Calosoma (Calosoma) sycophanta (Linné, 1758)

Carabus sycophanta Linné, 1758: 414 (described from Europa) type material: unspecified number of specimens; possible syntypes in Museum of Evolution Zoology, Uppsala University (UUZM, Catalogue of Linnaean specimens 2001: 21) and Linnean Society of London, (Lindroth, 1957: 334)
Calosoma sycophanta Weber, 1801: 20
Calosoma sycophanta var. severum Chaudoir, 1850: 422; (description compatible with one specimen only, from: possessions turques en Asie) lectotype ♂ designated by Deuve (1978: 248) in Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris [examined]
Calosoma sycophanta var. nigrocyaneum Letzner, 1850: 95; (distribution: Schlesien) original material: unspecified number of specimens, original specimen(s) in Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Müncheberg (Casale & al, 1982: 79)
Calosoma sycophanta var. marginatum Letzner, 1850: 95 (idem)
Calosoma sycophanta var. azureum Letzner, 1850: 95 (idem)
Calosoma sycophanta var. purpureoaureum Letzner, 1850: 95 (idem)
Calosoma sycophanta var. cupreum Letzner, 1850: 95 (idem)
Callipara sycophanta rapax Motschoulsky, 1865: 309 (described from environs de Amasia) type material: 1 ♂, repository not stated.
Calosoma sycophanta var. smaragdinum Rossi, 1882: 204; (distribution: Hungary) possibly some original specimen in Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin (Casale & al, 1982: 79)
Calosoma sycophanta var. Habelmanni Schilsky, 1888: 180 (described from Berlin)
Calosoma sycophanta var. purpuripennis Reitter, 1891: 257; (described from Margelan) lectotype in Magyar Természettudományi Múzeum, Budapest (Jeannel, 1940: 82)
Calosoma sycophanta ab. corvinum Heller, 1897: 312
Calosoma sycophanta ab. anthracinum Houlbert, 1907: 292; (cited from: La Baule) nomen nudum
Calosoma sycophanta ab. prasinum Lapouge, 1907: 124; original material: 2 ♀ from Elbourz, Talych 1 ♂ 1♀ from Louristan. Kirmanchah; lectotype ♀ (Elbourz, Talych) designated by Deuve (1978: 255) in Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris [examined]
Calosoma sycophanta ab. solinfectum Jänichen, 1914: 298 (described from Brandenburg, Bärwalde) lectotype in Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Müncheberg (Döbler, 1975: 141)
Callipara sycophanta anthracina Lapouge , 1926: 42 (described from Bretagne) name preoccupied by anthracinum Dejean 1831)
Calosoma sycophanta sycophanta Breuning, 1927: 173
Calosoma sycophanta var.? lapougei Breuning, 1927: 174 (new name for anthracinum Houlbert, 1907)
Calosoma sycophanta nigrosuturale Jacquet, 1930 ? (cited in Lorenz, 2005: 68)
Calosoma (Callipara) sycophanta, Lapouge, 1932: 403
Calosoma sycophanta nigroaeneum Polentz, 1937: 7
Calosoma sycophanta var. Hankói Narozsny, 1938: 75 (described from Gyulaj)
Calosoma sycophanta var. Gizellae Narozsny, 1938: 75 (described from Gyulaj)
Calosoma sycophanta, Jeannel, 1940: 81
Calosoma sycophanta subsp. prasinum, Jeannel, 1940: 82
Calosoma sycophanta subsp. purpureipennis, Jeannel, 1940: 82
Calosoma sycophanta subsp. severum, Jeannel, 1940: 82
Calosoma (Calosoma) sycophanta altaica Obydov, 2010: 62 (type locality: western Altai, Zmeinogorsk distr.) type material: 3 ♀♀, holotype ♀ in Museo di scienze Naturali "Cavalier Locca", Guardabosone

Length 21-35 mm. C. sycophanta is characterized by a strongly transverse pronotum, sinuate behind. The lateral margin of the pronotum is thick, with well raised edges, and it disappears just before of the basal angles. Head and pronotum are wrinkled and sparsely punctured. The sculpture of elytra is flattened with smooth intervals and with clearly visible punctures on the striae. The tarsi of the male forelegs have hairy pads under the sole of the first three dilated segments.
C. sycophanta is found, and in some years is quite common, in northern Africa and throughout Europe (including the Mediterranean Islands).
However the species nowadays seems to be endangered in large parts of Western and Central Europe, due to the vast use of pesticides against pest calamities. In this regard a recent scientific study (Görn, 2019: 3) cites a single sampling of many thousands of C. sycophanta specimens which were collected dead in 1974 after a DDT treatment in an oak forest at Costa Brava and that are still carefully preserved (as a dramatic memento) in the National Natural History Museum of Stuttgart.
Towards north, C. sycophanta has been found sporadically in Denmark. In Sweden it is also very rare and it has been captured in single specimens only in the south of the country (Lindroth, 1985: 47), and some remains were found in lacustrine sediment (gyttja) deposited on the shore of the ancient lake Bare, near Halmstad and dated by pollen analysis to a warmer period around 10,000 years BC (Welinder, 1970). Recently one specimen has been accidentally imported in Finland, with vegetable foods (Bistrom, 1983: 212). In Norway, recent captures of C. sycophanta are not known and anyway they seem improbable, however a single specimen found in 1921 should still be preserved in the entomological collections of the University of Bergen (
To the east, C. sycophanta spreads to Asia Minor, Iran, central Asia (Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan) up to Kazakhstan and western Siberia. Its presence in northern China was based on an ancient citation of Breuning, (1927: 174), which literally reads: "Turkestan, towards East up to the Thian Shan", and recent data have confirmed it.
C. sycophanta is some times found on the south-eastern coast of England but it is possibly an occasional immigrant. It has been imported into the eastern United States in 1905-1910 (Burgess 1911, Burgess & Collins 1917). Its diffusion range has continued to expand at a rate of dispersion, calculated at 6 km/year and now it extends from southern Maine and all New England states south, into Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and West Virginia (Schaefer & al. 1999). C. sycophanta was unsuccessfully introduced in Canada, in New Brunswich and in Vancouver island (Lindroth, 1961: 46), however, it seems to be present in Nova Scotia (Erwin, 2007: 105).
Normally the upper body of C sycophanta is two-tone with bluish head and pronotum, and with coppery or golden green elytra. However the color is variable, in some cases also because affected by climatic conditions under which the pupation took place. Sometime, you find specimens with green blue pronotum and green elytra (prasinum Lapouge), or very rarely, you find specimens having the upper body wholly light blue colored (azureum Letzner). In some localities of southern Turkey, with relative frequency, are found specimens with an uniform purplish brown color or with a black one (severum Chaudoir, rapax Motschoulsky), similar to the rare individual forms that occasionally have been encountered in various localities of central Europe and that were differently named (habelmanni Schilsky, corvinum Heller, anthracinum Houlbert, lapougei Breuning).
Breuning (1927: 171) assumed all these forms to be synonyms of the typical form as they cohabit with this. Yet, he considered the black form of Brittany worthy of name (anthracinum renamed lapougei). On the other hand, Jeannel (1940: 81) re-evaluated the three chromatic forms: severum of southern Turkey, prasinum of southern Azerbaijan and northern Iran, and purpuripenne of Uzbekistan, as subspecies as they would have constant characteristics in these regions.
However we believe that C. sycophanta is a species that can present individuals with variable color, sometimes more numerous or predominant in some geographical areas, but that are always in mixed populations and therefore that these populations do not deserve to be distinguished at the subspecific level.
The same applies to the only subspecies described in recent times (sycophanta altaica). According to its description (Obydov, 2010: 62), this new taxon should be distinguished by a set of very weak and uncertain characters such as less accentuated micro-sculpture of head and pronotum, less transverse pronotum and slightly shorter and broader elitrae, with some barely perceptible difference in the color of the upper body.
Finally, it is worth reporting the finding of some upper Pliocene fossils of Calosoma from an ancient sink-hole near Willershausen in northern Germany (three to five million years old). These fossils show no morphological differences from present species and could without difficulty be attributed respectively to C. sycophanta and to C. inquisitor (Gersdorf 1969). On the other hand, according to the data on the evolution of the species obtained from the molecular phylogeny studies (Su et al., 2005: 146), C. sycophanta separated from the Asian congener Calosoma maximowiczi about 20 million years ago, in the Miocene which was a time of extensive geological transformations that favoured geographic isolation as a speciation factor (Thiele, 1977: 298). The Willershausen findings therefore could confirm that the species remained stable during the subsequent Pliocene, that was a period of geological quiescence.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Albania. Kukës: Rrogam (; Sauk, Voskopojë, Shkodër, Borshi near Vlorë (Gueorguiev, 2007: 30), Durrës (Durazzo), Vlorë (
Algeria. Le Telagh near Daya, forêt de Blidah, forêt de Teniet-el Had, forêt de Boghari, forêt de Akfadou (Kabilie), Sain- Charles, forêt de Batna, Bone, forêt de l’Edough, Bou-Mzeran (Bedel, 1895: 19)
Armenia. Kosrov reserve (VV)
Austria. Burgenland: Loretto am Leithagebirge, Neusiedl am See, Purbach am Neus (Mandl 1957: 106); Podersdorf, Nickelsdorf, Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen (; Kärnten: Leopoldskirchen, Loibltal, Sagritz im oberen Mölltal (Mandl 1957: 106), Sagritz, Heiligenblut (Pacher, 1853); Niederösterreich: Leithagebirge, Mödling, Niederweiden, Oberwaltersdorf, Plank, Straßhof, Trumau bei Baden, Vöslau, Wiener Neustadt (Mandl 1957: 106), Perchtoldsdorf (; Steiermark: Admont, Graz (; Tirol: Brandenberg, Innsbruck-Umg., Judenstein im Ahrntal bei Innsbruck, Jenbach, Lechgebiet, Gramais, between Matrei and Pfons, Obernberg am Inn, Ötz (Mandl 1957: 106), Wiesing, Hötting b. Innsbruck (, Steinach am Brenner (; Steiermark: Admont, Plabutsch bei Graz (Mandl 1957: 106), Pürgg (; Oberösterreich: Obernberg am Inn, Urfahr, Grünburg (; Vorarlberg: Bludenz; Bregenz; Feldkirch (Mandl 1957: 106); Wien: Wien-Lainzer Tiergarten, Perchtoldsdorf, Vorder Hainbach, Sofienalpe (Mandl 1957: 106)
Azerbaijan. Elbourz, (lectotype of Calosoma prasinum MNHN); Talysch (Breuning, 1927: 173); Quba-Khachmaz: Xaçmaz (; Lankaran: Lerik (
Belarus. Białowieża Forest (
Belgium. Gent, Chaudfontaine (, Durbuy (
Bosnia-Erzegovina. Domanovići, Stolac, Volujak Mt. (Apfelbeck, 1904: 16), Zavidovići (sub var. severum, Narozsny, 1938: 75), Ljubinje (, mount Velež 800m.(TL)
Bulgaria. Sliven, Stanimaka (Asenovgrad), Burgas (Apfelbeck, 1904: 16); Krichimska Kuriya, Brodilovo Vill. (Buresch & Kantardjieva, 1928: 64); Varna (SB), Kalimantsi (EM), Belogratchik (; Kostenets, Sturgach Planina (Guéorguiev & Guéorguiev, 1995: 40); Bulgari Vill., Ahtopol, Bliznak Vill., Maslen nos Cape, Ropotamo, Strandzha, Gramatikovo Vill., Slantschew brjag (Burgas), Slivarovo Vll. (, Haskovo (Buresch & Kantardjieva, 1928: 64), Harmanli (Guéorguiev, 2004: 382), Bryanovishtitsa Hut 930m, Belovo Pamporovo, along Chepinska river and Alabak (Guéorguiev & Lobo, 2006: 288), Lozenets, Sozopol (Tsentar), Gabrovo (
China. Xinjiang: Ili pref: Yiling (SB), Tianshan mts. (SB); Changji Hui pref: Manas county (
Croatia. Izola, (Isola d’Istria), Labin (Albona), Rijeka (Fiume), Platak, Mt. Učka (Maggiore) Losinj (Lussino), Unije (Unie) (Müller, 1926: 44); Crikvenica, Pula (, Cres (Cherso), Otok Plavnik (Plauno), Gospić, Klis, Stivan, Punta Križa, Vrlika, Merag, Šibenik, Osijek, Knin, Dugopolje, Kijevo, Belej, Supetar, Radučić, Labin Gornji, Rabac, Medulin (; Šibensko-Kninska: Promina, Nevest (; Karlovacka: Ogulin (
Cyprus. (Breuning, 1927: 174); Girne: Sychari (
Czech Republic. Moravia (sub azureum det. Mandl; NMB); Olomuc: Uničov (VV); Jihomoravský: Mikulov, Brno, Znojmo (; Česká Lípa, Horní Dohalice, Neratovice, Kolín, Benešov u Prahy, Pátek, Moravský Krumlov, Pouzdřany, Valtice (; Břevenec (; Středočeský: Praha-západ (
Denmark. Jutland, Sønderjylland (Schiødte, 1841: 308); Skellebjerg (Lindroth, 1985: 47)
Estonia Viljandi (Haberman, 1968: 117)
Finland. Uusimaa: Kauniainen (Bistrom, 1983: 212)
France. Alpes-de-Haute-Provence: Digne-les-Bains (; Alpes-Maritimes: Saint-Étienn e-de-Tinée, Saint-Dalmas-le-Selvage (; Ardèche: Résurgence de Font vive; Ardenne: Flize (; Bouches-du-Rhônes: Montagnette, Vallen Pont d'Arc (; Calvados: Forêt de Cerisy (; Corse: Corte (, Portovecchio (SB), Lecci, Sarténe, Quenza, Bonifacio, Santa-Maria-Siché (, Propriano (TL); Gard: Saint Jean du Gard, Dions (, Mount Aigoual 1200m. (SB); Haut-Rhin: Dessenheim, Rixheim (; Hérault: Montarnaud (, Ganges (EM); Languedoc-Roussillon: Saint-Martin-de-Londres, Montdardier, Forêt de La Fage, Brissac (; Loire-Atlantique: La Baule, Le Pouliguen (var. lapougei Jeannel, 1940: 82); Lorraine: Volstroff (; Lot: Cressensac (; Moselle: Lelling (; Provence: Avignon (EM); Midi-Pyrénées: Pibrac (; Pyrénées-Atlantiques Sare (, Saint Jean de Luz, Biarritz, Eaux Bonnes, Buzy, Bois de Sauvagnon (Jeanne, 1984: 66); Pyrénées-Orientales: Òpol (; Rhône: Lyon (; Savoie: Montmélian (; Var: Port Grimaud (, Collobriéres (, Aiguines, Bormes-les-Mimosas (, Frejus (; Vaucluse: massif du Luberon (, Les Mayons (EM); Yvelines: Gommecourt (
Georgia. Ajaria: Kobuleti (
Germany. Bavaria: Wasserlos (; Bayern: Königsdorf (; Brandenburg: südlich Brandenburg (sub azureum det. Mandl; NMB), Baruth (Weisskeissel), Woltersdorf, Niedergörsdorf (; Hesse: Eschwege, Schweinsberg, Mainhausen (; Niedersachsen: Harz (; North Rhine-Westphalia: Köln (, Fröndenberg/Ruhr (; Rhineland-Palatinate: Taunus, Bleidenstadt, Nassau, Kirn, Frei-Laubersheim (; Saarland: Perl (; Schleswig-Holstein: Kiel (Schiødte, 1841: 308), Glinde (; Thüringen (Hartmann, 2007: 159)
Greece. Central Greece: Dhomokos (, Mt. Parnassós (Apfelbeck, 1904 : 16); Central Macedonia: (Thessaloniki) Ano Poli, Mount Chortiatis, Stavros, Kallithea (, Nestos gorge (; Corfù island: Benítses (; Creta island (Apfelbeck, 1904 : 16): Psycro, Lasithi, Archanes-Asterousia, Psiloritis NP, Lasithi (; Lesbo island: Mitilene, Agiasos (; Rhodes island: Rhodes, Kolymbia (; Macedonia and Thrace: Katerini, Platanakia (; Epirus and Western Macedonia: Katsanochoria (; Peloponnese: Pylos-Nestoras (Koubeh Forest), Mt. Taygetos (Apfelbeck, 1904 : 16), Kariovouni, Nemea, Figaleia, Palaiokastritsa (, Kalogria (EM), Kalavrita (EM), Lefkada island (; Rhodes island: Notia Rodos (; Thessaly: Mt. Olympus (EM), Lichada (
Hungary. Gyulaj, Miskolc, Diósgyőr, Lillafüred, Fehérgyarmat, Nyíregyháza, Debrecen, Pécel, Budapest-Pestszentimre, Budapest-Rákosszentmihály, Szokolya, Sopron, Kőszeg, Mariabesnyo, (Narozsny, 1938: 75); Fejér: Gárdony (; Hajdú-Bihar: Sáránd (; Veszprém: Pápa (; Northern Hungary: Miskolc (; Somogy: Somogygeszti (
Iran. Gilan prov: Mts Talych (Ardabil or Gilan provinces) (type of prasinum; MNHN); Golestan prov: Nokandeh (Ghahari & al., 2009: 439), Golestan N.P. (Keikhosravi et al., 2020: 53); Lourestan prov: Kermanshah 1470m. (sub prasinum Lapouge, 1907: 124); Mazandaran prov: Marzanabad (EM, SB), Siah-bishe, (Azadbakhsh & al. 2015: 45); Rasht distr (SB).
Israel. Mount Hermon 1500 - 2100 m, Majdal Shams (Assmann et al., 2020: 150); Carmel Ridge: Moumt Carmel (EO)
Italy. Abruzzo: Monte Fiore (Bruno, 1974), L’Aquila, Cerchio (Leoni, 1909: 133), Pescasseroli, Val Fondillo, Fallo, Prata d'Ansidonia, Raiano (AVT), Monti della Difesa, Monte Schiena Cavallo (Luigioni, 1933: 5); Basilicata: Fiume Basento, Maratea (CKmap), Viggiano (AVT), foresta di Gallipoli Cognato (; Calabria: Aspromonte Monte Pecoraro Monte Pollino (Magistretti, 1965: 59), Molochio, San Giorgio Morgeto (AVT); Campania: Napoli, Quarto Caselle (AVT); Emilia: Bologna, Imola, Ladino, Pineta di Ravenna, Cervia (Magistretti, 1965: 58), Casinalbo, Mesola (Magistretti, 1968:183), Lago Brasimone, Ladino, Bosco di Scardavilla, Meldola (AVT), Piacenza (AC), Baricella, Monte Gottero, Monte Maggio, Spilamberto (CKmap); Friuli: Tarvisio (SB), Udine, Tarcento, Grado, Monfalcone, Aidussina, Monrupino, Lipizza (Müller, 1926: 44), Lago di Doberdò (Magistretti, 1965: 58), Opicina, Basovizza (SB), Sistiana (Battiston & Biondi, 2015: 7), Aurisina, Slivia, Lago di Selva (AVT), Gropada (CKmap); Lazio: Roma (SB), Bagnoregio (SB), Parco Naz. Circeo (AVT, EM), Filettino (EM), Cecchina (SB), Manziana (SB), Monterotondo (EM), Mt. Tagliente (EM), Frascati (EM), Colonna (EM), Bolsena, Civitavecchia, Mt Autore, Marino, (Magistretti, 1965: 58); Acciarella, Torre Astura, Cerasella, Monti della Duchessa, Monte Gennaro, Ienne, Lavinio, Foce Verde, Monte San Biagio, Nemi, Percile, Monte Pizzuto, Rocca di Papa, Monte Antenne, Monte Rufeno, Monte Faito, Terracina (AVT), Acilia, Monte Fogliano, Lavinio, Mentana, Pomezia, Rocca Priora, Santa Severa, Sant'Angelo Romano (Bruno, 1974) Ronciglione, Ariccia, Anzio (Luigioni, 1899: 212); Liguria: Pontedecimo (GKmap), Conna (GA), Genova (Magistretti, 1965: 58), Altare, Passo Muratone (AVT); Lombardia: Valtellina (EM), Ponte San Pietro (Breuning, 1927: 173), Milano, Monza, Casatenovo, Maccagnoarcisate, Turbigo, Melegnano, Ottobiano, Spino d’Adda, Como, Bellagio, Dervio, Premana, Mt. Legnone, Bagni del Masino, Chiesa Valmalenco, Val di Arigna, Ponte in Valtellina, S. Caterina Valfurva (Magistretti, 1965: 58), Pozzolengo Cantalupo (Battiston & Biondi, 2015: 7) Arigna (AVT), Maccagno (GA), Arona (; Marche: Acquacanina Bolognola Cingoli Sassoferrato Visso (ex coll. Battoni) Sefro (, Fiordimonte Pievebovigliana (AVT), Carpegna, Fabriano Monte Palazzo Borghese (Magistretti, 1965: 58), Campodonico, Colle di Fossato Potenza Picena (Magistretti, 1968 183); Molise: Campitello Matese (EM); Piemonte: Viozene, Rivoli, Pinerola, Campiglione Fenile, Bollengo, Colle del Turlo (Magistretti, 1965: 58), Limone 2180m (www.floraitaliae), Viozene, Sambuco, Rifugio Dante Livio Bianco (AVT), Antronapiana, Bienca, Colle della Boaria, Burolo, Candia Canavese, Chiaverano. Domodossola, Ivrea, Netro, Pella, Rimasco, Rueglio. Torre Canavese (AC); Trino, Vico Canavese, Frassineto Po (GA); Alba Cissone,Dogliani Grignasco Monforte d'Alba Pagno Pocapaglia Revello (CKmap); Puglia: St. Basilio Mottola, Noci (Magistretti, 1965: 58), Castellaneta (AVT), Gioia del Colle (Marcuzzi, Turchetto Lafisca, 1977); Sardegna: Pula, Is Cannoneris (, Tempio Pausania, Orgosolo, Aritzo, Seui, Macomer, Torre di Flumentorgiu, Carloforte (Magistretti, 1965: 58), Iglesias, Mogorella, Nuoro (Magistretti, 1968: 183), Baunei, Cagliari, Cuglieri, Desulo, Isola Foradada, Isola La Maddalena, Isola Mal di Ventre, Isole de Li Nibani, Monte Is Pauceris, Mannu, Isola San Pietro, Isola Paduleddu, Santadi, Monte Sette Fratelli, Isola Soffi, Villanova Monteleone (AVT), Berchidda, Dorgali, Monte Limbara, Isolotto Camize, Monte Spada, (AC), Isola Asinara, Cala Gonone, Isola Molarotto, Isola Mortorio, Isola La Presa, Isola Piana di Alghero, Isola Il Toro (MGe), Isola Sant'Antioco (Piras, Pisano, 1972), Loiri Porto San Paolo (, Urzulei Cantoniera Bidicolai (coll. Zilli); Sicilia: Monte Pagano (, Castelbuono (Ragusa, 1883: 13), Guidomandri (Vitale, 1912: 201), Geraci Siculo (Magistretti, 1965: 58), Monte Pagano (; Sud Tirolo: Brunico (Magistretti, 1968: 183), Bolzano, Campodazzo, Bressanone, Naturno, San Felice, Vistrad, San Leonardo (Val Passiria), Stava, Val d'Ultimo, Val Venosta (Peez Von, Kahlen, 1977), Bo Fiè allo Sciliar (Voels am Schlern), Passo del Rombo (Timmelsjoch), Mt. Sonnenberg (; Toscana: Isola d'Elba, Marciana (, Marsiliana (AVT), Isola del Giglio (Gridelli, 1926: 433), Forte dei Marmi, Monte Amiata (Magistretti, 1965: 58) Siena (Magistretti, 1968:183), Firenze, Lucca, Bagni di Lucca, Montecchio, Mugello, Val di Nievole, Pisa, Querceto (Piccioli, 1869: 207), Sansepolcro (Gagliardi, 1941: 92), Vallombrosa (Cecconi, 1897); Trentino: Monte Baldo, Zambana, Val di Non (Magistretti, 1965: 58), Cavalese, Nogarè, Rovereto, Val di Sole, Trento, Torcegno (Bertolini, 1887: 88), Isera, Lizzana, Pozzacchio, St. Ilario, (Halbherr, 1885: 7), Levico Terme (CKmap); Umbria: Foligno, Nocera Umbra, Orvieto (Leoni, 1909), Norcia, Castelluccio, Mt Palazzo Borghese, Pistrino (Magistretti, 1965: 58), Terni, Icciano (AVT), Lippiano (Gagliardi, 1941); Valle D’Aosta: Valtournanche (Magistretti, 1965: 58), Colle del Gran San Bernardo (AC); Veneto: Verona (EM), Monte Baldo, Caprino Veronese, Padova (Magistretti, 1965: 58), Venezia Lido (CKmap), Colli Berici, Colli Euganei, Castelgomberto, Parco delle Grotte di Oliero, Cortina d'Ampezzo, Falcade (Battiston & Biondi, 2015: 7)
Kazakhstan. Almaty prov: lake Zaysan (Wernoje), Tien Shan mountains (Breuning, 1927: 173), Aksu (SB), Enbekchikazakh distr: Turgen 1280m, Leskhoz 1270m, Ugam Chatkal NP 1380m (, Panfilov distr: Tigrovyye Gory (; South Kazakhstan: Sayram-Ugam N.P. (
Kosovo. Đakovica: Dečani (
Kyrgyzstan. Fergansky mts, Uruni-Bash 1600 m (SB); Fergana Mt. range, Isfan-Dzhailoo Mts. (http://www.ebay /); Boo-Tek river (; Jalal-Abad: Arslanbob, Toktogul (; Narin: Kochkor (
Latvia. (Telnov, 2004: 8)
Lebanon. Baalbeck (
Liechtenstein. (
Lithuania. (Tamutis & al., 2011)
Luxenbourg. Vianden, Wintrange (, Dudelange (; Esch-sur-Alzette: Käerjeng (; Grevenmacher: Betzdorf, Mondorf-les-Bains, Remich (
Macedonia. (
Mauritania. Titen Yaya (EM)
Moldova. (Neculiseanu & Matalin, 2000: 39; Bacal & al., 2013: 416): Chişinău (
Montenegro. Budva, Ulcinj, Stanišići, Podgorica (Cerna Hora), Petrovazzo (, Komovi Mt. (Apfelbeck, 1904: 16)
Morocco. Meknès-Tafilalet, Ifrane (EM); Eastern Region, Berkane (EM); Grand-Atlas Central: Talmest 2600m., Tassaout n'Ouidamen 2200m. (Kocher , 1938 : 78); Melilla; Muley Rechid; Kariet Arkmane; Jbel Kouali, Taourirt; (Chavanon & François 2014: 201);, beach of Tanger (Bedel, 1895: 19); Moyen Atlas (
Netherlands. Gelderland: Nijmegen; Friesland: Sneek; Zuid-Holland: Den Haag, Loosduinen, Noordwijk; Limburg: Venlo (NBC,
Norway. Nord-Trøndelag: Snåsa (Brønstad) (
Poland. Pomerania: Szklana Huta, Miastko (; Łódź: Rezerwat Spała, (; Silesia: Klobuck, Bytom (; Cracovia: Zwierzyniec (
Portugal. Bussaco, Coimbra, Serra de Estrella, Cintra (Oliveira, 1876: 21); Santarém: Tomar (; Viseu (
Romania. Herculane (, Gârnic (, Dubova, Golești (; Călărași: Chiselet (
Russia. Altai: Zmeinogorsk (Gebler, 1830: 58; Obydov, 2010: 62, sub altaica), Uglovskoye (; Bashkortostan: Bashkiriya National Park, Ishimbayevo (; Daghestan: Tabasaranskiy (, Magaramkentsky (; Kaliningrad region: Svetlogorsk, Sambian peninsula, Znamensk (Alekseev, 2008: 157); Krasnodar Territory: Krasnodar (, Kuban distr (SB); Zelenskaja Shehel riv. valley (SB); Kurgan Obl: Polovinsky Distr (Stolbov & al, 2018: 733); Moscow (Breuning, 1927: 174); Novosibirsk Obl: Karasuksky Distr (Stolbov & al, 2018: 733); Omsk Obl: Gorkovsky Distr, Cherlaksky Distr, Omsk City (Stolbov & al, 2018: 733), Bolsheukovsky Distr (; Penza: Bessonovskiy (; Rostov: Kagal’nik (; Saratov region: Saratov distr., Rtishchevskaya distr., Popovka distr., Voskresenskogo distr. (Sazhnev, 2007: 350); Tatarstan: Kazan (Breuning, 1927: 174); Tomsk (Breuning, 1927: 174); Tyumen Obl: Nizhnetavdinsky Distr, Sladkovsky Distr, Ishimsky Distr, Tyumen Distr, Ishim City, Omutinsky Distr, Armizonsky Distr, Kazansky Distr, Uporovsky Distr, Nizhnetavdinsky Distr, Vagaysky Distr (Stolbov & al, 2018: 733); Ul'janovsk: Inzenskij (; Volgograd region: Olkhovskiy district (, Kamyshinsky district (
Serbia. Požarevac (Apfelbeck, 1904: 16), Novi Sad (; Valjevo: Lelić (; Beograd: Galenika, Beli Potok, Banjica (
Slovakia. Košice (Kassa) (Narozsny, 1938: 75); Bratislava (; Trnavský: Hlohovec (; Nitra: Biringerova (; Bratislavský: Pezinok, Jakubov (
Slovenia. Skrilje, Tolmin (Tolmino), Komen (Comeno), Mt. Slavnik (Taiano), Mt Snežnik (Nevoso) (Müller, 1926: 44); Prekmurje region (
Spain. Andalusia: Sevilla (Navarro & al., 2008), Abrucena (; Avila: La Sefrada (Jeanne, 1969: 102); Balearic islands: Menorca, San Cristobal (Jeanne, 1969: 102), Mallorca, Escorca (; Cataluña: Barcelona, Castelldefels, Osona, Gavà, Begues, Vallgorguina, Garraf, Hostalets de Balenyà (, Tarrasa, Monteseny, Santa Fe (Jeanne, 1969: 102), Girona, Cardedeu (; Cádiz: San Roque, Algeciras (Durán, 1965: 66); Galicia: Pinol, Vilar Dastrés, Bordóns (Campos Gómez & al., 2006: 52); Girona: Palafrugell, Santa Coloma de Farners (, Romanyà, Gombrèn, Viladrau (, Nuria, Guillerias (Jeanne, 1969: 102), Huesca (SB), Sierra de Cazorla (; Granada: Jubiles (Jeanne, 1969: 102); Jaén: Santiago de la Espada (; Lérida: Coll d’Ager (Jeanne, 1969: 102); Leon: Quintanilla, La Laguna (Jeanne, 1969: 102); Lleida: Senterada, La Noguera (; Madrid: El Pardo (Jeanne, 1969: 102); Navarra: Villatuerta (, Ayegui (; Ourense: Vilar de Astrés, Carballeda de Valdeorras, Peña Trevinca (; Pontevedra: Sanxenxo, Tomiño, Sober (; Salamanca: Casillas de Flores, Guijo de Avila, Peña de Francia, Robleda (Zaballos, 1986: 75), Matilla, Buenamadre (Jeanne, 1969: 102); Tarragona: Fontscaldetes (, La Sénia (
Syria. al Lādhiqīyah: Slinfah, 1130 m (SB), al Bahlouliyah, Tishreen lake (; as-Suwayda (
Sweden. (Lindroth & Bangsholt, 1985: 47) Öland; Gotland (Breuning, 1927: 174); Dalarna Co.; Skåne: Falsterbo (
Switzerland. Zürich, Basel, Geneva, Thunersee, Canton of Valais, (Heer, 1838: 32), Chiasso (Magistretti, 1965: 58); Brugg distr: Bözen (; Ticino: Vallemaggia (; Vaud: Aigle (; Schaffhausen: Hallau (; Graubünden: Moësa (
Tajikistan. Turkestan and partly Alai ranges, Zarafshan valley, Hissar-Darwaz (Mikhailov,; (Darvaz mts.) Mazor range, Sangvor National Park (; Khonaka river valley (; Gissar mts: Ramit state nature reserve (
Tunisia. région de Ouchteta (Bedel, 1895: 19), Jendouba, Ain Draham (SB), al Firnanah (
Turkey. Anatolia (type of severum ; MNHN); Adana: Pozanti (Mandl 1963: 46 sub ab. purpureoaureum; SB); Amasia (type of rapax ), Ankara: Ankara (Mandl 1963: 46), Antalya: Thermessos (, Korkuteli (Tezcan & al., 2018: 549), Elmaly (TL), Alanya, Irmasan (LT), Yukarikaraman (, Güllük Dağı (Tezcan & al., 2018: 549), Kekova Adası (, Aksu (; Artvin: Hatila National Park, (Gokturk & Celik, 2017: 985); Balıkesir: Bigadiç, Doğanlar (Tezcan & al., 2018: 549); Bingol: Buglan Gecidi 1500 m (EM(, SB); Çanakkale: Çanakkale (Kanat & Özbolat 2006), Lapseki (Tezcan & al., 2018: 549), Eceabat (; Fethiye: Mugla (SB, LT), Marmaris, Akyaka, Köyceğiz (, Uzumlu (SB); Hatay: Iskenderun (; Istanbul: Balökesir, Büyükada (Kanat & Özbolat 2006); Izmir : Buca, Tire (; Karaman: Karadag, 1800m. (; Kahramanmaraş (Kanat & Özbolat 2006); Kocaeli: Gölcük (Tezcan & al., 2018: 549); Konya: Tuz Golu (EM, SB), Konya (; Marmara: Bursa (Tezcan & al., 2018: 549); Manisa: Manisa (Tezcan & al., 2018: 549); Mersin: Aydicink (SB), Erdemli (, Ayaş (Kocatepe & Mergen, 2004: 297); Muş: Buğlan Geçidi (TL); Osmaniye: Hasanbeyli (Mandl 1963: 46); Samsun: Samsun (Tezcan & al., 2018: 549); Selcuk: Izmir (Breuning, 1927: 173; LT), Urla, Ödemiş, Bornova (Tezcan & al., 2018: 549), Bergama, Kemalpaşa (; Şirnak: Andaç 1070m., (SB); Tunceli: Tunceli (Tezcan & al., 2018: 549); Uşak: Uşak (Tezcan & al., 2018: 549); Van: Qatak Narli 1800m (Cesa News Nr 53: fig. 42)
Turkmenistan. Kopetdagh (Kryzhanovsky & Atamuradov, 1994: 416)
Ukraine. Zakarpatska: Mukacheve (Munkács), Berehove (Beregszász) (Narozsny, 1938: 75); Kharkiv: Zmiïvs'kyi (; Zhytomyr: Korostens'kyi (; Odessa: Zatoka (; Crimea: Sudats'ka, Orlyne, Sinferopoli (
United Kingdom. Devon: Darthmouth (Stephens, 1839: 16); East Sussex: Hastings (Stephens, 1839: 16), Eastbourne (; Leicestershire: Vale of Belvoir (; Norfolk: Yarmouth (Stephens, 1839: 16), Brighton (Courtis, 1848: 2113); Suffolk: Aldboro’ (Aldeburgh?) (Stephens, 1839: 16)
United States. Connecticut: Portland (, Cockaponset State Forest, Chester (UASM), New London co. (Ferreira, 2008: 307); Delaware: (Bousquet, 2012: 230), Delaware Water Gap N.R.A. (; Illinois: Chicago (; Maine: Lincoln Co. (; Maryland: Woodbine, Chevy Chase, Anne Arundel County (; Massachussets: Essex co. (UASM), Suffolk co., Boston (, Norfolk co. ( Eastham, Sharon, Brewster, Wellfleet, Plymouth, Randolph, Lincoln, Marshfield, Hardwick, Weymouth, Hyannis, Barnstable County (; New Hampshire: Merrimack co., Strafford co. (; New Jersey: Delaware Water Gap N.R.A., Burlington County, Ocean County (, Morris co., Pine Brook (, West Milford, Manchester, Pine Brook (; New York: Ulster County (; Pennsylvania: Philadelphia co. (, Pike County, Luzerne County (; Rhode Island: Kent co. (, Providence County (; Virginia: Winchester co., Bull Run Mountains, Prince William co., Prince William Forest Park (Evans, 2009), Bedford County (; Vermont; West Virginia (Bousquet, 2012: 230).
Uzbekistan. Margilan (sub var. purpuripennis; Reitter, 1891: 257); Khorezm reg., Karakapakstan rep. (Khamraev, 2003: 47); Jizzakh: Zaamin N.P. (

Notes: Winged diurnal but in some case can be attracted to light at night. It is inhabitant of both coniferous and decidous forests. Adults and larvae are excellent climbers and feed on Lymantridae and Thaumatopoeidae (Thaumatopoea pityocampa Denis & Schiffermuller, Lophirus pini Linné, Thaumetopoea processionea Linné, Lymantria dispar L., Euproctis chrysorrhoea Linné) and other caterpillars infesting trees of genera Pinus, Quercus and Fagus. Adults hunt trunks and treetops during the day and go down to the ground at around sunset and then hide in leaf litter at the foot of the trees.
The cycle of development of C. sycophanta is short and it seems to be influenced by the abundance of prey. Females when emerging from the soil have to feed on caterpillars for at least a week before egg deposition. Otherwise, they enter in diapause without laying eggs (Weseloh, 1993). The larvae hatch 3-10 days after egg deposition and the entire cycle up to the emergence of the adult lasts on average a month and a half. One single larva consumes 37-95 caterpillars and one adult devours 200-400 caterpillars per year (Görn, 2019: 2).When the caterpillars enter the soil for pupation the beetles also re-enter the soil. Physiology, behavior and phenology seem to be synchronous with those of its prey which makes C. sycophanta a specific and efficent predator, and explains its continual interest in the field of the biological control (Kanat & Özbolat 2006).
Captures of active individuals have been noted from April to August and they are quite long lived as they seem able to survive up to 4 years (Dowden, 1962: 51). It is not rare to find specimens overwintering in small cavities in the ground.
The larva of C. sycophanta has been repeatedly described and drawn, starting with the news given by Reamour (1736, vol. II: plate 37 fig. 14, 17). The first detailed description and drawings of the external and internal anatomy of the larva are found in Burmeister (1836: 235).

Reamour Memoires pour servir a l'histoire des Insectes, vol. II, 1736: 455 and plate 37 fig. 18

Aldovrandi (De Animalibus Insectis Libri septem cum singulorum Iconibus ad vivum expressis 1638: 450, fig. 6) under the name of Scarabaeus viridis
Calosoma (Calosoma) sycophanta
(Linné, 1758)
Italia, dint. Roma, Manziana, I.72,, Bruschi lgt.
Calosoma (Calosoma) sycophanta
(Linné, 1758)
Turkey, Pozanti, 30.4.09, Boilly

Calosoma (Calosoma) sycophanta
(Linné, 1758)
Italia, Lazio, Bagnoregio, VII.1974, Bruschi lgt.

Calosoma (Calosoma) sycophanta
(Linné, 1758)
Moravia (Calosoma sycophanta azureum det. Mandl)
(coll. Naturhistorischen Museum Basel)
Calosoma (Calosoma) sycophanta
(Linné, 1758)
Elbourz, Talyche, de 0 à 2500m, J. de Morgan
(type of Calosoma sycophanta ssp. prasinum Lapouge, 1907)
(coll. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma (Calosoma) sycophanta
(Linné, 1758)
Iran, Gilan prov, Rasht distr., near Dizkohv vill.
5-6.VI.2016, leg. Kasatkin D. lgt

Calosoma (Calosoma) sycophanta
(Linné, 1758)
Sardegna, Casa Cantoniera di Bidicolai, SS 125 Orientale Sarda, VIII.2018, remains found by M. Zilli

Calosoma (Calosoma) sycophanta
(Linné, 1758)
(type of Calosoma sycophanta var. severum Chaudoir, 1850)
(coll. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma (Calosoma) sycophanta
(Linné, 1758)
Turkey, Pozanti, 30.4.09, Boilly
Calosoma (Calosoma) sycophanta
(Linné, 1758)
Turkey, Pozanti, 30.4.09, Boilly
updated April 18 2024