As in C. inquisitor the lateral margin of the pronotum is missing in the whole fourth posterior part, but compared to C. inquisitor, C. frigidum is well charecterized by the less transverse pronotum with the rear as wide as the front and with rounded sides. The color of the upper body is dark with bronze or greenish lustre and with coppery metallic foveae on the primary intervals of the elytron. The tarsi of the male forelegs show four dilated segments having setal pads as happens with C. inquisitor inquisitor but in case of C. frigidum the aedeagus is thinner and slightly bent at the apex. For this single species, Breuning (1927), had created the subgenus Syncalosoma.
It occurs from southern Canada to north of the central United States and from the Atlantic coast to Texas and up the Rocky Mountains to the west.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Canada. Alberta: Dixonville, Edmonton, Ministik Lake, Leduc (UASM), Spirit Rocks Nature Sanctuary (www.gbif.org), Fort McMurray (Lindroth, 1961: 47); British Columbia: Fisher Creek (UASM), Terrace (Lindroth, 1961: 47); Manitoba: Winnipeg, (SB); New Brunswick (Lindroth, 1961: 47); Nova Scotia: Kejimkujik National Park (www.gbif.org), Baddeck, Cape Breton Island (Lindroth, 1961: 47); Ontario: Kitchener (SB), Cawagan lake (SB), Macdiarmid, Lake Nipigon, Favourable Lake (Lindroth, 1961: 47), Prince Edward county (UASM); Prince Edward Island (Bosquet, 2012: 230); Quebec: Lévis (SB), Berthier (UASM), Gatineau Park (www.gbif.org), Ile de Montreal (SB), Lake Duparquel (Lindroth, 1961: 47); Saskatchewan: Cypress Hills (UASM), Prince Albert (www.gbif.org), Craven (Lindroth, 1961: 47)
United States. Colorado (Bosquet, 2012: 230); Connecticut (Bosquet, 2012: 230); Georgia (Bosquet, 2012: 230); Illinois: Cook co , Chicago (UASM); Indiana (Bosquet, 2012: 230); Iowa (Bosquet, 2012: 230); Maine: Oxford co , Paris (UASM), Franklin co (http://bugguide.net/); Maryland: Allegany co , Rawlings (EM); Massachusetts: Essex co , Saugus (UASM), Boston (www.gbif.org), Suffolk co (http://madrean.org/); Michigan (Bosquet, 2012: 230); Minnesota (Bosquet, 2012: 230); Nebraska (Bosquet, 2012: 230); Nevada: Quaking Aspens (La Rivers, 1946: 135); New Hampshire (Bosquet, 2012: 230); New Jersey: Cape May co. (www.gbif.org), Sussex co., Sparta (UASM); New York: Willard, (EM), Tompkins co., Ithaca (UASM); New Mexico: Cibola co. (http://bugguide.net/); Ohio: Lucas co., Oak Openings Park (SB), Franklin co. (www.gbif.org); Pennsylvania: Allegheny co., Aspinwall (UASM); Rhode Island; Texas: Galveston (Bousquet, 2012: 230); Utah: Salt Lake co. (www.gbif.org), Iron co. (http://bugguide.net/), Provo cañon, Timpanogoa (La Rivers, 1946: 135); Vermont: Windham co., Dummerston (UASM); West Virginia: Morgan co. (http://bugguide.net/); Wisconsin: Ashland co. (http://bugguide.net/).

Notes: Diurnal and nocturnal, winged, attracted to light at night. This species may occur in all kinds of habitats, but apparently prefers open woodland, both coniferous and decidous forests. Adults and larvae of this species has been noted as predaceous on caterpillars and pupae of Heterocampa guttivitta Walker, Lymantria dispar L. and of Choristoneura murinana Hübner. Adults easily climb trees, and shelter in leaf litter. On the basis of the material examined, the individuals of this species are active in spring and summer from April up to July (Burgess & Collins 1917: 53) up to August (Snider & Snider, 1997) or to November according to Erwin (2007: 93). It is still probable that this quote refers to specimens found overwintering, in their own pupal cavity in the soil (Larochelle and Larivière, 2003: 178).
C. frigidum has been imported from the United States in Hawaii as possible help in controlling the infestations of Lepidoptera Noctuidae, and later it has been cited as part of the entomological fauna of the Islands (http://www2.bishopmuseum.org /HBS/checklist). Larval stages have been described by Burgess (1896: 419).

Calosoma (Calosoma) frigidum
Kirby, 1873
Canada, Manitoba, Winnipeg, King's park, 23.VI.08, Lawton lgt.
Calosoma (Calosoma) frigidum
Kirby, 1873
Canada, Quebec, Lévis, 15.VI.74

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