Calosoma (Calosoma) inquisitor (Linné, 1758)

In this species, like in C. frigidum, that is its vicarious in the Neoartic region, the lateral margin of the pronotum is missing in the whole fourth posterior part. MoreoverC. inquisitor differs from C. frigidum because of the shape of pronotum that is transverse, with the rear more wide than the front, and with sides slightly sinuate behind. Another difference is that, while while the color of the upper body is variable, the color of the foveae on the primary intervals is in any case the same as the rest of elytra. Finally the apex of aedeagus is relatively shorter than in C. frigidum. For C. inquisitor and for its far eastern population (cyanescens), which some consider a separate species, has been created the subgenus Acalosoma (Lafer 1989: 106).
Calosoma inquisitor as the other species of the subgenus Calosoma is almost exclusively predators of Lepidoptera caterpillars. It's therefore strange how was introduced in scientific texts and popular books the prolonged belief that Calosoma inquisitor was a predator of other Carabidae of the genus Brachinus. The first quotation can be traced back to Daniel Rolander (1750) who first described the behavior of a particular Cicindela (=Brachinus) and represented it chased by a Carabus (=Calosoma) inquisitor (“der Carabus, ihr Versolger”). Later Kirby & Spence (An Introduction to Entomology, Vol.II, 1828: 245) endorsed the belief, and the image, slightly modified, and the consequent commentary continued to appear in many popular books throughout the nineteenth century and again in the twentieth century. It has been necessary to wait nearly two centuries until a scientific publication on the matter (Eisner, 1958: 215) clarified that this generalization is based on a single observation never confirmed by the experience.

fig. 2 Cicindela (= Brachinus ) chased by a Carabus (= Calosoma inquisitor) (fig. 3 “der Carabus, ihr Versolger”). Rolander D. (1754), "Die Schussfliege", Der Königlich Schwedischen Akademie der Wissenschaften neue Abhandlungen aus der Naturlehre, Haushaltungskunst und Mechanik aus das Jahr 1750, 12: 298-302.

“Where does come the deep hatred that the calosoma feels against it (the bombardier beetle)? I do not know how to explain it, or to what attribute it. But as soon as a calosoma sees a bombardier beetle, runs after the little beetle and tries to tear it to pieces with its formidable mandibles” ( Montgaillaid Les Insectes Savants, Albin Michel, Paris, 2nd half of XIX century, p. 3).
“The calosoma has almost reached the victim which to stop the chase directs against it a steam of pungent odor”. Figuier L., Les Insectes, Hachette, Paris, 1883 p. 547
A century later, the calosoma still pursues the bombardier beetle without getting discouraged Natura Viva - Enciclopedia Sistematica del Regno Animale Vallardi, Milano, 1961: 168

Calosoma (Calosoma) inquisitor inquisitor (Linné, 1758)

Carabus inquisitor Linné, 1758: 414 (described from Europa), syntypes in coll. Linnean Society of London ( and Museum of Evolution Zoology Uppsala University (Casale & al, 1982: 83)
Buprestis antiquus Fourcroy, 1785: 42 (described from around Paris)
Calosoma inquisitor, Weber, 1801: 20
Calosoma inquisitor (var.?) cupreum Dejean, 1826: 196 (type material compatible with one specimen only, from Géorgie russe) holotype ♀ (Russie méridionale: Ibérie) designated by Deuve (1978: 246) by monotypy in Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris [examined]
Calosoma inquisitor clathratum Kolenati, 1845: 33 (described from: Transcaucasie)
Calosoma punctiventre Reiche et Saulcy, 1855: 567 (described from: Morea); original material: unspecified number of specimens, no repository given
Calosoma inquisitor var. viridimarginatus Letzner, 1850: 96 (distribution: Schlesien) original material: unspecified number of specimens, original specimen(s) in Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Müncheberg (Casale & al, 1982: 83)
Calosoma inquisitor var.obscurum Letzner, 1850: 96 (idem)
Calosoma inquisitor var.coeruleum Letzner, 1850: 96 (idem)
Calosoma inquisitor var. coeruleomarginatus Letzner, 1850: 96 (idem)
Calosoma inquisitor var. varians Letzner, 1850: 96 (idem)
Calosoma inquisitor var. nigrum Letzner, 1850: 96 (nec Parry 1845) (idem)
Calosoma inquisitor var. batnense Lallemant, 1868: 35 (described from: Algeria, Forêt de Batna)
Calosoma punctiventre var viridula Kraatz, 1877: 48 (distribution: "Beirut and probably whole Asia Minor") original material: unspecified number of specimens, no repository given
Calosoma inquisitor var. obscura Dalla Torre, 1877: 18 (nec Letzner, 1859)
Calosoma inquisitor var. nuda Dalla Torre, 1877: 18
Calosoma inquisitor var. pulchra Dalla Torre, 1877: 18
Calosoma inquisitor violaceum Westhoff, 1881
(distribution: Westphalia) Calosoma inquisitor var. coeruleum Ragusa, 1883: 197 (described from: Sicilia, Ficuzza) original material: one specimen, no repository given
Calosoma inquisitor viridescens , i. l. (Reitter, 1896: 46; cited from: "especially in Caucasus")
Calosoma inquisitor a. viridescens Reitter, 1908: 78 (distribution: together with the typical population) original material: unspecified number of specimens, no repository given; syntype ♀ in Naturalis Biodiversity Centre, Leiden (de Boer, 2002: 119)
Calosoma inquisitor var. funerea, Ragusa, 1905: 288 (described from: Sicilia, Ficuzza) original material: one specimen, no repository given
Calosoma inquisitor cupreofulgens Chapmann, 1922: 17 (described from: Amanus Mountains)
Calosoma (Calosoma) inquisitor inquisitor, Breuning, 1927: 168 (distribution: Europe and North Africa)
Calosoma (Calosoma) inquisitor var. punctiventre, Breuning, 1927: 168 (distribution: together with the typical population)
Calosoma (Calosoma) inquisitor ssp. viridulum, Breuning, 1927: 169 (distribution: Asia Minor)
Calosoma (Calosoma) inquisitor ssp. cupreum, Breuning, 1927: 170 (distribution: Caucasus and Transcaucasia)
Calosoma inquisitor comanense Lapouge, 1930: 88 (distribution: Comana Vlasca and Bârlad ); original material: unspecified number of specimens, no repository given
Calosoma (Calosoma) inquisitor ssp. inquisitor, Jeannel, 1940: 86 (distribution: Europe, North Africa and Asia Minor )
Calosoma (Calosoma) inquisitor ssp. cupreum , Jeannel, 1940: 86 (distribution: Caucasus and Transcaucasia)
Calosoma (Calosoma) inquisitor ab. moestum Csiki, 1944: 47 (unnecessary nomen novum pro nigrum Letzner, 1859 et obscura Dalla Torre, 1877)
Calosoma (Acalosoma) inquisitor, Lafer, 1989: 106

Length 15-25 mm. The combination of the density of the punctures on the sternites or on the upper part of the head and the pronotum and of the greater or lesser evidence of the incisions on the intervals of the elytral sculpture, together with the considerable variability in color, led to the description of many forms of individuals or populations.
According to the interpretation of Breuning (1927: 168), the specimens with strongly punctured ventral side, described as punctiventre from Morea, should be predominant in North Africa, Southern Spain, Sicily, South Greece and Greek islands. However, Breuning considered these specimens as simple variety, because, while well-characterized enough, they are often mixed up with specimens of the typical form.
On the contrary, Breuning has collected the eastern populations of C. inquisitor in two subspecies: viridulum of Syria and Turkey in which the ventral side as well as the upper part of the head and the pronotum are still more strongly punctured and in which the elytral intervals are sensibly scaly; cupreum of Caucasus and Iran that should have a short, wide and stocky body shape, superficially punctured head and pronotum but that should also have the intervals of the elytra even more strongly transversally incised and, above all, the male's fore tarsi with only three dilated segments having hairy bearings.
Jeannel (1940: 86), emphasizing the character of the male's fore tarsi, has only distinguished the typical European and Mediterranean populations from the eastern ones of the Caucasus, Iran and Azerbejan, retaining the name inquisitor cupreum for them.
However, the features described by the various authors do not have such constancy as to allow the recognition of a subspecies. In particular, as for the character of the male's fore tarsi with only three dilated segments having hairy bearings, it may exceptionally appear in some single specimens but it is present as a constant character only in the far eastern populations (inquisitor cyanescens).
C. inquisitor inquisitor, that we take as a unitary complex, occupies the whole of Europe and part of the Mediterranean basin while to the east it arrives about up to the Urals. Towards north C. inquisitor inquisitor is present in the Scandinavian peninsula but probably it is now extinct in Ireland. Southwards it occupies North Africa from Morocco to Tunisia and reappears in Lebanon and Syria up to Iran and Turkmenistan. Recently, a single specimen of C. inquisitor inquisitor has been found in eastern Afghanistan.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Afghanistan. Nuristan: Parun (Häckel, 2012: 60)
Albania North Albanian Alps, Bogë, 1800-1900 (Gueorguiev, 2007: 3); Mal i Dajtit Mt. (AVT)
Algeria: fôret de Teniet-el-Had, col de Tizi-Franco (between Milianah and Cherchell), Berouaghia, fôret de Batna, Djebel Aures (vallee de Medina) (Bedel, 1895: 19).
Armenia. Erevan (Cook, 1936: 88); Syunik, Lichk (SB); Kadgeran 2300 m (EM); Zangezur range, Meghri suburbs 1400m. ( sub. cupreum,
Austria. Burgenland: Neusiedl am See, Neusiedlerseegebiet (Mandl 1957: 105), Winden am See, Geschriebenstein (; Kärnten: (Mandl 1957: 106); Niederösterreich: Bisamberg, Blumau-Steinfeld, Brühl bei Mödling, Brück a. d. Leitha, Eisernes Tor bei Baden, Hundsheimer Berge, Gumpoldskirchen, Kaltenleutgeben, Kierling, Klosterneuburg, Krems a. d. Donau, Leithagebirge bei Hof, Mauerbach, Mödling, Oberweiden, Stiefernbach, Wienerwald, Ybbsitz (Mandl 1957: 106): Steiermark: Graz, Feistritztal, Wildon (Kreissl, 1968: 157), St. Leonhard-Windische Bühel (Mandl 1957: 106), Pfeifferhofweg (, Leibnitz, Bruck-Mürzzuschlag (; Tirol: St. Leonhard (im Pitztal) (Cook, 1936: 84), Linz (; Vorarlberg: Feldkirch (Mandl 1957: 106); Wien: Laaerberg (SB, AC, AVT), Wien Umgebung, Wien-Dornbach, Hermannskogel, Hütteldorf, Kalksburg, Lainzer Tiergarten, Mauer, Perchtoldsdorf, Purkersdorf-Paunzen, Vorder Hainbach (Mandl 1957: 106), Floridsdorf (
Azerbaijan. Talysch (Cook, 1936: 88); Gortshu (SB); Lenkoran: 40 km Bobogil (VV), Yardimli distr (
Belarus Białowieża Forest (, Svislach distr., Mahilyow distr. (
Belgium. Groenendael, foret de Murdael, Waterloo (Cook, 1936: 84); Waarschoot, Auderghem, Boitsfort (, Brussel, Ciney, Namur (Namen) (
Bosnia and Herzegovina (Apfelbeck, 1904 : 15)
Bulgaria. Struma valley (EM); Chuypetel (EM); Karlac (= Golyam Snezhnik), Kamcik, Sliven, Svistov, Varna (Apfelbeck, 1904 : 15); Byalada voda, Golo bardo, Pirdop, Galabets, Mramor (Guéorghiev & Guéorghiev, 1995: 40); Burgas: Sinemorets, Primorsko, Bulgari vill., Kiten, Maslen nos Cape, Kondolovo vill., Kiten (, Asenovgrad,(Buresch & Kantardjieva, 1928: 63); Gabrovo: Tryavna (; Haskovo, Odrintsi, Studen Kladenets Dam (Guéorguiev, 2004: 382); Hrabrino, Bryanovishtitsa Hut, 930 m, along Chepinska River and Alabak (Guéorguiev & Lobo, 2006: 288), Plodiv: Kuklen, Tsentar (; Targovishte: Boaza Waterfall (
Croatia: Rijeka (Apfelbeck, 1904 : 15), Pula (Pola), Klana (Clana) (Müller, 1926: 45), Gospić (Ragusa, 1883: 13); Zagreb (
Czech Republic: Žatek (AVT), Hrádek u Pardubik (VV); Benešov (Beneschau) (Cook, 1936: 87); Litovelské Pomoraví (Nakládal, 2008), Klobouky u Brna, Tišnov, Skalice, Frýdek-Místek, Poříčany, Dolní Ředice, Milovice, Dobrovice, Kladruby nad Labem, Malé Žernoseky, Černovice, Žleby (; Čeperka (; Kněžičky, Brno, Slavětín nad Metují, Jihomoravský (Břeclav), Jíloviště, Úvaly, Klánovice, Soběsuky, Praha, Kanice, Mladá Boleslav (
Denmark (Schiødte, 1841: 307), (Lindroth, 1985: 48)Bornholm: Allinge (; Central Jutland: Viborg (
Estonia (Haberman, 1968: 116), Pärnumaa: Koonga; Saaremaa: Kuressaare, Kaarma, Torgu; Läänemaa: Haapsalu; Tartumaa: Tartu (
Finland: Southwest Finland: Ruissalo, Turku; Uusimaa: Tvärminne (Lindroth & Bangsholt, 1985: 48),, Kymenlaakso reg. (Solevåg, 2006); Western Finland: Jämsä, Southwest Finland: Turku (
France. Allier: Bois de Brosse, Moulins; Alpes-de-Haute-Provence: Les Dourbes; Aube: Bois de Chennegy, Pont sur Seine (Cook, 1936: 86); Bas-Rhin: Haguenau (; Bretagne Fôret de Coat Loch (SB); Calvados: Falaise, Bois Férant, Bois de Latour, Bois de Longpré, Moulines, Villers sur Mer; Cantal: Le Lioran (Cook, 1936: 86); Charente: Etagnac; Cher: Saint-Éloy-de-Gy (; Corse: Ajaccio (; Côte-d'Or: Rouvray; Eure-et-Loir: Ft d’Evreux (Cook, 1936: 86), Ft de Senonche (www.ebay); Gers: Auch, Puycasquier; Haute-Marne: Bois de Champigny lès Langres (Cook, 1936: 86), Chateauvillain (; Hautes-Pyrénées: Bois de Bordères, Lannemezan, Maubourguet, Tarbes; Haute Savoie: Rumilly; Haute Vienne: Limoges, Bois de La Bastide, Puy Moulinier (Cook, 1936: 86); Hauts-de-Seine: Fôret de Meudon (EM, SB), Bois de Clemart, Puteaux (Cook, 1936: 86); Haut-Rhin: Ottmarsheim, Cernay (; Ille et Vilaine: Ft. De Rennes, Bois de Cicé, Bois de Laillé, Le Four Rouge (Cook, 1936: 86); Indre: Chassignolles (; Loire: St Etienne, Bois de Solaure; Loire-Atlantique: Astillé, Mayenne; Maine-et-Loire: Champigny, Ft. de Frontevault, Ft d’Ombrée, Gennes, St Barthelemy, Saumur, Thorigné, Trélazé; Manche: St. Hilaire-du-Harcourt; Marne: Rilly, Germaine; Morbihan: Berons, Plandren, Ste. Anne D’Auray, Vannes (Cook, 1936: 86); Moselle: Hombourg-Budange; Nord: Marchienne (, Ft. de Raismes, Dunes de Calais (Cook, 1936: 86), Dunquerque (; Oise: Saint-Evroult-Notre-Dame-du-Bois (EM), Monceaux (, Senlis (Cook, 1936: 86); Orne: Ft d'Ecouve(, Domfront (Cook, 1936: 86); Paris: Bois de Boulogne, Bois de Vincennes; Pas-de-Calais: Calais (Cook, 1936: 86), Arques (; Pyrénées-Atlantiques: Eaux-Bonnes, Ossau (Cook, 1936: 86), Foret de Sare, Dancharria, Espelette (Jeanne, 1984: 66); Pyrénées Orientales: La Massane; Seine-Saint-Denis: Bondy; Seine-Maritime: Parc de Petit-Quevilly, Ft. de Roumare; Somme: Bois de Boves, Bois de Caux, Ft de Crécy, Bois du Gard, Bois de Querrieux (Cook, 1936: 86); Tarn: Fôret de la Grésigne (SB); Val d’Oise: Pierrelaye; Vaucluse; Avignon, Viaduc de la Durance (Cook, 1936: 86); Yvelines: Ft. de Marly, forêt de Saint-Germain-en-Laye (Cook, 1936: 86), Clairefontaine-en-Yvelines (; Yvonne: Sens, San Sauveur (Cook, 1936: 87)
Georgia: Iberie (type of cupreum MNHN), Lagodeki (Cook, 1936: 88); Adjara, Gonio beach (, Tiblisi (
Germany: Baden-Württemberg: Heidelberg, Karlsruhe (, Offenburg, Schutterwald (; Berlin: Spandau (; Brandenburg: Königs-Wusterhausen, Bucher Forst (; Hesse: Johannisberg (, Kronberg im Taunus (; Niedersachsen: Hildesheim (Cook, 1936: 87), Braunschweig (; North Rhine-Westphalia: Ahlen (Cook, 1936: 87), Mönchengladbach (; Sachsen: Bielgut, Görlitz, Niesky (Cook, 1936: 87); Sachsen-Anhalt: Salle, Schwoitsch, Harz mountain range, Kyffhäuser mountains (Cook, 1936: 87), Mittlere Elbe (; Thüringen (Hartmann, 2007: 157)
Greece. Ioannina: Vrosina (SB); Pindos mts (VV); Macedonia: Kallithea, Melissochori, Chortiatis (, Mount Olympus (TL); Peloponneso: Tripoli (TL); Aetolia, Mount Parnassus (Apfelbeck, 1904 : 16); Crete (Breuning, 1927: 169); Sporades archipelago (Apfelbeck, 1904 : 15); Lesbos island: Agiasos, Mithimna, Mitilene (; Samos island: Marathokampos (
Hungary: Pozsony (sub var. moestum, Csiki, 1944: 103); Veszprém: Pápa (Cook, 1936: 87); Pest: Dunakeszi, Királyrét, Piliscsaba (; Békés: Szeghalmi (; Fejér: Bodajk (; Budapest (; Baranya: Pécs, Hosszúhetény (; Zala: Zalaapáti (
Iran. Golestan: Gorgan (SB); Guilan: Gysoum (sub. cupreum Salari Gougheri & al.2014: 451), Neor lake 2600m (SB); Khorasan: Kashmar (sub inquisitor cupreum Ghahari & al., 2009: 439); Lorestan: Khorramabad (SB); Isfahan: Isfahan (1551m), Najaf-Abad (1588m) (sub inquisitor cupreum Ghahari & al., 2010: 182) ; Mazandaran: Khirood Forest (sub inquisitor cupreum Azadbakhsh et al. 2015c: 20).
Ireland: Wicklow, Powerscourt estate (Brown & Adams, 1987:180)
Italy. Abruzzo: Prati di Tivo (CKmap), Cerchio (Leoni, 1909: 133), Civitella Alfedena, Monti della Difesa, Val Fondillo (Luigioni, 1933: 5), Rocca di Mezzo (AVT), Atessa, Monte Pallano (; Basilicata: foresta di Gallipoli Cognato (SB); Calabria: Mt Pollino, Mt Botte Donato (Magistretti, 1965: 58), Lungro 1250m (AVT); Emilia-Romagna: Val Boreca (, Boschi di Carrega, Poggio alla Lastra (Fabbri, 1996), Riccione (Magistretti, 1965:58) Friuli: Monte Santo, Aidussina, Lipizza, Percedol, Roditti, (Müller, 1926: 45), Opicina (SB), Clauzetto, Musi, Padriciano, Prepotto, Sgonico, Trebiciano (CKmap); Lazio: Tenuta Capocotta (SB), Manziana (SB), Tolfa (SB), Torrinpietra (EM), Monterotondo (EM), Bagnoregio (SB), Formia (EM), Bracciano (, Nettuno (EM) Monte Scalambra, Roma, Marino (Magistretti, 1965: 58), Forca d'Acero (Luigioni, 1933: 5), Fiumata, Filettino, Sutri (Bruno, 1974), P.N. Circeo, Cottanello, Monte Faggeto Roccagiovine, Monte Pizzuto, Pian di Vignale, Monte Tancia, Tivoli, Torre Astura ( AVT); Liguria Pietra Ligure (AVT), Dintorni di Ceriale (; Molise: Sella del Perrone (Magistretti, 1965: 58); Piemonte: Torino, Luserna San Giovanni (Magistretti, 1965: 58), P.R."La Mandria" (AC); Puglia: Cagnano Varano, Bosco Ginestra (Magistretti, 1965: 58), Foresta Umbra, Promontorio del Gargano (AVT); Sardegna. Nuoro: Monte Spada (AC), Desulo, Fonni (Bazzato & al., 2016: 194), Pratobello, Orgosolo (; Sicilia: Castelbuono, Itala (Vitale, 1912: 201), Ficuzza (Ragusa, 1883: 197); Sud Tirolo: Bolzano (Magistretti, 1965: 58), Virgolo, Naturno (Peez, Kahlen, 1977); Trentino: Rovereto, Trento (Magistretti, 1965: 58); Toscana: Vallombrosa (Cecconi, 1897), Sintigliano (Magistretti, 1965: 58); Umbria: Monte Cucco (Magistretti, 1968), cascate delle Marmore (; Veneto: Colli Berici, Monte Summano (Battiston & Biondi, 2015: 8), Feltre (
Latvia: Krāslava Distr.: Krāslava; Ventspils Distr.: Moricsala Island (Barševskis & al., 208: 229)
Liban: Beirut (Kraatz, 1877: 48)
Liechtenstein (
Lithuania. Krāslava: Krāslava; Ventspils: Moricsala Island (Barševskis & al., 208: 229); Šiauliai: Pašilė forest (Noreika, 2009: 69), Kauno: Kauno, Kaišiadorių; Alytaus: Prienų (
Luxenbourg: Wasserbillig, Clervaux, Wilwerwiltz (, Capellen (Mamer), Bissen, Wiltz, Bourscheid, Dudelange (
Macedonia. Jablanica Mt. between Drenok and Modrich vill. (Hristovski & al., 2010: 55)
Moldova (Neculiseanu & Matalin, 2000: 40; Bacal & al., 2013: 416)
Morocco. Bab Barred (SB), Ifrane (SB), Aïn Leuh (; Oujda (Antoine, 1955 : 23)
Netherlands. Drenthe: Zuidlaren, Langelo, Spier, Veenhuizen, Holsloot, Hoogeveen (; Friesland: Appelscha, Oldeberkoop (; Gelderland: Apeldoorn (Cook, 1936: 87), Lochem, Arnhem, Dieren, Elspeet, Speulderbosch, Otterlo, Kotten (; Groningen: Glimmen (; Limburg: Valkenburg (Cook, 1936: 87), Vijlen, Vaals (; North Brabant: Tilburg (, Biezenmortel, Udenhout, De Moer, Oisterwijk (; Overijssel: Delden (, Dalfsen, Zwolle, Arrien, Dedemsvaart, Deventer (; Utrecht: Rhenen, Soest, Veenendaal (; Zuid-Netherlands: Leiden, Hillegom (
Norway: Halden (Fridrikshald) (Cook, 1936: 87); Sogn og Fjordane: Tjugum (Solevåg, 2006: 11), Balestrand (; More og Romsdal co.; Akershus co.; Aust Agder co. (Solevåg, 2006: 11); Vest-Agder: Lindesnes, Østfold: Halden (
Poland. Greater Poland: Miedzychód (Cook, 1936: 87 as Birnbaumel); Lesser Poland: Wieliczka (Las Krzyszkowicki), Niepolomice (; Łódź: Inowłódz (; Lower Silesia: Kąty Wrocławskie (Cook, 1936: 87 as Kanth), Legnica (Cook, 1936: 87 as Liegnitz), Swidnica (Cook, 1936: 87 as Schweidnitz), Las Pilczycki (; Lublin: Puławy (; Lubusz: Strzelce Krajenskie (Cook, 1936: 87 as Friedeberg), Słubice, Zielona Góra (; Masovia: Sulejów (, Jeziory (SB); Opole: Głubczyce (Cook, 1936: 87 as Leobschütz); Podlachia: Mońki, Białowieża (; Pomeranian: Gdańsk (; Silesia: Raciborz (Cook, 1936: 87 as Ratibor), Wrocław (Cook, 1936: 87 as Breslau), Orzesze (; Konopiska (; Świętokrzyskie: Ostrowiec, Pińczów (
Portugal: Serra de Estrella (Oliveira, 1876: 21), Guarda (TL)
Romania: Bârlad, Vlasca (Lapouge, 1930: 88); Dobrogea: Băneasa - Canaraua Fetei (; Ilfov, Túrterebes (; Tulcea: Slava Rusă (
Russia: Bashkortostan: Bashkirya National Park (; Cabardino-Balcaria: Terek (Cook, 1936: 88); Daghestan (coll. Y. Talibov); Kaliningrad region: Svetlogorsk, Kaliningrad, Curonian Spit, Yantarny, Primorsk, Mamonovo, Chernyakhovsk, Ryabnovka (Alekseev, 2008: 157); Krasnodar reg: Gorjačij Ključ (SB), Tuapse (Cook, 1936: 88), Kuban river (Breuning, 1927: 169); Kursk reg: Oktyabr'skiy (; Ivanovo: Savinskiy (; Pskov (Breuning, 1927: 169): Rostov reg: Verkhne-Donskoi distr. (SB); Saratov region: Saratov, Voskresenskogo, Chvalynsk (Hvalynski) (Sazhnev, 2007: 350); Stavropol (Breuning, 1927: 169): Pjatigorsk (Cook, 1936: 88); Tatarstan: Kasan, (Cook, 1936: 88), Nizhnekamskiy (; Volgograd reg: Serafimovich (; Voronezh Oblast: Voronezh (
Serbia: Majdan, Negotin, Kladovo (Tekija) (Apfelbeck, 1904 : 15); Putinci (, Beli Potok (, Niška Banja (; Borski: Dubova (; Zaječarski: Sokobanja (
Slovakia: Levice (=Léva) (sub var. moestum, Csiki, 1944: 103), Bratislava, Svätý Jur, Šahy, Rozhanovce (; Košický:Trebišov (
Slovenia: Clanez, mt. Slavnik (Taiano) mt. Snežnik (Nevoso) (Müller, 1926: 45); Prekmurje region (
Spain. Alicante, Escorial, Cordillera de Gredos, Herreria, Madrigal, Piedralobes (Cook, 1936: 88); Salamanca: Casillas de Flores, Robleda (Zaballos, 1986: 75); Pontevedra: Crecente (; Madrid (
Sweden. Fredriksdal, Stockholm Co., Dalarna Co., Halland Co., Skåne Co., Kronoberg Co., Jönköping Co., Öland Co., Västra Götaland Co., Värmland Co., Dalarna Co., Uppsala Co., Örebro Co., Västmanland Co., Södermanland Co., Östergötland Co. (Solevåg, 2006); Kalmar Co.: Borgholm, Allgunnens naturreservat, Torsås, Ottenbylund (; Blekinge Co: Ronneby (
Switzerland. Thurgau, Schaffhausen, Zürich, Basel, Lausanne, Bünden (Heer, 1838: 32); Geneva: Presinge (
Syria. Anti-Lebanon Mountains (Breuning, 1927: 169), Mount Hermon (Jabal al-Shaykh) (Cook, 1936: 88)
Tunisia. Gardimaou (VV); Aïn Draham, El Fedja (Bedel, 1895: 19)
Turkey. Adana: Ali-Hotscha (near Pozanti) (Breuning, 1927: 169); Amasia (Breuning, 1927: 169); Antalya: Elmali 900 m (SB); Artvin, Hatila National Park (Gokturk & Celik, 2017: 985); Çankiri 1200 m (SB); Edirne: Uzunköprü (Tezcan & al., 2018: 549); Hatay: Amanus (Nur) mountains (Breuning, 1927: 169); İzmir: Buca, Urla, Çeşmealtı (Tezcan & al., 2018: 549); Nidge: Bulgar Maden (Breuning, 1927: 169); Tunceli: Tunceli 1300 m (EM, SB, TL), Pulumur 1200/1700 m (SB)
Turkmenistan. Kopetdagh (Kryzhanovsky & Atamuradov, 1994: 416)
Ucraina. Charkiv: Derhachivs'kyi (, Dibrova, Dvorichans'kyi (; Cherkasy: Man'kivs'kyi (; Ivano-Frankivsk (Stanislau) (Lomnicki, 1893: 337); Khmelnytskyi: Lomachyntsi (; Kiev: Brovars'kyi, Fastiv (; Lviv: Leopoli (Lemberg), Sambir (Sambor) (Lomnicki, 1893: 337), Vinnytsia forest (, Brodivs'kyi (; Crimea: Sinferopol (SB), Sudak (, Shchebetovka, Alushtyns'ka (; Poltava: Poltavs'kyi, Zin'kivs'kyi (; Ternopil (Tarnopol), Syn'kiv (Sińków) (Lomnicki, 1893: 337); Volyn: Pryvitne (; Zakarpattia: Polonina Runa (SB), Uzhhorod (, Mukachevo (; Donets'k (
United Kingdom. Berkshire: Bagley Wood, Burghfield, Windsor Forest; Cambridgeshire: Gamlingay, White Wood, Tetworth; Carmarthen; Cumberland: Borrowdale, Grange; Cumbria: Coniston (Cook, 1936: 85); Devon: Dendless Wood (, Ivybridge, Tavistock; Essex: Chingford, Epping Forest, Hainault Forest; Gloucestershire: Forest of Dean; Hampshire: Alton, Baddesley, Bishopstoke Woods, Chandlers Ford, New Forest, Beaulieu Road, Linwood and Redshoot Woods, Bratley, Brockenhurst, Lyndhurst, Matley, Longdown, Rhamnor, Queen’s Bower, Ringwood, Wotton Healt, Wilverley; Gwynedd: Barmouth; Kent: Hythe, Darenth Wood; Leicestershire: Leicester, Budden Wood, Seal Wood; London: Coombe Wood, Dulwich, Bishop’s Wood, Hampestyead, Norwood; Norfolk: Saint Faith Wood; Shropshire: Smethcote; Staffordshire: Burton-on-Trent (Harris, 1865: 64), Market Drayton (Cook, 1936: 85); Suffolk: Battisford, Bentley Wood (Cook, 1936: 85); Scottish West Highlands: Appin (

Notes: Diurnal, winged. It is an inhabitant of decidous forests notably of oak. Adults are climbers and larvae are ground dwellers. It has been sometime observed, when it is hunting on trees of genus Quercus, to be very abundant during invasions of species of Geometridae and Tortricidae caterpillars. Often it coexist in the same woods with C. sycophanta but food preferences explain its earliest appearing . In some other case, in Iran, it was collected in tilled fields (Ghahari et al., 2010: 182). Active individuals are found mostly in the spring and in the early summer from March to July. It is not rare to find specimens overwintering in small cavities in the ground.
The first full description of the larva is due to Schiödte (1867: 482)

Calosoma (Calosoma) inquisitor inquisitor
(Linné, 1758)
Turkey, Erzican, Tunceli 1100m. V.91, Lassalle
Calosoma (Calosoma) inquisitor inquisitor
(Linné, 1758)
Italia; dint.Roma, Tenuta Capocotta, V.71, Bruschi lgt.
Calosoma (Calosoma) inquisitor inquisitor
(Linné, 1758)
Russie méridionale: Ibérie
(holotype of Calosoma inquisitor var. cupreum Dejean, 1826
(coll. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma (Calosoma) inquisitor inquisitor
(Linné, 1758)
Azerbaijan, Gortshu, 14.VII.73, Dolin dt.

Calosoma (Calosoma) inquisitor cyanescens (Motschulsky, 1859)

Callisoma cyanescens Motschulsky, 1859: 489 (distribution inferred from the title of the work: environs du fl. Amour ); syntype in Zoological Museum of Moscow University (Keleinikova, 1976)
Calosoma denserugatum Géhin, 1885: 58, note 57 (described from Sib. or.); holotype ♀ (ex fl. Amour) designated by Deuve (1978: 252) by monotypy in Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris [examined]
Calosoma inquisitor ssp. cyanescens, Breuning, 1927: 172
Calosoma cyanescens, Lapouge, 1930: 91
Calosoma (Calosoma) inquisitor ssp. cyanescens, Jeannel, 1940: 87
Calosoma (Acalosoma) cyanescens, Lafer, 1989: 106
Calosoma (Calosoma) inquisitor shaanxiense, Deuve & Mourzine, in Deuve, 2000: 88 (described from: Qinling Shan, Haozhenzi) synonymy established by Imura & Okamoto, 2003: 256

Length 16-28 mm. The character of the male's fore tarsi with only three dilated segments having hairy bearings is constant in the populations of northeast China, Ussuri, Japan, so that it may be worthwhile to keep these populations someway formally distinct.
In fact these populations are undoubtedly geographically isolated, as has observed also Jeannel (1940: 87), and on this basis, somebody proposed the elevation of the status of cyanescens to distinct species (Lafer, 1989. 106), and this proposal has been accepted in some of the most recent catalogues (Lorenz, 2005).
On the other end the results of the analysis of mitochondrial DNA would suggest a separation quite remote (Osawa et Al., 2003), and being the two population markedly close in morphology, and yet separated from one another from at least 20 millions of years, the case is cited as a good example supporting the hypothesis of ‘‘the silent morphological evolution” (Su et Al., 2005: 148).
In light of the probable antiquity of the presence of the species in the Far East, it is also interesting to remember the discovery of fossil remains of C. inquisitor in an Early Pleistocenic deposit (2.6 - 0.8 million years) (Hayashi. 1996), and in a Late Pliocene one (2.6 million years ago) (Yahiro & al., 2018), both in Japan.
C, inquisitor cyanescens, that finally we consider as one subspecies, is present in Far East Asia: northeastern China, Siberia (Maritime Territory, including Sakhalin and Kuril Islands), entire Korean peninsula, northern Japan (Honshu and Hokkaido).

Examined specimens and literature’s data
China. Gansu: Cheu-tsoei-ze (Deuve, 1997: 53); Hebei (; Heilongjiang: Yimianpo (Deuve, 1997: 53); Henan: Funiu Shan, Neixiang Xian, Baotianman (Deuve, 2013: 70); Jiangxi: Lueyang (SB); Jilin: Liuhe (SB), Changhai Shan (SB), Panshi (SB), Tongrim, Yanji Xian, Sandao, Dunhua, Erlong Shan, Baicheng, Naoniu Shan (Deuve, 2013: 70), Jilin city, Tumen (; Liaoning (Deuve, 1997: 53); Shaanxi: Haozhenzi, Wulongdong, Liping 1850m (sub shaanxiense, Deuve, 2013: 70), Taibai Shan 2200m (SB); Sichuan: Nanjiang Shan, Yingshuiba 1750m (sub shaanxiense, Deuve, 2013: 70)
Japan. Hokkaido: Kitami Pass (SB), Chitose (SB), Asahikawa (SB, TL), Kamishibetsu, Tomakomai, Kamuikotan, Maruyama, Akabira, Mt. Shokanbetsu Minami-Chishima Isls (; Honshu: Kanagawa pref.:Yokohama (NMP), Aomori pref.: Sukayu (Mandl, 1981: 21), Fukushima pref.: Minamiaizu-machi; Yamagata pref.: Koazuma Pass (
Democratic People's Republic of Korea (
Republic of Korea. Chungchehong: Mt. Youngin (SB), Cheonan, Cheongju, Asan, Gauido-ri (; Daegu: Dalseong co., Gachang (; Daejeon: Dong-gu; Gangwon: Yanggu-gun, Yeongwol-gun (, Hoengseong-gun, Inje (, Gapcheon-myeon (Ebay); Gyeonggi: Dongducheon-si, Gapyeong-gun (, Uijeongbu-si, Yangju-si, Pocheon, Gimpo (; Gyeongsangbuk: Andong-si, Bonghwa-gun (; Hwanghae-namdo: Baengnyeong island (; Jeju do: Dongbok-ri (; Jeollabuk: Jeongeup-si (
Russia. Siberie or. (type of denserugatum; MNHN); Maritime Prov: Vladivostok (Breuning, 1927: 170), Lazovsky (SB); Khasan distr. (; Seaside and south of Khabarovsk Krai, Yevreyskaya (Sundukov, 2013: 85); Primorsky Territory: Shkotovsky District (, Sutschau (Breuning, 1927: 170); Sakhalin Island: Tchekov mt (SB); Kuril Islands: Iturup and Kunashir islands (Sundukov, 2013: 85)

Notes: On the basis of the material examined, the individuals mostly are active from May to July

Calosoma (Calosoma) inquisitor cyanescens
(Motschulsky, 1859)
China, Jilin prov., Liuhe, VI.2006, C. Yuantai
Calosoma (Calosoma) inquisitor cyanescens
(Motschulsky, 1859)
China, Jangxi prov., Lueyang, 25-30.V.2009, Kučera lg.
Calosoma (Calosoma) inquisitor cyanescens
(Motschulsky, 1859)
China, Shaanxi prov., Tsinling Mts. Taibaishan Mt. 2200m,
33°55'N 107°44'E, June 2004, Siniaev team lg.
Calosoma (Calosoma) inquisitor cyanescens
(Motschulsky, 1859)
Sibérie orientale (Typus of Calosoma denserugatum)
(coll. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)

updated December 20 2023