Calosoma (Caminara) imbricatum Klug, 1832

Each elytron of C. imbricatum has 16 intervals, it is to say that only one tertiary interval exists on each sides of a secondary one (triploid type). C. imbricatum is the only species of Caminara that has this model of sculture of the elytra.
Does exist in South West Africa a population (hottentottum) that seems to be isolated and that is well characterized by its slimmer body shape and by a lively metallic color, but in the remaining area in which it is diffused, C. imbricatum presents a very scarce differentiation, concerning some variation in size and body shape, or the greater or lesser visibility of the sculpture of the elytra.
However, in the north east of the distribution area (Central Asia and north of China, up to Mongolia) we find a population (deserticola) that has a larger and more elongated body with less raised elytral sculpture. Semenov (1897) described deserticola as a separated species and Breuning (1927) and Jeannel (1940) followed this interpretation. At last, Mandl (1970: 62) dealt with deserticola as a mere subspecies of C. imbricatum, along with others he had described in the meantime (1953, 1967, 1970).
In our opinion, except hottentottum and deserticola, the remaining populations of C. imbricatum, that are widespread from Cabo Verde archipelago through the Sahelian zone to Arabia, Syria, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, do not present significant differences except for a slight variation in size. However, from North of the Indian Peninsula has been described another population, also of relatively large size, but stouter and with a still more flattened sculpture of elytra (andrewesi), that possibly also could be maintained at subspecies level.

Calosoma (Caminara) imbricatum imbricatum Klug, 1832

Calosoma imbricatum Klug, 1832: pl.XI (described from: Cap Vert); lectotype in Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin (Andrewes, 1929: 64)
Caminara arabica Motschulsky, 1865:304 (described from Arabia); type material: 1 ♂, depository not stated
Calosoma (Caminara) imbricatum Breuning, 1927: 221
Caminara (Caminara) imbricata Lapouge, 1932: 410
Caminara (Caminara) imbricata arabica Lapouge, 1932: 410
Caminara imbricatum Jeannel, 1940: 104
Calosoma (Caminara) imbricatum ssp. loeffleri Mandl, 1953: 57 (partim) (type locality: Kerman, Rigmati); holotipe ♂ in Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien, paratipes in Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig, Bonn (Ulmen et al. 2010: 10) and in Naturhistorischen Museum Basel [examined]
Calosoma (Caminara) imbricatum loeffleri m. rufoappendiculata Mandl, 1967: 44 (described from Sistan and Baluchistan, Bampour) type material 1 ♂ depository not stated
Calosoma (Caminara) imbricatum linnavuorii Mandl, 1968c: 128 (type locality: Somalia, Hargheissa); holotype ♂ in Zoologischen Museum Helsinki, paratype in Naturhistorischen Museum Basel [examined]
Calosoma (Caminara) imbricatum ssp. linnavouorii Mandl, 1970: 61

Length 15-22 mm. What we consider as the typical populations are the ones with individuals of small or medium size having finely punctate head and pronotum, elytra in oval widened, and elytral sculpture with scaly intervals. The upper body is black, with faint bluish reflexes.
C. imbricatum imbricatum continuously spreads in Africa, excluding the area of equatorial forest, throughout the Sahelian zone, Algeria, Libia, Senegal, Mali, Niger, Chad, to Sudan, Eritrea, Djibuti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya. It is present in Cabo Verde islands but not in the Canary islands and Andrewes' quote (1929: 64) for Tenerife must be considered incorrect (Machado, 1992: 87).
In East Africa it is possible to find single specimens with slightly more wrinkled head and a little stronger elytral sculpture. On this basis Mandl (1968c: 128) described from Somalia the subspecies linnavuorii that he considered intermediate between the typical one and ottenttotum and that would be present throughout the Horn of Africa from Somalia to Kenya. However, the inconsistency of these characteristics does not seem to justify this subspecies.
In Kenya, the situation is more complicate. In north-eastern Kenya, we find some populations definitely referable to C imbricatum imbricatum and Breuning (1927: 221) reports the nominate subspecies from south west (Taveta, very close to the Tanzanian border). Jeannel (1940: 105) cites C. imbricatum hottentottum from the locality of Sultan Hamud in Makueni Province and Mandl (1970: 61) has attributed this citation to his C. imbricatum linnavuorii.
Still from Amboseli park, not far from Sultan Hamud, and from Karatu in Eastern Tanzania we have seen specimens with more pronounced characteristics of sculpture and color, very similar to C. imbricatum hottentottum. These specimens have more or less evident bronze reflections on the upper side of the body and rougher elytral sculpture than C imbricatum imbricatum.
One might conclude with Jeannel that C. imbricatum hottentottum is present in western Kenya (Bruschi, 2013: 76), and in Eastern Tanzania, or one might consider these specimens as simple individual variations within C imbricatum imbricatum. However, before definitevely deciding if these specimens are part of an omogeneous population and eventually which relationships there are between this population and C. imbricatum hottentottum, remain to explain the presence of specimens of the typical form in the same region of Kenya and the strange fact that so far no specimens of imbricatum have been found in the vast area between eastern Tanzania and Namibia.
Going to East, the roughness of the head and pronotum decreases and the elytral sculpture tends to flatten. We find populations variously named, but which can also be referred to the typical form and that live in the Arabic peninsula: Yemen, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar and Iraq (which Mandl considers all as C. imbricatum arabicum), Syria, southern Iran (C. imbricatum loeffleri), up to Pakistan. The populations of the south eastern Pakistan someway accentuate these characteristic and look as transitional to C. imbricatum andrewesi.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Algeria. Temassinin (Fort Flatters); Tassili n'Ajjer (Mountains Domergue) (Jeannel, 1940: 105), Ouargla (Jeannel, 1940: 54).
Burkina Faso. Gorom-gorom, Essakane (SB)
Cabo Verde (Republic of). Ilha de Boa Vista (SB): 2 km S Sal Rei, Praia da Chave (Aistleitner & Baehr 2016: 53); Ilha Brava (Wollaston, 1867: 6): Nova Sintra, Lem, Covada 420m, Ribeira do Sorno 50m, Santana 490m (Aistleitner & Baehr 2016: 53); Ilha do Fogo (Breuning, 1927: 221): São Filipe (Herbert, 1987: 97); Ilha do Maio (Oromí & al., 2005: 79): Morinho, Punta Morinho, Vila do Maio (Aistleitner & Baehr 2016: 53); Ilha do Sal: airport (RMCA), Espargo (Herbert, 1987: 97), middle east coast 100m, Terra Boa, Murdeira (Aistleitner & Baehr 2016: 53); Ilha de Santo Antão (Breuning, 1927: 221): Cruzinha da Garça, Lagoa, 1250m (Aistleitner & Baehr 2016: 53); Ilha de São Nicolau (RMCA): Ribeira Brava (Aistleitner & Baehr 2016: 53); Ilha de Santiago (Wollaston, 1867: 6): Praia (Herbert, 1987: 97); Ilha de São Vicente (Wollaston, 1867: 6): São Pedro (Herbert, 1987: 97).
Chad. (Tschad See, Breuning, 1927: 222)
Djibuti. Djibuti (EM, SB); Ali Sabieh reg: Holhol (SB); Ambouli (DP, EM, SB); Obock (RMCA, SB), bay of Tadjoura (Breuning, 1927: 222).
Egypt. Alexandria (Breuning, 1927: 222); Gulf of Solum, El Hamam, Assuan, Wadi Halfa, Gebel Elba (Schatzmayr, 1936: 24), Marsa Halaib, Wadi Haideb, Abu Simbel, Sallum, Maryut lake (Alfieri, 1976: 3).
Eritrea. Wachiro (AC); Massaua (SB).
Ethiopia. Gamo Gofa: Kelam (AVT); Oromia: Langano Lake (SB); 40 km W Konza (SB).
Iran. Fars (Mandl, 1970: 63); Hormozgan: Abad Geno, 40 km nord Bander Abbas (EM), 45Km East of Bandar Abbas (SB), Posht-Koh Village, Minab road (Azadbakhsh & al., 2015b: 226), Hasan-Langi (Azadbakhsh & al. 2015a: 45); Kerman: Rigmati, (paratype of loeffleri) (NMB); Lorestan: Firouz Abad (Mandl, 1970: 63); Sistan and Baluchistan: Bampur, Khasch, Iranshahr, Irafshan (Mandl, 1970: 63); Tehran: 70km SW Tehran, Yusefabad (Mandl: 1967; 458).
Iraq. Basrah (Andrewes, 1929: 64), Ramadi (Mandl: 1967; 458).
Kenya. North Eastern Province: El Wak (SB, TL); Eastern Province: Laisamis (SB); Marsabit to South Orr (Häckel et al, 2016: 15), Ngurunit (Ebay.com), Taveta (Breuning, 1927: 221); Rift Valley Province: Amboseli Nat park (SB; Häckel et al, 2016: 15 sub hottentottum), Gakong (SB), Oltepesi (SB); Makueni Province: Sultan Hamid (sub hottentottum, Jeannel, 1940: 105).
Kuwait. Sha`ab, Erifjan, Sobiya, Kathma, Um Neqa, Rhawdatin, Burgan, Jal Al-Zor, Khiran, Doha, Khaldya (Al-Houty, 2004: 62); Bayan, Khwasat, Erifjan, Sha`ab (sub deserticola Al-Houty, 2004: 62).
Lybia. Fazzan: suburb of Ghat (JCR).
Mali. Timbuctu (Jeannel, 1940: 105), Gao (insecterra.forumactif.com).
Niger. Aïr, Tabélot (RMCA); Agadés (Breuning, 1927: 222); Nguigmi (Mandl, 1970: 61); Agadés reg. Arlit (Aïr)(SB
Oman. Jebel Huwarrah (DP); Dhofar prov: Wadi Quitbit (NMP); Al-Wusta: E. of Al Ghubar (www.inaturalist.org); Taquah env Samahram(SB); Muscat (www.inaturalist.org); Adh-Dhahira: Ibri (www.inaturalist.org)
Pakistan. Baluchistan: Ashtola (Astola) island (Andrewes, 1929: 64), Khusdar (SB), Quetta (SB), SW Quetta (Mandl, 1970: 63); Punjab: Bahawalpur (NIM), Meyal near Attock (EM); Khyber Pakhtunkhwa: Kohat (NIM); Sindh: Mithi (NIM), Karachi (Andrewes, 1929: 64)
Qatar. Abu Samrah (Abdu & Shaumar, 1985)
Saudi Arabia. Rub al Khati (AMNH); Jidda (Jeddah) (RMCA); Asfan (TL); Hejaz (Andrewes, 1929: 64); Riyadh (Wittmer & al., 1979: 527); 100 km NE Riyadh, Rawdhat Khorim NP 550m (Abdel-Dayem & al., 2017; SB); Riyadh prov. NE of Quwayiyah 728m (SB), Al Khasrah 864m. (SB); Al-Baha prov: El-Hawya, Wadi Turabet Zahran (El-Hawagry & al, 2013); Makkah prov: Taif (SB).
Senegal. Richard Tol (SB)
Somalia. Genale (AC); Hargheissa (sub linnavuorii Mandl, 1968c: 128); 25km NW Berbera, Daragodleh (sub linnavuorii Mandl, 1968c: 128); 25 km S of El Buh (El Haga) (RMCA); El Afweyn (El Afweina) (BMNH; Vigna Taglianti & Bruschi, 1988: 238); Dolo (www.entomologiitaliani.net)
Sudan. Khartum (NMP), Port Sudan (NMP), El Fasher (RMCA); Ambukohl (Breuning, 1927: 222); Wadi Halfa (Schatzmayr, 1936: 24); Kassala, Abend Pass (Mandl, 1968c: 128); Suakin (Breuning, 1927: 222)
Syria. as-Suwayda: Al Kafr (SB)
Tanzania. Arusha: 5km S. from Karatu 1430m (SB)
United Arab Emirates. Ras Al Khaimah (www.biolib.cz), Tawi as Saman (SB), Shardza (Al Sharjah) (SB), Al Bataeh (www.inaturalist.org)
Yemen. (Breuning, 1927: 222); Is. Socotra: Hadibu plain (BMNH; Vigna Taglianti & Bruschi, 1988: 240), Shuab (SB)

Notes: Winged, attracted to light at night. Taking into account the wide distribution area, almost entirely included in the equatorial, tropical and sub-tropical zones, the period of activity covers the whole year but varies locally influenced by the precipitation regimes.

Calosoma (Caminara) imbricatum imbricatum
Klug, 1832
Eritrea: Massaua, XII.1972, Boemi lg.
Calosoma (Caminara) imbricatum imbricatum
Klug, 1832
Djibuti II.1990
Calosoma (Caminara) imbricatum imbricatum
Klug, 1832
Somalia, N. Hargheissa,23-28.VI.63. paratype of Calosoma (Caminara) imbricatum linnavuorii Mandl, 1968.
(coll. Naturhistorischen Museum Basel)
Calosoma (Caminara) imbricatum imbricatum
Klug, 1832
Sud Est Persien, Rigmati, West Deghaz, Marian 1950
paratype of Calosoma (Caminara) imbricatum loeffleri Mandl, 1953
(coll. Naturhistorischen Museum Basel)
Calosoma (Caminara) imbricatum imbricatum
Chaudoir, 1852
Djibouti: Ambouli, leg. G.Nazaret (coll. D. Peslier)
Calosoma (Caminara) imbricatum imbricatum
Chaudoir, 1852
Kenya: Amboseli Nat. Park, 25.Jan.2001,Nádai Lázló lg.

Calosoma (Caminara) imbricatum imbricatum
Klug, 1832
Iran: Abad Geno, 40km nordlich von Bander Abbas,
7.IV.1972, F Ressl leg. (coll.E. Migliaccio)
Calosoma (Caminara) imbricatum imbricatum
Klug, 1832
Pakistan: Baluchistan Prov., Khusdar,
23.07.09, Muhammad Akter


Calosoma (Caminara) imbricatum ottentottum Chaudoir, 1852

Calosoma hottentottum Chaudoir, 1852: 99. Type material: description compatible with one specimen, no locality given (another specimen mentioned in the description from: Cap de Bonne Espérance); lectotype ♂ (ex Musaeo Chaudoir. no locality label) designated by Deuve (1978: 249), in Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris [examined]
Calosoma (Caminara) imbricatum ssp. hottentottum Breuning, 1927: 221
Caminara (Caminara) imbricata imbricata hottentota Lapouge, 1932: 410
Ctenosta aethiops Jeannel, 1940: 127 (type locality: Aïr, Azbin, Rég. de Tintaboirac, 20Km E. d’Agadés); holotype ♂ in Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (synonymy established by Hackel & al., 2016) [examined]
Caminara imbricatum subsp. hottentota Jeannel, 1940: 104

Length 18-20 mm. This population is distinguished from the others because of head and pronotum with large punctures and with deep, transverse, wrinkles and because of the rougher sculpture of the elytra. Moreover, C imbricatum hottentottum in all cases has the upper part with bronze reflexes (not bluish as in the other populations).
C imbricatum hottentottum is known living in Namibia and South Africa, and most probably should be restricted to these countries.
However, it should be noted that, coming back to the idea firstly expressed by Jeannel (1940: 105), Hackel & al. (2016) consider the specimens from South West Kenya (Amboseli park) as C. imbricatum hottentottum, while we prefer to deal with them them as simple individual variations within C imbricatum imbricatum, as we have already argued above.
Finally, Hackel & al. (2016) also regard the holotype of C. aetiops from Niger as a specimen of C. imbricatum hottentottum (see more details when specifically dealing with C. roeschkei). Yet, in the latter case, the Jeannel's holotipe should be considered as having an incorrect locality label, as, up to now, no more specimens having the same characteristics of the holotype have never be found in the place, while the typical form is relatively common throughout Niger.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Namibia. Erongo: Omaruru (SB), Usakos 900m. (SB), between Omaruru and Uis (EM) Spitzkoppe (Kuntzen, 1919: 113), Walvis Bay (IZICO, gbif.org); Hardap: Mariental 1120 m (SB), Maltahöhe (www.inaturalist.org); Karas: Grunau env., Withuis (www.inaturalist.org), Klein Karas Mts. (RMCA), Great Karas Mts. (IZICO, gbif.org); Khomas: Nauchas 1770m (SB); Otjitambi (Mandl, 1970: 62); Kunene: Kamanjab (TL); Hardap reg: Maltahohe 1350m. (SB), Kalkrand 1226m (SB); Otjozondjupa: Okahandja (EM), Otjivarongo, between Gobabis and Aranos (Häckel et al, 2016: 15), Rehoboth (SB), between Otjosondu and Kub (Kuntzen, 1919: 113).
South Africa. Cap de Bonne Espérance (MNHN); Western Cape: Upington (RMCA), Pniel (Jeannel, 1940: 105); Northern Cape: Kimberley (Breuning, 1927: 223), SW Kimberley, 13 km SW Ritchie (Häckel et al, 2016: 15); Augrabies National Park, Orange river (http://assazhnev.narod.ru/carab_atlas.html).

Notes: Winged, attracted to light at night. Active individuals were captured from January to March

Calosoma (Caminara) imbricatum hottentottum
Chaudoir, 1852
no locality label
(lectotype of Calosoma hottentota Chaudoir, 1852)
(Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma (Caminara) imbricatum hottentottum
Chaudoir, 1852
Aïr, Azbin, Rég. de Tintaboirac, 20Km E. d’Agadés (Capitaine Posth) (holotype of Ctenosta aethiops) Jeannel, 1940
(coll. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma (Caminara) imbricatum hottentottum
Chaudoir, 1852
Namibia: Mariental 1120 m., Mariental town, 24°37' S, 17°57'E.,
3-4.III.97, Audisio, Bologna, Zapparoli lg.
Calosoma (Caminara) imbricatum hottentottum
Chaudoir, 1852
Namibia: Mariental 1120 m., Mariental town, 24°37' S, 17°57'E.,
3-4.III.97, Audisio, Bologna, Zapparoli lg.


Calosoma (Caminara) imbricatum deserticola Semenov, 1897

Calosoma deserticola Semenov, 1897: 242 (distributrion indicated in the description: Transcaspica, Turkestan occ.) original material: unspecified number of specimens, no repository given.; syntypes in Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Jeannel, 1940: 116)
Calosoma (Caminara) deserticola Breuning, 1927: 223
Caminara (Caminara) imbricata andrewesi deserticola Lapouge, 1932: 410
Campalita deserticola Jeannel, 1940: 116
Calosoma (Caminara) imbricatum ssp. deserticola Mandl, 1969: 2
Caminara deserticola Basilewski, 1972: 37
Calosoma (Caminara) deserticola ssp. augustasi Obydov, 2005: 5 (type locality: Mongolia, 30km SW from Bugat), holotype ♂ in Timiryazev State Museum of Biology Moscow, paratypes in TMB and in coll. Saldaitis, Vilnius.

Length 22-28 mm. Calosoma deserticola was described by Semenov (1897) as a species and maintained as such by Breuning (1927), albeit doubtfully, and by Jeannel (1940) who even included it in a different genus (Campalita). It has been considered by Lapouge (1932) and later by Mandl (1969) as a mere subspecies of C. imbricatum. In fact C. imbricatum deserticola is quite similar to the typical C. imbricatum imbricatum and only can be distinguished because of the constantly larger body size, the more flat sculpture of the elytra and by the black colour without bluish or bronze reflections.
The populations of Central Asia mostly have larger body and less expanded elytra, but going east (Mongolia) the individuals became smaller and stouter, although maintaining the same model of elytral sculpture. Obidov (2005: 5) considered the Mongolian population as a distinc taxon (C. deserticola augustasi). The diagnosys has been based on feeble differences: the lesser size, the more evident sculpture of the head, pronotum and elytra, the larger foveae on the primary intervals, and the slightly thicker aedeagus apex. These differences, apart from the different shape of the aedeagus, a little exaggerated in the original description, are constant but barely perceptible, and in our opinion do not deserve to be taken into consideration to further subdivide such a variable species as the complex of C. imbricatum is. Thus we can simply conclude that C. imbricatum deserticola in Mongolia is represented by an isolated, but very little differentiated, population. As for the populations of northeren Iran, south western Turkmenistan and possibly of western Pakistan, these could represent a transition between C. imbricatum deserticola and the typical form, as supposed by Breuning (1927: 224).

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Afghanistan. Herat: Bala Murghab; Maimana: Ali Gul; Badghis: Wadi-ye Namak Shor, Mangan (Mandl, 1970: 61)
China. Xinjiang: Fukang (Kabak et al., 2019: 1163); Gurbantünggüt Desert (Kabak et al., 2019: 1164)
Iran. Kerman: Jussuffabad (Taybad) (Mandl, 1970: 61); North Khorasan: Faruj (SB); Razavi Khorasan: Bajestan, Neyshabour, Sabzevar (Keikhosravi et al., 2020: 53); Teheran: 50km south-west Teheran (Mandl, 1970: 61)
Kazakhstan. Mangystau reg.: Beyneu env.(SB), Zhylyoyskiy (www.inaturalist.org); Ustyurt Plateau (www.zin.ru/); Usek valley near Zharkent (Kabak et al., 2019: 1164)
Mongolia. Bayankhongor aimag: 60 km S. Bayankhongor 1640m (sub deserticola augustasi, Obidov, 2005: 7); Gobi-Altai aimak: Alag-Nur Lake (SB); 30 km SW Bugat 1270m; Zahuin Gobi Desert 1090m, Sharga Somon 1030m (sub deserticola augustasi, Obidov, 2005: 7); Ömnögovǐ aimag: Gurvan tés (Mandl, 1970: 61); 2-3 km SW Dund gol, (Mandl, 1969: 2; MTTM, gbif.org)
Russia. Astrakhan reg: 70 km S. Astrachan' (SB), Selitrennoye (SB), Dosang vill.(sub imbricatum, www.inaturalist.org)
Turkmenistan. Ashabad (Semenov, 1897: 243); Nebit-Dag (SB); Kopet Dag, Karakata vill. (SB); Repetek Nat. reserve (SB, TL); Merw (SB); Karakum desert, 50 km. SE Chardjew (SB); Kizilkum desert (Breuning, 1927: 224); Serdar (Kizil Arwat) (EM); Ljutfabad (EM); Türkmenbaşy (Krasnovodsk) (Semenov, 1897: 243), Tedschen (Mandl, 1970: 61)
Uzbekistan. Taskent (SB); Khorezm reg., Karakapakstan rep. (Khamraev, 2003: 47); Kizil Kum desert (Mandl, 1970: 61)

Notes: C. imbricatum deserticola is winged and inhabits sandy semidesertic steppes, sandy semideserts and sand deserts, where it hides in the sand during the day. At night it hunts and is an excellent climber. Active individuals were captured in spring from the middle of April to the beginning of July

Calosoma (Caminara) imbricatum deserticola
Semenov, 1897
Turkmenistan: Merw, juin 1896
Calosoma (Caminara) imbricatum deserticola
Semenov, 1897
Turkmenistan: Repetek (Nat. reserve),
15-30.IV.1990, Sendek lgt.
Calosoma (Caminara) imbricatum deserticola
Semenov, 1897
SW Mongolia: Gobi-Altai aimak, Dzhungarian Gobi,
Alag-Nur Lake 1300m. (near Ajlyn-Tsan-Khuduk),
1-2.VI.2011 Yakovlev lgt.

Calosoma (Caminara) imbricatum andrewesi Breuning, 1928

Calosoma (Caminara) imbricatum var. andrewesi Breuning, 1928: 95 (type locality: Assam) holotype ♂ in Naturalis Biodiversity Centre, Leiden (de Boer, 2002: 27)
Caminara (Caminara) imbricata andrewesi Lapouge, 1932: 410
Caminara imbricatum Subsp. Andrewesi Jeannel, 1940: 104
Calosoma (Caminara) imbricatum ssp. loeffleri Mandl, 1953: 57 (partim)

Length 20-22 mm. Chaudoir (1869: 368) cited one specimens of a Calosoma coming from India which he had found to be very similar to C. imbricatum and which he thought might be tentatively identified as the Calosoma orientale previously described by Hope. Breuning (1927: 223), once he ascertained the presence of a population of C. imbricatum in India, kept the name Calosoma imbricatum orientale for it and so endorsed the misunderstanding of Chaudoir. Only later, Breuning (1928: 95) correctly identified C. orientale of Hope with the species that Chaudoir (1869: 368) had named C. squamigerum, and for this reason he proposed for the Indian population of C. imbricatum the new name andrewesi.
C. imbricatum andrewesi consists of populations of a relatively larger size, with a stout body and flattened elytral sculpture. The colour of the upper body is a dull, not metallic, black.
Few old captures are cited from Nort-Eastern India (Bengal, Assam), but in recent times some more specimens were found in the Western Indian State of Rajasthan and in Pakistan on the borders of the Thar desert. Anyway reliable data are scarce and, as for the Indian sub-continent, C. imbricatum seems to be quite rare or at least quite difficult to detect.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
India. Assam (holotype, Breuning, 1928b: 95); North of Bengal Presidency (Chaudoir, 1869: 368); Rajasthan: Jaipur (SB), Jodhpur (sub imbricatum imbricatum, Kumar S. et al., 2022: 22263), Mount Abu (RS), between Bikaner and Jaisalmer (RS), Thar Desert (sub loeffleri, Mandl, 1970: 63).
Pakistan. Sindh prov. Tharparkar dist (SB).

Notes: As the other populations of the same species, C. imbricatum andrewesi is winged and attracted to light at night. Active individuals were captured in July.
The subspecies has been named after Herbert Edward Andrewes (1863 - 1950) an English entomologist, specialist in Carabidae, that worked at the Indian Forest Service and later at the Natural History Museum in London.

Calosoma (Caminara) imbricatum andrewesi
Breuning, 1928
India: Rajasthan, Mount Abu, (coll. R. Sciaky)
Calosoma (Caminara) imbricatum andrewesi
Breuning, 1928
India: Rajasthan, Jaipur, VII 1988, Pad. Mal. leg.
updated April 18 2024

Back