Calosoma (Calosoma) sycophanta (Linné, 1758)

Carabus sycophanta Linné, 1758: 414 (type Europa; Uppsala University, Museum of Evolution Zoology)
Calosoma sycophanta Weber, 1801: 20
Calosoma sycophanta var. severum Chaudoir, 1850: 422 (type Anatolie, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma sycophanta var. nigrocyaneum Letzner, 1850: 95 (type: Breslau; Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Eberswalde-Finow)
Calosoma sycophanta var.marginatum Letzner, 1850: 95 (idem)
Calosoma sycophanta var. azureum Letzner, 1850: 95 (idem)
Calosoma sycophanta var. purpureoaureum Letzner, 1850: 95 (idem)
Calosoma sycophanta var. cupreum Letzner, 1850: 95 (idem)
Callipara sycophanta, Motschoulsky, 1865: 308
Callipara sycophanta rapax Motschoulsky, 1865: 309 (type Amasia)
Calosoma sycophanta var. smaragdinum Rossi, 1882: 204 (type: Hungary; Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin)
Calosoma sycophanta var. Habelmanni Schilsky, 1888: 180
Calosoma sycophanta var.purpuripenne Reitter, 1891: 257
Calosoma sycophanta ab. corvinum Heller, 1897: 312
Calosoma sycophanta ab. anthracinum Houlbert, 1907: 292 ((described from: Bretagne) (preoccupied by anthracinum Dejean 1831)
Calosoma sycophanta ssp. prasinum Lapouge, 1907: 124 (lectotype Elbourz, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma sycophanta ab. solinfectum Jänichen, 1914: 298 (holotype: Mark Brandenburg; Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Berlin)
Calosoma sycophanta var. lapougei Breuning, 1927: 171 (new name for anthracinum Houlbert, 1907)
Calosoma (Callipara) sycophanta, Lapouge, 1932: 403
Calosoma sycophanta nigrosuturale Jaquet, 1930:
Calosoma sycophanta nigroaeneum Polentz, 1937: 7
Calosoma sycophanta var. Hankói Narozsny, 1938: 75 (described from Gyulaj)
Calosoma sycophanta var. Gizellae Narozsny, 1938: 75 (described from Gyulaj)
Calosoma (Calosoma) sycophanta, Jeannel, 1940: 81
Calosoma (Calosoma) sycophanta, Gidaspow, 1959: 244
Calosoma (Calosoma) sycophanta, Deuve, 1997: 53
Calosoma (Calosoma) sycophanta, Erwin, 2007: 105
Calosoma (Calosoma) sycophanta altaica Obydov, 2010: 62 (holotype: (western Altai) Zmeinogorsk distr., Museo di scienze Naturali "Cavalier Locca", Guardabosone)

Length 21-35 mm. C. sycophanta is characterized by a strongly transverse pronotum, sinuate behind. The lateral margin of the pronotum is thick, conspicuously elevated, and it disappears just before of the basal angles. Head and pronotum are wrinkled and sparsely punctured. The sculpture of elytra is flattened with smooth intervals and with clearly visible punctures on the striae. The tarsi of the male forelegs have hairy pads under the sole of the first three dilated segments.
C. sycophanta is found, and in some years is quite common, in northern Africa and throughout Europe (including the Mediterranean Islands) and, more rare, in Scandinavia (Denmark and Sweden, Lindroth, 1986: 47). Some remains of C. sycophanta were also found in lacustrine sediment (gyttja) deposited on the shore of the ancient lake Bare, near Halmstad in the south of Sweden. They were dated by pollen analysis to an intermediate warmer period around 10,000 years BC (Welinder, 1970). To the east, C. sycophanta spreads to Asia Minor, Iran, central Asia (Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan) up to western Siberia. It is indicated by various authors (Yu, 1982; Deuve, 1997) of Xinjiang in northern China, based on an ancient citation of Breuning, (1927: 174), which literally reads: “ Turkestan, towards East up to the Thian Shan”.
C. sycophanta is not rarely found on the south-eastern coast of England but it is possibly an occasional immigrant. It has been imported into the eastern United States in 1905-1910 (Burgess 1911, Burgess & Collins 1917). Its range has continued to expand at a rate of dispersion, calculated at 6 km/year and now extends from southern Maine and all New England states south into Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and West Virginia (Schaefer & al. 1999). C. sycophanta is also given as present in Nova Scotia in the south-eastern Canada (Erwin, 2007: 105).
Normally the upper body of C sycophanta is two-tone with bluish head and pronotum, and with coppery or golden green elytra. However the color is variable, in some cases also because affected by climatic conditions under which the pupation took effect. It is possible to find specimens with cupric elytra and dark bluish pronotum or, very rarely, it is possible to find uniformly colored specimens, green blue (prasinum Lapouge) or light blue (azureum Letzner). In some localities of southern Turkey, with relative frequency, are found specimens with a uniform purplish brown or black color ((severum Chaudoir, rapax Motschoulsky), similar to the rare individual forms that occasionally have been encountered in various localities of central Europe and that were differently named (habelmanni Schilsky, corvinum Heller, lapougei Breuning).

Examined specimens
Albania. Sauk, Voskopojë, Shkodër, Borshi near Vlorë (Gueorguiev, 2007: 30)
Armenia: Kosrov reserve (VV)
Azerbaijan: Elbourz, Talyche, (lectotype of Calosoma prasinum MNHN), Azerbaijan (Ebay)
Bulgaria: Varna (SB), Kalimantsi (EM), Belogratchik (www.insecte.org)
Czech Republic: Uničov Břevenek (VV), Moravia (sub azureum det. Mandl; NMB), Česká Lípa, Horní Dohalice, Neratovice, Kolín, Benešov u Prahy, Pátek, Moravský Krumlov, Pouzdřany, Valtice (www.biolib.cz)
Denmark: Skellebjerg (Lindroth & Bangsholt, 1985: 47)
France. Ardèche: Résurgence de Font vive; Bouches-du-Rhônes: Montagnette; Corse: Corte (www.insecte.org), Portovecchio (SB); Gard: Saint Jean du Gard, Dions; Haut-Rhin: Dessenheim, Rixheim; Hérault: Montarnaud (www.insecte.org), Ganges (EM); Provence: Avignon (EM); Var: Collobriéres Vaucluse: massif du Luberon (www.insecte.org), Les Mayons (EM)
Germany: südlich Brandenburg (sub azureum det. Mandl; NMB), Thüringen (Hartmann, 2007: 159)
Greece. Crete: Mt. Olympus (EM); Peloponnesus: Ahaia Kalogria (EM), Kalavrita (EM)
Hungary. Gyulaj, Miskolc, Diósgyőr, Lillafüred, Fehérgyarmat, Nyíregyháza, Debrecen, Pécel, Budapest-Pestszentimre, Budapest-Rákosszentmihály, Szokolya, Sopron, Kőszeg, Mariabesnyo, (Narozsny, 1938: 75)
Iran: Mazandaran, Marzanabad (EM, SB), Siah-bishe, (Azadbakhsh & al. 2015: 45); Elburz (type of prasinum; MNHN); Golestan prov: Nokandeh (Ghahari & al., 2009: 439)
Israel: Haifa: Mont Hermon 1600 m (EO)
Italy. Abruzzo: Cerchio, Pescasseroli; Emilia: Bologna, Imola, Ladino, Pineta di Ravenna, Cervia; Friuli. Udine, Tarcento, Grado, Monfalcone, Aidussina, Tolmino, Lipizza, Lago di Doberdò (Magistretti, 1965: 58), Basovizza (SB); Lazio: Roma (SB), Bagnoregio (SB), Parco Naz. Circeo (EM), Filettino (EM), Cecchina (SB), Manziana (SB), Monterotondo (EM), Mt. Tagliente (EM), Frascati (EM), Colonna (EM), Bolsena, Civitavecchia, Mt Autore, Marino, Anzio, Ariccia, Ronciglione; Liguria: Genova (Magistretti, 1965: 58); Lombardia: Valtellina (EM); Lombardia: Milano, Monza, Casatenovo, Maccagnoarcisate, Turbigo, Melegnano, Ottobiano, Spino d’Adda, Como, Bellagio, dervio, Premana, Mt. Legnone, Bagni del Masino, Chiesa Valmalenco, Val di Arigna, Ponte in Valtellina, Sta Caterina Valfurva (Magistretti, 1965: 58); Marche: Sefro (www.entomologiitaliani.net), Carpegna, Fabriano (Magistretti, 1965: 58); Molise: Campitello Matese (EM); Piemonte: Viozene, Rivoli, Pinerola, Campiglione Fenile, Bollengo, Valturnance, Colle del Turlo; Puglia: St. Basilio Mottola, Noci (Magistretti, 1965: 58); Sardegna: Pula, Is Cannoneris (www.entomologiitaliani.net), Tempio Pausania, Orgosolo, Aritzo, Seui, Macomer, Flumentorgiu, Carloforte (Magistretti, 1965: 58); Sicilia: Monte Pagano (www.entomologiitaliani.net), Castelbuono, Geraci Siculo (Magistretti, 1965: 58); Toscana: Isola d'Elba, Marciana (www.entomologiitaliani.net), Isola del Giglio, Firenze, Sansepolcro, Pisa, Lucca, Bagni di Lucca, Forte dei Marmi, Monte Amiata; Trentino: Rovereto, Pozzacchio, Lizzana,St. Ilario, Isera, Trento, Nogarè, Torcegno, Cavalese, Zambana, Val di Non; Umbria: Lippiano, Norcia, Castelluccio, Mt Palazzo Borghese, Pistrino (Magistretti, 1965: 58); Veneto: Verona (EM), Monte Baldo, Caprino Veronese, Padova (Magistretti, 1965: 58)
Kyrgyzstan: Fergansky mts, Uruni-Bash 1600 m (SB); Fergana Mt. range, Isfan-Dzhailoo Mts. (http://www.ebay /)
Mauritania: Titen Yaya (EM)
Morocco: Meknès-Tafilalet, Ifrane (EM); Eastern Region, Berkane (EM)); Grand-Atlas Central: Talmest 2600m., Tassaout n'Ouidamen 2200m. (Kocher, 1938: 78); Melilla; Muley Rechid; Kariet Arkmane; Jbel Kouali, Taourirt; (Chavanon & François 2014: 201)
Russia: Krasnodar Territory, Kuban distr (SB); Altai Krai: Zmeinogorsk (Obydov, 2010: 62); Zelenskaja Shehel riv. valley (SB); Volgograd region., Olkhovskiy district (http://molbiol.ru/); Kaliningrad region: Svetlogorsk, Sambian peninsula, Znamensk (Alekseev, 2008: 157).
Slovakia: Košice (Kassa) (Narozsny, 1938: 75)
Spain: Huesca (SB)
Syria: al Lādhiqīyah, Slinfah, 1130 m (SB)
Tunisia: Jendouba, Ain Draham (SB)
Turkey: Anatolia (type of severum; MNHN); Bingol, Buglan Gecidi 1500 m (EM, SB); Ankara, Ayaş (Kocatepe & Mergen, 2004: 297); Fethiye, Uzumlu (SB); Adana: Pozanti (SB); Konya: Tuz Golu (EM, SB); Konya (http://molbiol.ru/); Mugla (SB); Mersin: Aydicink (SB); Karaman-Karadag, 1800m. (www.entomologiitaliani.net ); Şirnak, Andaç 1070m., (SB); Antalya (www.insecte.org).
Turkmenistan: Kopetdagh (Kryzhanovsky & Atamuradov, 1994: 416)
Ucraina Mukacheve (Munkács), Berehovo (Beregszász) (Narozsny, 1938: 75)
United Kingdom. Brighton (Courtis, 1848: 2113)
United States: Massachussets: Essex county (UASM), Connecticut: Cockaponset State Forest, Chester (UASM)
Uzbekistan: Khorezm reg., Karakapakstan rep. (Khamraev, 2003: 47)

Notes: Winged diurnal but in some case can be attracted to light at night. It is inhabitant of both coniferous and decidous forests. Adults and larvae are excellent climbers and feed on Lymantridae and Thaumatopoeidae (Thaumatopoea pityocampa Denis & Schiffermuller, Lophirus pini Linné, Thaumetopoea processionea Linné, Lymantria dispar L., Euproctis chrysorrhoea Linné) and other caterpillars infesting trees of genera Pinus, Quercus and Fagus. Adults hunt trunks and treetops during the day and go down to the ground at around sunset and then hide in leaf litter at the foot of the trees.
Captures of active individuals have been noted from April to August. It is not rare to find specimens overwintering in small cavities in the ground.
Calosoma sycophanta is an handsome beetle that has attracted, since the first steps of entomology, the interest of entomologists. It is one of the few Carabidae represented in the volume of Aldovrandi (De Animalibus Insectis Libri septem cum singulorum Iconibus ad vivum expressis 1638: 450, fig. 6) under the name of Scarabaeus viridis. Later Reamour (Memoires pour servir a l'histoire des Insectes, vol. II, 1736: 455 and plate 37 fig. 18) has given an account of its way of life. Subsequently there have been numerous illustrations in books of this beautiful species. It can still be interesting to recall that, because of its rarity in the British Isles, Donovan (The Natural History Of British Insects, vol. XIV, 1810: pl.477) has drawn in its place the Calosoma (Calodrepa) scrutator. This error has been then corrected by Curtis (British Entomology, 1823-1840: pl.330).
The larva of C. sycophanta has been repeatedly described and drawn, starting with the first news given by Reamour (1736, vol. II: plate 37 fig. 14, 17).

Reamour Memoires pour servir a l'histoire des Insectes, vol. II, 1736: 455 and plate 37 fig. 18
Aldovrandi (De Animalibus Insectis Libri septem cum singulorum Iconibus ad vivum expressis 1638: 450, fig. 6) under the name of Scarabaeus viridis
Calosoma (Calosoma) sycophanta
(Linné, 1758)
Italia, dint. Roma, Manziana, I.72,, Bruschi lgt.
Calosoma (Calosoma) sycophanta
(Linné, 1758)
Turkey, Pozanti, 30.4.09, Boilly
Calosoma (Calosoma) sycophanta
(Linné, 1758)
Italia, Lazio, Bagnoregio, VII.1974, Bruschi lgt.
Calosoma (Calosoma) sycophanta
(Linné, 1758)
Moravia (Calosoma sycophanta azureum det. Mandl)
(coll. Naturhistorischen Museum Basel)
Calosoma (Calosoma) sycophanta
(Linné, 1758)
Elbourz, Talyche, de 0 à 2500m, J. de Morgan
(type of Calosoma sycophanta ssp. prasinum Lapouge, 1907)
(coll. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma (Calosoma) sycophanta
(Linné, 1758)
Anatolie
(type of Calosoma sycophanta var. severum Chaudoir, 1850)
(coll. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma (Calosoma) sycophanta
(Linné, 1758)
Turkey, Pozanti, 30.4.09, Boilly
Calosoma (Calosoma) sycophanta
(Linné, 1758)
Turkey, Pozanti, 30.4.09, Boilly

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