Calosoma (Camedula) peregrinator Guérin Méneville, 1844

Calosoma peregrinator Guérin-Méneville, 1844: 255 (described from Mexico) type possibly lost (Deuve, 1978: 248)
Calosoma carbonatum LeConte, 1862: 53 (type locality: New Mexico); syntypes in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Ma (https://mczbase.mcz.harvard.edu/)
Calosoma affine (sensu Bates, 1881: 21; Breuning, 1927b: 105)
Calosoma forreri Géhin, 1885: 64, note 65 (type locality: Arizona); holotype ♂ designated by Deuve (1978: 253) by monotypy in Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris [examined]
Calosoma ampliator Bates, 1891: 223 (type locality: Mexico, Durango, Villa Lerdo); lectotype ♀ in British Museum of Natural History (Erwin, 1991: 28)
Calosoma peregrinator ingens Casey, 1913: 62 (type locality: San Diego, California); syntypes in National Museum of Natural History, Washington (https://collections.nmnh.si.edu/)
Calosoma peregrinator amplipennis Casey, 1913: 62 (type locality: New Mexico); holotype ♂ by monotypy in National Museum of Natural History, Washington (https://collections.nmnh.si.edu/)
Calosoma subgracilis Casey, 1913: 62 (type locality: ?); holotype ♂ by monotypy in National Museum of Natural History, Washington (https://collections.nmnh.si.edu/)
Calosoma apacheana Casey, 1913: 63 (type locality: Arizona); holotype ♂ by monotypy in National Museum of Natural History, Washington (https://collections.nmnh.si.edu/)
Camegonia carbonata Lapouge, 1924: 38
Calosoma (Carabosoma) glabratum ssp. peregrinator Breuning, 1927b: 105
Callitropa (Acamegonia) glabrata peregrinatrix Lapouge, 1932: 388
Callitropa (Acamegonia) glabrata affinis Lapouge, 1932: 388
Camedula (s. str.) peregrinator Jeannel, 1940: 204
Calosoma (Camedula) peregrinator Gidaspow, 1959: 257
Calosoma (Chrysostigma) ampliator Gidaspow, 1959: 267
Callisthenes (Chrysostigma) ampliator Erwin, 2007: 75
Calosoma (Carabosoma) peregrinator Erwin, 2007: 100


Length 23-33 mm. glabratum, peregrinator and sponsa are characterized by the presence of setae on the metatrochanters.
peregrinator is usually larger than glabratum and sponsa but is very variable in size, general body proportions, shape and punctuation of pronotum, presence or absence of weak striae in the elytra. But you can always easily identify it because its last abdominal segment is deeply wrinkled, in the female with erect hair.
Jeannel (1940) considered the many forms described superfluous. Among them a special case consists of the systematic position of Calosoma forreri Géhin, 1885 that correctly was considered by Breuning (1927: 103) as synonymous with C. peregrinator, but that later Jeannel (1940 : 203), followed by all subsequent authors (Gidaspow, 1959: 252 ; Erwin, 2007: 86), erroneously has attributed to C. angulicolle.
C. peregrinator is for sure a variable species. In Mexico, in particular, there are morphological variations ranging from small, very elongated specimens with almost obsolete elytral sculpture (corresponding to the characters given for Calosoma apacheana Casey, 1913), to others with strongly transverse pronotum, short and rounded elytra and punctate striae (in the old collections classified as Calosoma peregrinator amplipenne Casey, 1913).
Finally, an extreme case of morphological variation is the one of C. ampliator Bates, 1891 of which the systematic position is still under discussion. Bates (1891: 223) described the new species by comparing it with C. peregrinator that he considered the species most closely related to it. In the original description he highlighted among other characteristics: the body shape distinctly shorter and broader, the transverse pronotum with strongly rounded sides, the elytra oblong, scarcely widened behind, with finely punctate striae and visible foveae on the primary intervals.
Breuning (1926b: 174), reviewing the description of Bates (1891: 223), but apparently without knowing the type, considered C. ampliator as a synonym of C. affine, followed in this by Jeannel (1940: 169). Later Gidaspow (1959: 267) reevaluated C. ampliator as a distinct species inside of the the subgenus Chrysostigma.
The Bate's and Gidaspow's descriptions as well as the result of the examination of specimens existing in various collections and classified as C. ampliator, would lead us rather to consider it a species very closely related to C. peregrinator, or better a simple morphotype of it. Bates had already stated that the two supposed species coexisted in many places in Mexico and the existence of specimens with intermediate characteristics would favor the second hypothesis.
C. peregrinator (of which we think C. ampliator should be a synonym) is widespread in the south-western United States: Arizona, New Mexico, California, and Texas to which Jeannel adds Utah and Kansas and Erwin ( 2007: 100) adds Oklahoma, and in northern and central Mexico (Baja California, Chihuahua, Durango, Mexico, Guanajuato, Jalisco, Nuevo Leon, Michoacán, Sonora, Zacatecas). Breuning (1828: 109) added Panama (Chiriqui) to these localities, according to a quotation from Lapouge (1927: 7) that, however, has been called into question by Erwin (1991: 28)
Finally, following its importation as a potential agents of biological control into Hawaii, C. peregrinator have been also cited as part of the entomological fauna of the Islands (http://www2.bishopmuseum.org /HBS/checklist).

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Mexico. Baja California: La Cienega, Aguascalientes (Gidaspow, 1959: 258); Chihuahua: Pedernales (SB), Paso del Norte, Chihuahua city (sub C. ampliator Bates, 1891: 224), 73 km E of Chihuahua city, Yepomera, Colonia Garcia, Ciudad Jimenez (UASM); Coahuila: Saltillo (UASM); Durango: Lerdo (sub C. ampliator, Bates, 1891: 224), El Pino, Rodeo (UASM), Alemán, reserva La Michilia (Ball & Shpeley, 1991: 43), Durango city (UASM), Durango (sub C. ampliator, NMP); Guanajuato: Jalapa (sub C. ampliator Bates, 1891: 224), Irapuato (UASM), San Miguel Allende (Gidaspow, 1959: 258); Jalisco: Puerto de Cineguillas (SB), Guadalajara (SB), Encarnacion de Diaz (UASM); Nayarit: Volcan Ceboruco (UASM), El Torreon (Gidaspow, 1959: 258); Nuevo Leon: Santiago (www.inaturalist.org/observations/5087149); Mexico: Nevado de Toluca (www.gbif.org), Chapingo (Gidaspow, 1959: 258); Michoacán: Morelia (Gidaspow, 1959: 258); Nuevo Leon: Monterrey (Gidaspow, 1959: 258); Queretaro: Cadereyta (www.inaturalist.org/observations/2928325); Sinaloa: Los Mochis (AMNH), Guamúchil (SB), Culiacancito (SB), Culiacan UASM); Sonora: Navojoa (sub C. ampliator, AMNH), Valle de Yaqui (sub C. ampliator, Gidaspow, 1959: 268), Hermosillo (Gidaspow, 1959: 258), Santa Ana, Llano, Cananea, Agua Prieta, Nogales, Esqueda, Empalme, Peon, Moctezuma, Sierra San Luis, Cucurbe (UASM), Imuris. Alamos (http://madrean.org/); Tamaulipas: Nuevo Laredo (sub C. ampliator Bates, 1891: 224); Vera Cruz: Xalapa (sub C. ampliator, Gidaspow, 1959: 268), Tlapacoyan (www.gbif.org); Zacatecas: San Andres, Sombrerete (UASM), Guadelupe (Gidaspow, 1959: 258), San Andres (UASM)
United States. Arizona: Prescott (Burgess & Collins, 1917: 75), S. Cruz County (EM, SB), Pima County (EM, SB), Yavapai County (http://bugguide.net/); Cochise County (SB), Chiricahua Mountains (UASM), Huachuca Mountains (YPM, discover.odai.yale.edu/), Maricopa County, Apache County (http://madrean.org/), Payson (www.gbif.org); California: San Diego (syntype of peregrinator ingens, NMNH), San Bernardino County (http://bugguide.net/); Colorado: La Junta (Breuning, 1928a: 106); Kansas: Barber (www.gbif.org); New Mexico: Water Canyon (sub C. carbonatum; Snow, 1881: 39), Eddy County, Otero County, Dona Ana County (http://bugguide.net/), Luna county (UASM), Bernalillo County, Hidalgo County (http://madrean.org/); Oklahoma (Bousquet, 2012: 236); Texas: Jeff Davis county (SB), Culberson county, Brewster county, El Paso county, Guadalupe Mountains National Park (UASM); Utah (Bousquet, 2012: 236)

Notes: Winged, attracted to light at night. Lives on grassland and pastures, from lowlands up to an altitude of 2300m. Occasionally, has been noted climbing tree and feeding on various caterpillar as Peridroma saucia, Malacosoma americanum and Lymantria dispar but probably secure most of its food near the ground (Burgess & Collins, 1917: 75). Active individuals have been found from April to September, according to data of the examined material, but also from February to December according to Larochelle & Larivière (2003: 180), and in some areas adults were found overwintering in the soil.

Calosoma (Camedula) peregrinator
Guérin Méneville, 1844
United States, Arizona: S. Cruz County,
Rio Rico, VIII.1973, Lenczy leg.
Calosoma (Camedula) peregrinator
Guérin Méneville, 1844
United States, Arizona: S. Cruz County,
Rio Rico, VIII.1973, Lenczy leg.
Calosoma (Camedula) peregrinator
Guérin Méneville, 1844
Etats Unis, Arizona
(holotype of Calosoma forreri Géhin, 1885)
(coll. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma (Camedula) peregrinator
Guérin Méneville, 1844
Mexico. Chihuahua, (3447; 8100, coll. Pr. Poncetton – ex J. Clermont)
C
Calosoma (Camedula) peregrinator
Guérin Méneville, 1844
Mexico: Guadalajara

Calosoma (Camedula) peregrinator
Guérin Méneville, 1844
Mexico. Sinaloa: Guanamuchil

Calosoma (Camedula) peregrinator
Guérin Méneville, 1844
Mexico. Sinaloa, 34 ml North los Mochis 27.VII.1943
(sub. Calosoma (Chrysostigma) ampliator, det. Gidaspow)
(coll. American Museum of Natural History, New York)
Calosoma (Camedula) peregrinator
Guérin Méneville, 1844
Mexico. Sonora Navojoa.VIII 3 1952 c&p Vaurie
(sub. Calosoma (Chrysostigma) ampliator, det. Gidaspow)
(coll. American Museum of Natural History, New York)

last review April 22 2019

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