Calosoma (Caminara) olivieri Dejean, 1831

Calosoma olivieri Dejean, 1831: 559 (described from: Bagdad); holotype ♂ designated by Deuve (1978: 247) by monotypy in Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris [examined]
Calosoma azoricum Heer, 1860: V (foot note) (described from: "Azoren") type material not stated and no repository given
Calosoma (Campolyta) Olivieri, Bedel, 1895: 20
Calosoma (Caminara) olivieri, Breuning, 1927: 224
Charmosta (Catasoma) Olivieri, Lapouge, 1929: 10
Campalita olivieri, Jeannel, 1940: 117
Caminara olivieri, Basilewski, 1972: 37

Length 20-28 mm. C. olivieri is characterized by a small, just transverse, pronotum. As for the elytral sculpture, it consists of scaly intervals not much raised but recognizable, The intervals are all of the same width and height ("homodyname" type) and there are two tertiary intervals on each sides of a secondary one ("pentaploïde" type).
C. olivieri is meet in a very wide area from the Atlantic coast of Africa, to India and Central Asia without significant changes in its morphology. It is known of the Azores, the Canaries and Cabo Verde islands, is present across northern Africa from the Mediterranean coast at the northern edge of the Sahara and in Egypt. Possibly as an occasional visitor, C. olivieri has been found in Spain (Branes, 1990; Serrano, 2003: 14), in the the Maltese Islands (Mifsud & Vigna Taglianti, 1999: 27) and in Italy, in the islands of Lampedusa (Vigna Taglianti, 1995: 364) and Pantelleria (Romano, 2010), and at Palermo (Sparacio, 2003). Furthermore it is present, and in some cases relatively abundant, in southern Anatolia (including the island of Cyprus), Asia Minor, Iraq, Syria, Arabian Peninsula, Iran, Turkmenistan, Pakistan, Afghanistan.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Afghanistan. Nangharkhar prov: Jalalabad (SB); Kabul (Mandl, 1955: 325); Nuristan prov: Bashgul valley (Mandl, 1955: 325); Bamiyan prov: Band-e Amir (http://molbiol.ru/); Parwan prov: Bagram env (SB)
Algeria. Ain Sefra, Sebdou, El-Kreider, Tilremt, El-Kantara, Biskra, Mgruega (Bedel, 1895: 20), Laghouat (SB); Beni Abbes (SB); Tamanrasset (ex coll. A Vandel), Béchar (Colomb-Béchar) (Jeannel, 1940:117)
Azores Islands (Portugal). Flores, Corvo, Terceira (Jeannel, 1940:117), San Miguel, Santa Maria (as azoricum, Heer, 1860: VI), Faia, Pico, Graciosa, São Jorge (Gabriel & al., 2005: 198)
Cabo Verde (Republic of). Ilha de Boa Vista (Oromí & al., 2005: 79); Ilha Brava (Jeannel, 1940:117); Ilha do Fogo (Oromí & al., 2005: 79); Ilha de Santo Antão: Cova (Herbert, 1987: 97); Ilha de São Nicolau (Jeannel, 1940:117); Ilha do Sal (Oromí & al., 2005: 79); Ilha de Santiago (Oromí & al., 2005: 79); Ilha de São Vicente (Wollaston, 1865: 3)
Canaries Islands (Spain). El Hierro: Mirador de Bascos 650m; La Gomera: Valle Gran Rey, Torián, San Sebastián; La Palma: Los Llanos; Tenerife: Las Galletas, El Médano; Gran Canaria: Maspalomas, Cruz de Tejeda 1550m, Tufia (Machado, 1992: 90); Fuerteventura: (Wollaston, 1865: 3), Tuineje, Morro del Peñón, (University of La Laguna, gbif.org), Playa de Jandía, Pico de la Zarza (Jandía) 500m, Jandía 700m, Betancuria (Machado, 1992: 90); Lanzarote: (Wollaston, 1865: 3), Arrecife (Machado, 1992: 90).
Cyprus. nomos Paphos, Peristerona (SB); Akrotiri peninsula (Austin & al., 2011)
Egypt. Wadi Abu Ghuşun (SB); Cairo (Breuning, 1927: 224), Marsa Alam (www.entomologiitaliani.net); Ghizeh, Abu Rawash, Mokattam, Nile Delta (Schatzmayr, 1936: 24); Heliopolis, Kom Ombo, Kosseima, Wadi Um Mitla (Alfieri, 1976: 3); South Sinai Desert (Semida & al., 2001: 145); Red Sea Gov: Qism Ras Ghareb (www.inaturalist.org/).
Iran. Fars: Dashte Arjan, (Azadbakhsh et al. 2015c: 20); Golestan: Ramian (Ghahari & al., 2009: 439); Kerman: Zarand (57º03'E 30º81'N), Anar (55º35'E 30º32'N), Jiroft (58º3'E 28º3'N) (Sadeghi & al., 2011: 189), Sabzawaran, Hosseinabad (Mandl, 1953: 55); Khorasan: Khunik pass, 2100 m (SB), Kashmar (Ghahari & al., 2009: 439), Mashhad, Torbat-e-Jam (Namaghi & al., 2010: 200),; Hormozgan prov: Posht-Koh Village (Azadbakhsh & al., 2015: 226); Mazandaran prov. Behshahr (Ghahari & al., 2009: 439); Sarbishe prov: Kuh E Momenabad, 2200 m (SB); Semnan prov: Tahar 2100 m (SB); Sistan and Baluchistan: Dasht 1000 m (SB), Dasht-e Lut (PP), 40km W Jaz Murian Depression (Mandl, 1953: 55), Bampur, Sarbaz (Mandl, 1967: 44); Zanjan: Zanjan (Azadbakhsh et al. 2015c: 20).
Iraq. Bagdad (holotype, MNHN); Najaf (www.inaturalist.org); Bakuba (= Baʿqūba) (Mandl: 1967; 458); Basrah (Andrewes, 1929: 64), Mosul (http://veterinarymedicine.uomosul.edu.iq/); Bassora: Abu al Khasib (www.inaturalist.org)
Israel. Lower Galilee: Quiryat Tivon (EO); Arava Valley, Hazeva (EO); Hazerim (SB); Ashdod: Gan Hadarom (AL); Nord Neguev: Ezuz (AL); Be'er Sheva (SB); ; Haifa (www.inaturalist.org); Northern District: Nahariya, Acre (www.inaturalist.org); Jerusalem; Tel Aviv-Yafo (www.inaturalist.org)
Italy. Pantelleria, contrada Bugeber (MR) (www.entomologiitaliani.net ); Lampedusa, contrada Tepranova (MR) (Vigna Taglianti, 1995: 364); Palermo, Quartiere Cruillas (Sparacio, 2003)
Jordan. Wadi Rum (SB)
Kuwait. Mischan Island, Erifjan, Kathma, Khwasat, Sha`ab, Rhawdatin, Burgan, Jal Al-Zor, Sobiya (Al-Houty, 2004: 62); Mubarak Al-Kabeer; Hawalli: Salwa, Bayan (www.inaturalist.org)
Liban. Tripoli (AL)
Libya. Brizì Ullià (EM), Taworga (RMCA), Tripolitania: Audjila-Dialo (Bedel, 1895: 20), Ghadames (http://jcringenbach.free.fr/); Mizda (Boll. Ist. Ent. Univ. Bologna, 33-34, 1977: 68); Bengasi: Tilimùn (sub azoricum) (Gridelli, 1930: 12)
Malta. Valletta (Mifsud & Vigna Taglianti, 1999: 27)
Mauritania. Zouerate (SB)
Morocco. Mogador (Bedel, 1895: 20); Bir Yelma (SB); Agadir (SB); Oran (RMCA); Laayoune (EM); Azrou (SB); Western Sahara, Smamit (RMCA); Izik (RMCA); Dora (RMCA), Cap Rhir, 10km SW Tamri (SB); Tan-Tan (http://www.ebay.it/), Iaadlane, Antiatlas Mts. 1000m (sub C. maderae, www.biolib.cz).
Oman. Carcot 600 m (SB); Mahdah (AL); Muscat (Andrewes, 1929: 64)
Pakistan. Punjab: Pindi Gheb (EM); Balochistan: Quetta (SB), Nushki (Andrewes, 1929: 64); Khyber Pakhtunkhwa: Kohat (NIM), Karak (NIM), Peshawar, Taru (Andrewes, 1929: 66); Sindh: Jacobabad (SB); Jammu and Kashmir: Mirpur (NIM).
Saudi Arabia. Ramanah (AMNH); Riyadh (Wittmer & al., 1979: 527); Riyadh prov. NE of Quwayiyah 728m (SB); Thumamah National Park, 84km N of Riyadh (Mateu, 1990: 39); Hedjaz (Mateu, 1990: 39)
Spain. Málaga prov: Mijas (Serrano, 2003: 14)
Syria. Damascus (Jeannel, 1940: 118), 42 km. N. Damascus 1000 m (SB); Slinfe 1336m. (SB)
Tunisia. Gafsa, Bled Thala (Bedel, 1895: 20); Djebel Tebaga (EM); Tozeur (EM); Gabes, Matmata (SB)
Turkey. Birecik (SB); Adana, (Jeannel, 1940: 118)
Turkmenistan. Karakum (AL); Askhabad (Breun., 1927: 224); Repetek (Breun., 1927: 224)
United Arab Emirates. Ras Al Khaimah (www.biolib.cz/), Shardza (Al Sharjah) (SB)
Uzbekistan. Lotfabad (Ljutfabad) (Breun., 1927: 224)

Notes: The species was named after Guillaume-Antoine Olivier (1756 –1814) a famous French entomologist and botanist.
C. olivieri is winged, attracted to light at night. According to the data given by Jeannel (1940: 118), in Tunisia, the larva feeds on caterpillar and lavae of Diptera. The adults have been observed in Pakistan catching caterpillar of Cirphis unipunctata or nymphs of Schistocerca gregaria.
Active individuals of C. olivieri were captured from October to July. The species seems absent only in the short period of the summer, the more dry and hot of the year
As it happens with most species of Calosoma, in the case of C. olivieri, sudden and showy invasions of numerous specimens can occur in agrarian or urban areas, due to local climatic conditions that increase the availability of prey. In the unusually rainy spring of 2019, this is what happened in Mosul in Iraq where the sudden appearance of the Calosoma has worried the citizens (http://veterinarymedicine.uomosul.edu.iq/news_details.php?details=978). Also the presence of some living specimens of C. olivieri, that arrived in Europe in the same period transported with foodstuffs from Israel (personal comunication to the author), is certainly due to the unusual abundance of Calosoma in the cultivated fields of that country.
Mayet (1887: 171) described the larva.

Calosoma (Caminara) olivieri
Dejean, 1831
Israel: Hazerim, 15, april, 1988, Orbach leg.
Calosoma (Caminara) olivieri
Dejean, 1831
Jordan: Wadi Rum, 20.III.2010 G.Sabatinelli leg.
Calosoma (Caminara) olivieri
Dejean, 1831
Iran: Semnan prov., Shakhrud, Tahar 2.100m.,
N.36°31" E.54°45", 12.6.09 Klimenko lg.
Calosoma (Caminara) olivieri
Dejean, 1831
Iran: Golestan prov., Dasht 1000m.,
N.37°21" E.56°00", 11.5.09 Klimenko lg.
Calosoma (Caminara) olivieri
Dejean, 1831
Italia: Pantelleria isl., 5.09 A. Corso lg. (photo Romano)
Calosoma (Caminara) olivieri
Dejean, 1831
Bagdad,(holotype)
(coll. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
updated Sept. 16 2019

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