Calosoma (Calosoma) inquisitor (Linné, 1758)

In this species, like in C. frigidum, that is its vicarious in the Neoartic region, the lateral margin of the pronotum is missing in the whole fourth posterior part. MoreoverC. inquisitor differs from C. frigidum because of the shape of pronotum that is transverse, with the rear more wide than the front, and with sides slightly sinuate behind. Another difference is that, while while the color of the upper body is variable, the color of the foveae on the primary intervals is in any case the same as the rest of elytra. Finally the apex of aedeagus is relatively shorter than in C. frigidum. For C. inquisitor and for its far eastern populations considered as a separate species (cyanescens) has been created the subgenus Acalosoma (Lafer 1989: 106).
Calosoma inquisitor as the other species of the subgenus Calosoma is almost exclusively predators of Lepidoptera caterpillars. It's therefore strange how was introduced in scientific texts and popular books the prolonged belief that Calosoma inquisitor was a predator of other Carabidae of the genus Brachinus. The first quotation can be traced back to Daniel Rolander (1750) who first described the behavior of a particular Cicindela (=Brachinus) and represented it chased by a Carabus (=Calosoma inquisitor) (“der Carabus, ihr Versolger”). Later Kirby & Spence (An Introduction to Entomology, Vol.II, 1828: 245) endorsed the belief: "Brachinus crepitans ... when pursued by its great enemy Calosoma inquisitor ..." The image, slightly modified, and the consequent commentary continued to appear in many popular books throughout the nineteenth century and again in the twentieth century, as in an illustration, most probably a photomontage, where a Calosoma pursues a Brachinus (Natura Viva - Enciclopedia Sistematica del Regno Animale, Vallardi, Milano, 1961: 168) and in this last example: "... Brachinus beetle when it lets off a sharp explosion and a puff of blue smoke into the face of its arch - enemy and fellow beetle Calosoma inquisitor ... " (Warham John, The Technique of wildlife cinematography, 1966: 103). Must wait nearly two centuries until a scientific publication on the matter (Eisner, 1958) makes it clear that this generalization is based on a single observation never confirmed by experience.

fig. 2 Cicindela (= Brachinus ) chased by a Carabus (= Calosoma inquisitor) (fig. 3 “der Carabus, ihr Versolger”). Rolander D. (1754), "Die Schussfliege", Der Königlich Schwedischen Akademie der Wissenschaften neue Abhandlungen aus der Naturlehre, Haushaltungskunst und Mechanik aus das Jahr 1750, 12: 298-302.
“Where does come the deep hatred that the calosoma feels against it (the bombardier beetle)? I do not know how to explain it, or to what attribute it. But as soon as a calosoma sees a bombardier beetle, runs after the little beetle and tries to tear it to pieces with its formidable mandibles” (G.de Montgaillaid Les Insectes Savants, Albin Michel, Paris, 2nd half of XIX century, p. 3).
“The calosoma has almost reached the victim which to stop the chase directs against it a steam of pungent odor”. Figuier L., Les Insectes, Hachette, Paris, 1883 p. 547
A century later, the calosoma still pursues the bombardier beetle without getting discouraged Natura Viva - Enciclopedia Sistematica del Regno Animale Vallardi, Milano, 1961: 168

Calosoma (Calosoma) inquisitor inquisitor (Linné, 1758)

Carabus inquisitor Linné, 1758: 414 (type Europa, Museum of Evolution Zoology Uppsala University)
Buprestis antiquus Fourcroy, 1785: 42 (described from around Paris)
Calosoma inquisitor, Weber, 1801: 20
Calosoma inquisitor var. cupreum Dejean, 1826: 196 (type: Russie méridionale: Ibérie; Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma inquisitor clathratum Kolenati, 1845: 33 (described from: Transcaucasie)
Calosoma inquisitor punctiventre Reiche 6 Saulcy, 1855: 567 (described from: Morea)
Calosoma inquisitor var.viridimarginatus Letzner, 1859: 96 (type: Breslau; Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Eberswalde-Finow)
Calosoma inquisitor var.obscurum Letzner, 1859: 96 (idem)
Calosoma inquisitor var.coeruleum Letzner, 1859: 96 (idem)
Calosoma inquisitor var. coeruleomarginatus Letzner, 1859: 96 (idem)
Calosoma inquisitor var. varians Letzner, 1859: 96 (idem)
Calosoma inquisitor var. nigrum Letzner, 1859: 96 (idem)
Calosoma inquisitor batnense Lallemant, 1868: 35 (described from: Algeria)
Calosoma inquisitor viridulum Kraatz, 1877: 48 (described from: Beirut)
Calosoma inquisitor obscura Dalla Torre, 1877: 18
Calosoma inquisitor nudum Dalla Torre, 1877: 18
Calosoma inquisitor pulchrum Dalla Torre, 1877: 18
Calosoma inquisitor violaceum Westhoff, 1881
Calosoma inquisitor coerulea Ragusa, 1883: 197 (described from: Sicilia, Ficuzza)
Calosoma inquisitor viridescens Reitter, 1896: 46 (described from: Circassia)
Calosoma inquisitor funerea Ragusa, Ragusa, 1905: 288 (described from: Sicilia, Ficuzza)
Calosoma inquisitor cupreofulgens Chapmann, 1922: 17 (described from: Amanus Mountains)
Calosoma (Calosoma) inquisitor var. punctiventre, Breuning, 1927: 166
Calosoma (Calosoma) inquisitor ssp. viridulum, Breuning, 1927: 171
Calosoma (Calosoma) inquisitor ssp. cupreum, Breuning, 1927: 171
Calosoma inquisitor comanense Lapouge, 1930: 88 (described from: Comana Vlasca)
Calosoma (Calosoma) inquisitor ssp. inquisitor, Jeannel, 1940: 86
Calosoma (Calosoma) inquisitor ssp. cupreum, Jeannel, 1940: 86
Calosoma (Calosoma) inquisitor ab. moestum Csiki, 1944: 46
Calosoma (Acalosoma) inquisitor, Lafer, 1989: 106

Length 15-25 mm. The considerable variability in color has led to the description of many forms of individuals and of populations. In eastern Turkey you meet specimens with a two-tone color (similar to Calosoma sycophanta) which was described from the Amanus mountains, as Calosoma inquisitor cupreofulgens Chapman. But this coloration like the coloration of all other forms who have received a name does not appear in such constancy to allow the recognition of a subspecies. The same considerations apply to the populations of the Caucasus, Iran and Azerbejan that Jeannel (1940) has distinguished from those typical European and Mediterranean, as inquisitor cupreum, giving them the character of the male's fore tarsi with only three dilated segments having hairy bearings, caracteristic that conversely is only present in the far eastern populations (inquisitor cyanescens).
It spreads from North Africa to Iran, trough whole Europe (including the Mediterranean islands) and Asia Minor.
Recently Häckel (2012: 60) has reported the presence of C. inquisitor inquisitor in eastern Afghanistan (Nuristan: Parun), thereby shifting the eastern limit of the distribution of populations considered to be typical, and re-discussing the relations between these populations and the ones of C. inquisitor cyanescens.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Albania North Albanian Alps, Bogë, 1800-1900 (Gueorguiev, 2007: 3); Mal i Dajtit Mt. (AVT)
Algeria: Batna, Letorneux, Berrouaghia, Aurès Mountains, Theniet El Had, Forêt de Tizi Franco (Cook, 1936: 84)
Armenia. Erivan (Cook, 1936: 88); Syunik, Lichk (SB); Kadgeran 2300 m (EM); Zangezur range, Meghri suburbs 1400m. ( sub. cupreum http://carabidae.org/)
Austria. Linz, St. Leonhard (im Pitztal) (Cook, 1936: 84)
Azerbaijan. Talysch (Cook, 1936: 88); Gortshu (SB); Lenkoran, 40 km Bobogil (VV)
Belgium. Groenendael, foret de Murdael, Waterloo (Cook, 1936: 84)
Bulgaria. Struma valley (EM); Chuypetel (EM); Karlac, Kamcik, Sliven, Svistov, Varna (Cook, 1936: 85); Byalada voda, Golo bardo, Pirdop, Galabets, Mramor (Guéorghiev & Guéorghiev, 1995: 40)
Croatia: Rjeka (Cook, 1936: 87)
Czech Republic: Hrádek u Pardubik (VV); Benešov (Beneschau) (Cook, 1936: 87); Litovelské Pomoraví (Nakládal, 2008), Klobouky u Brna, Tišnov, Skalice, Frýdek-Místek, Poříčany, Dolní Ředice, Milovice, Dobrovice, Kladruby nad Labem, Malé Žernoseky, Černovice, Žleby (www.biolib.cz)
Finland: Southwest Finland: Ruissalo, Turku; Uusimaa: Tvärminne (Lindroth & Bangsholt, 1985: 48),, Kymenlaakso reg. (Solevåg, 2006)
France. Allier: Bois de Brosse, Moulins; Alpes-de-Haute-Provence: Les Dourbes; Aube: Bois de Chennegy, Pont sur Seine (Cook, 1936: 86); Bas-Rhin: Haguenau (www.insecte.org); Bretagne Fôret de Coat Loch (SB); Calvados: Falaise, Bois Férant, Bois de Latour, Bois de Longpré, Moulines, Villers sur Mer; Cantal: Le Lioran (Cook, 1936: 86); Charente: Etagnac;  Cher: Saint-Éloy-de-Gy (www.insecte.org); Côte-d'Or: Rouvray; Eure-et-Loir: Ft d’Evreux (Cook, 1936: 86), Ft de Senonche (www.ebay); Gers: Auch, Puycasquier; Haute-Marne: Bois de Champigny lès Langres (Cook, 1936: 86), Chateauvillain (www.insecte.org); Hautes-Pyrénées: Bois de Bordères, Lannemezan, Maubourguet, Tarbes; Haute Savoie: Rumilly; Haute Vienne: Limoges, Bois de La Bastide, Puy Moulinier (Cook, 1936: 86); Hauts-de-Seine: Fôret de Meudon (EM, SB), Bois de Clemart, Puteaux (Cook, 1936: 86); Haut-Rhin: Ottmarsheim, Cernay (www.insecte.org); Ille et Vilaine: Ft. De Rennes, Bois de Cicé, Bois de Laillé, Le Four Rouge (Cook, 1936: 86); Indre: Chassignolles (www.insecte.org); Loire: St Etienne, Bois de Solaure; Loire-Atlantique: Astillé, Mayenne; Maine-et-Loire: Champigny, Ft. de Frontevault, Ft d’Ombrée, Gennes, St Barthelemy, Saumur, Thorigné, Trélazé; Manche: St. Hilaire-du-Harcourt; Marne: Rilly, Germaine;  Morbihan: Berons, Plandren, Ste. Anne D’Auray, Vannes (Cook, 1936: 86); Moselle: Hombourg-Budange; Nord: Marchienne (www.insecte.org), Ft. de Raismes, Dunes de Calais (Cook, 1936: 86); Oise: Saint-Evroult-Notre-Dame-du-Bois (EM), Monceaux (www.insecte.org), Senlis (Cook, 1936: 86); Orne: Ft d'Ecouve(www.insecte.org), Domfront (Cook, 1936: 86); Paris: Bois de Boulogne, Bois de Vincennes; Pas-de-Calais: Calais; Pyrénées-Atlantiques: Eaux-Bonnes, Ossau; Pyrénées Orientales: La Massane; Seine-Saint-Denis: Bondy; Seine-Maritime: Parc de Petit-Quevilly, Ft. de Roumare; Somme: Bois de Boves, Bois de Caux, Ft de Crécy, Bois du Gard, Bois de Querrieux (Cook, 1936: 86); Tarn: Fôret de la Grésigne (SB); Val d’Oise: Pierrelaye; Vaucluse; Avignon, Viaduc de la Durance (Cook, 1936: 86); Yvelines: Ft. de Marly, forêt de Saint-Germain-en-Laye (Cook, 1936: 86), Clairefontaine-en-Yvelines (www.insecte.org); Yvonne: Sens, San Sauveur (Cook, 1936: 87)
Georgia: Iberie (type of cupreum MNHN), Lagodeki (Cook, 1936: 88)); Adjara, Gonio, beach (http://molbiol.ru/)
Germany: Baden-Württemberg: Heidelberg, Karlsruhe; Berlin; Hesse: Johannisberg; Niedersachsen: Hildesheim; Nordrhein-Westfalen: Ahlen; Sachsen: Bielgut, Görlitz, Niesky; Sachsen-Anhalt: Salle, Schwoitsch, Harz mountain range, Kyffhäuser mountains (Cook, 1936: 87); Thüringen (Hartmann, 2007: 157)
Greece. Ioannina: Vrosina (SB); Pindos mts (VV); Aetolia, Mount Parnassus (Cook, 1936: 87); Crete, Sporades archipelago (Breuning, 1927: 169)
Hungary: Pozsony (sub var. moestum, Csiki, 1944: 103); Veszprém: Pápa (Cook, 1936: 87)
Iran. Golestan: Gorgan (SB); Lorestan: Khorramabad (SB); Guilan province: Gysoum (sub. cupreum Salari Gougheri & al.2014: 451); Khorasan prov: Kashmar (sub inquisitor cupreum Ghahari & al., 2009: 439); Isfahan province: Isfahan (1551 m), Najaf-Abad (1588 m) (sub inquisitor cupreum Ghahari & al., 2010: 182)
Ireland: Wicklow, Powerscourt estate (http://www.habitas.org.uk/)
Italy. Calabria: Mt Pollino, Mt Botte Donato (Magistretti, 1965: 58); Emilia-Romagna: Val Boreca (www.entomologiitaliani.net), Riccione; Friuli: Aidussina, Percedol, Roditti (Magistretti, 1965: 58), Opicina (SB); Lazio: Tenuta Capocotta (SB), Manziana (SB), Tolfa (SB), Torrinpietra (EM), Monterotondo (EM), Bagnoregio (SB), Formia (EM), Bracciano (www.entomologiitaliani.net), Nettuno (EM) Monte Scalambra, Roma, Marino (Magistretti, 1965: 58); Liguria Dintorni di Ceriale (www.entomologiitaliani.net); Piemonte: Torino, Luserna San Giovanni; Puglia: Cagnano Varano, Bosco Ginestra (Magistretti, 1965: 58); Sardegna: Nuoro, Desulo, Fonni (Bazzato & al., 2016: 194); Sicilia: Castelbuono, Ficuzza; Sud Tirolo: Bolzano; Trentino: Rovereto, Trento; Toscana: Sintigliano (Magistretti, 1965: 58); Umbria: cascate delle Marmore (www.entomologiitaliani.net); Veneto: Feltre (www.entomologiitaliani.net)
Latvia: Krāslava Distr.: Krāslava; Ventspils Distr.: Moricsala Island (Barševskis & al., 208: 229)
Liban: Beirut (Cook, 1936: 88)
Morocco. Bab Barred (SB), Ifrane (SB)
Netherlands: Apeldoorn, Valkenburg (Cook, 1936: 87)
Norway: Halden (Fridrikshald) (Cook, 1936: 87); Sogn og Fjordane co: Tjugum; More og Romsdal co.; Østfold co.; Akershus co.; Aust Agder co.; Vest Agder co. (Solevåg, 2006: 11)
Polony. Jeziory (SB), Miedzychód (Birnbaumel), Wrocław (Breslau), Strzelce Krajenskie (Friedeberg), Kąty Wrocławskie (Kanth), Legnica (Liegnitz), Głubczyce (Leobschütz), Raciborz (Ratibor), Swidnica (Schweidnitz) (Cook, 1936: 87)
Romania: Bârlad, Vlasca (Cook, 1936: 87)
Russia: Kaliningrad region: Svetlogorsk, Kaliningrad, Curonian Spit, Yantar;ny, Primorsk, Mamonovo, Chernyakhovsk, Ryabnovka (Alekseev, 2008: 157), Rostov reg.,Verkhne-Donskoi distr. (SB); Volgograd reg., Serafimovich (http://www.zin.ru/); Krasnodar reg: Gorjačij Ključ (http://www.zin.ru/); Saratov region: Saratov distr., Voskresenskogo distr., Hvalynski (Sazhnev, 2007: 350); Stavropol, Majkop, Pjatigorsk, Tuapse, Kuban, Terek, Kasan, Moscow, Pskov, Voronezh (Cook, 1936: 88)
Serbia: Majdan, Negotin, Kladovo (Tekija) (Cook, 1936: 87)
Slovakia: Levice (=Léva) (sub var. moestum, Csiki, 1944: 103)
Spain. Alicante, Escorial, Cordillera de Gredos, Herreria, Madrigal, Piedralobes (Cook, 1936: 88)
Sweden: Fredriksdal, Stockholm Co., Dalarna Co., Blekinge Co., Halland Co., Skåne Co., Kronoberg Co., Jönköping Co., Kalmar Co., Öland Co., Västra Götaland Co., Värmland Co., Dalarna Co., Uppsala Co., Örebro Co., Västmanland Co., Södermanland Co., Östergötland Co. (Solevåg, 2006)
Switzerland: Thurgau, Schaffhausen, Zürich, Basel, Geneva, Lausanne, Bünden (Heer, 1838: 32)
Syria: Mount Hermon (Jabal al-Shaykh) (Cook, 1936: 88)
Tunisia. Gardimaou (VV); Aïn Draham, El Fedja (Cook, 1936: 88)
Turkey. Erzican, Tunceli 1300 m (EM, SB), Pulumur 1200 m (SB); Çankiri 1200 m (SB); Antalya: Elmali 900 m (SB); Adana, Amasia, Taurus Mountains: Bulgar Maaden (Cook, 1936: 84)
Turkmenistan: Kopetdagh (Kryzhanovsky & Atamuradov, 1994: 416)
Ucraina. Polonina Runa (SB); Lviv: Vinnytsia forest (http://molbiol.ru/); Crimea: Sebastopol, Dubki (SB), Sudak, Pryvitne (http://www.insecte.org), Kharkov (Cook, 1936: 88)
United Kingdom. Berkshire: Bagley Wood, Burghfield, Windsor Forest; Cambridgeshire: Gamlingay, White Wood, Tetworth; Carmarthen; Cumberland: Borrowdale, Grange; Cumbria: Coniston; Devonshire: Ivybridge, Tavistock; Essex: Chingford, Epping Forest, Hainault Forest; Gloucestershire: Forest of Dean; Hampshire: Alton, Baddesley, Bishopstoke Woods, Chandlers Ford, New Forest, Beaulieu Road, Linwood and Redshoot Woods, Bratley, Brockenhurst, Lyndhurst, Matley, Longdown, Rhamnor, Queen’s Bower, Ringwood, Wotton Healt, Wilverley; Gwynedd: Barmouth; Kent: Hythe, Darenth Wood; Leicestershire: Leicester, Budden Wood, Seal Wood; London: Coombe Wood, Dulwich, Bishop’s Wood, Hampestyead, Norwood; Norfolk: Saint Faith Wood; Shropshire: Smethcote; Staffordshire: Market Drayton, Buirton-on-Trent; Suffolk: Battisford, Bentley Wood (Cook, 1936: 85)

Notes: Diurnal, winged. It is inhabitant of decidous forests notably of oak. Adults are climbers and larvae are ground dwellers. It has been observed in some occasion very abundant when hunting on trees of genus Quercus during invasions of species of Geometridae and Tortricidae caterpillars. Often coexist in the same woods with sycophanta but food preferences explain its earliest appearance. In some other case, in Iran, it was collected in tilled fields (Ghahari et al., 2010: 182). Active individuals are found mostly in the spring and early summer from March to July. It is not rare to find specimens overwintering in small cavities in the ground.
The first full description of the larva is due to Schiödte (1867: 482)

Calosoma (Calosoma) inquisitor inquisitor
(Linné, 1758)
Turkey, Erzican, Tunceli 1100m. V.91, Lassalle
Calosoma (Calosoma) inquisitor inquisitor
(Linné, 1758)
Italia; dint.Roma, Tenuta Capocotta, V.71, Bruschi lgt.
Calosoma (Calosoma) inquisitor inquisitor
(Linné, 1758)
Russie méridionale: Ibérie
(holotype of Calosoma inquisitor var. cupreum Dejean, 1826
(coll. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma (Calosoma) inquisitor inquisitor
(Linné, 1758)
Azerbaijan, Gortshu, 14.VII.73, Dolin dt.



Calosoma (Calosoma) inquisitor cyanescens (Motschulsky, 1859)

Callisoma cyanescens Motschulsky, 1859: 489 (holotype: Dauria, Amur; Zoological Museum of Moscow University)
Calosoma denserugatum Géhin, 1885: 58 (holotype: Sib. or., fl. Amour; Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma inquisitor ssp. cyanescens, Breuning, 1927: 172
Calosoma cyanescens, Lapouge, 1930: 91
Calosoma (Calosoma) inquisitor ssp. cyanescens, Jeannel, 1940: 87
Calosoma (Acalosoma) cyanescens, Lafer, 1989: 106
Calosoma (Calosoma) inquisitor ssp. cyanescens, Deuve, 1997: 53
Calosoma (Calosoma) inquisitor shaanxiense, Deuve & Mourzine, in Deuve, 2000: 88 (described from: Qinling Shan, Haozhenzi)

Length 16-28 mm. The character of the male's fore tarsi with only three dilated segments having hairy bearings is constant in the populations of northeast China, Ussuri, Japan, so that it may be worthwhile to keep it formally distinct at the level of subspecies. In fact these populations are undoubtedly geographically isolated, as has observed also Jeannel (1940: 87), and some results of the analysis of mitochondrial DNA would suggest a separation quite remote (Osawa et Al., 2003). On this basis has been proposed (Lafer, 1989. 106), and in the most recent catalogs is accepted (Lorenz, 2005), the elevation of the status of cyanescens to distinct species.
It occurs in Far East Asia: Siberia, Korea, northern Japan, northern China.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
China. Jilin: Liuhe (SB), Mt. Changhaishan (SB), Panshi (SB); Heilongjiang: Yimianpo (Deuve, 1997: 53); Jangxi: Lueyang (SB); Shaanxi: Taibaishan Mt. 2200 m (SB), Qinling Shan Haozhenzi (= Houzhenzi) (Deuve, 2000: 88); Gansu: Cheu-tsoei-ze (Deuve, 1997: 53)
Japan. Hokkaido: Kitami Pass (SB), Chitose (SB), Asahikawa (SB); Honshu: Yokohama (NMP)
Russia. Siberie or. (type of denserugatum; MNHN); Maritime Prov., Lazovsky (SB); Khasan distr. (http://www.insecte.org); Seaside and south of Khabarovsk Krai, Yevreyskaya (Sundukov, 2013: 85); Sakhalin Island: Tchekov mt (SB); Kuril Islands: Iturup and Kunashir islands (Sundukov, 2013: 85)
South Korea. Chungnam: Mt. Youngin (SB)

Notes: On the basis of the material examined, the individuals mostly are active from May to July

Calosoma (Calosoma) inquisitor cyanescens
(Motschulsky, 1859)
China, Jilin prov., Liuhe, VI.2006, C. Yuantai
Calosoma (Calosoma) inquisitor cyanescens
(Motschulsky, 1859)
China, Jangxi prov., Lueyang, 25-30.V.2009, Kučera lg.
Calosoma (Calosoma) inquisitor cyanescens
(Motschulsky, 1859)
China, Shaanxi prov., Tsinling Mts. Taibaishan Mt. 2200m,
33°55'N 107°44'E, June 2004, Siniaev team lg.
Calosoma (Calosoma) inquisitor cyanescens
(Motschulsky, 1859)
Sibérie orientale (Typus of Calosoma denserugatum)
(coll. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)

Back