Calosoma (Campalita) chinense Kirby, 1818

Calosoma chinense Kirby, 1818: 379 (described from: China) lectotype ♀ in Natural History Museum, London (Andrewes, 1919: 130)
Callisoma aeneum Motschulsky, 1859: 489 (distribution inferred from the title of the work: environs du fl. Amour ); holotype in Zoological Museum of Moscow University (Sundukov, 2013: 85)
Calosoma chinense ogumae Matsumura, 1911: 109 (type locality: Sachalin); holotype in Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Sundukov, 2013: 85)
Calosoma (Callistriga) maderae ssp. chinense Breuning, 1927: 207
Calosoma (Callistriga) maderae ssp. chinense var. yunnanense Breuning, 1927: 207 (type locality: Yunnan, Szetsong, 2000 m.); holotype ♂ in Naturalis Biodiversity Centre, Leiden (de Boer, 202: 123)
Campalita chinense Jeannel, 1940: 116
Campalita chinense liaoningense Li, 1992: 16 (described from: Liaoning); holotype in coll. J. Li, Dandong, China
Campalita chinense dianxicum Deuve & Tian, 2000: 198 (type locality: Yunnan, Longchuan); holotype in South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou (Canton)
Calosoma (Campalita) chinense Bruschi & Vigna Taglianti 2012: 208

Length 25-30 mm. The populations of C. chinense consist of individuals in most cases of large or rarely medium size body; the pronotum is always transverse and slightly angular, having distinct basal angles widely rounded; the elytra are typically enlarged in their posterior third. The upper body is light bronze or very rarely dark bronze; the sculpture of the elytra is uniformly granular, generally without any striae or any trace of alignment.
C. chinense represents the eastern expansion of the group of species-related to C. maderae, being present in China, while to the east extending in Korea, Manchuria, Sakhalin and Japanese archipelago.
The species is remarkably stable throughout its distribution range, with the exception of the eastern slopes of the Himalayas.
Breuning (1927: 217) had already noted individuals smaller than the typical C. chinense (body length 23-27 mm) and on average much more darkly colored, which came from eastern Yunnan. He believed that the specimens represented a pronounced intermediate form between C. chinense and C. maderae indicum but that they could surely be attributed to C. chinense because of the unmistakable body shape. Breuning named the relative population yunnanense, albeit expressing doubts about its systematic value due to the possible presence of forms of passage to the typical population.
Later Deuve and Tian (2000: 198) have described as C. chinense dianxicum a specimen of reduced size (body length 24.5 mm.), having entirely black upper body, including the foveae of the primary intervals which are large and deep and whose elytral sculpture consists in grainy striae, still distinguishable at least partly. This specimen came from the western part of Yunnan near the Myanmar border.
Presently, however, we know specimens, coming from south-western Sichuan, very similar to both the described taxa, which illustrate the passage of coloring and morphology of elithral sculpture from forms similar to yunnanense to forms similar to dianxicum. It should also be noted that in neighboring territories of Yunnan and Sichuan there are specimens with the characteristics of the typical chinense.
It would therefore be possible to conclude that on the eastern slopes of Himalayas (Yunnan plateau) in a relatively large area, comprising various locations even distant from each other, there are individuals, and small populations, of C. chinense having reduced body size, dark or black color of upper body and elytral sculpture more or less accentuated and distinguishable. The variability of body coloring and elytral sculpture, already observed for C. maderae indicum on the opposite side of the Himalaya range, would therefore repeat hitself in the case of C. chinense. Accordingly, also in this case, the point-like distribution of individuals with these characteristics inside the diffusion area of the typical form and the existence of intermediate forms, make systematic distinctions, as the ones proposed, inappropriate.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
China..Anhui (carabidae.org); Beijing (=Pékin) (SB); Fujian: Nanping (Deuve, 1997: 55); Gansu: Dinxi (Deuve, 1997: 55); Guangxi (carabidae.org); Hebei: Zhangjiakou (Kalgan) (Breuning, 1927: 217); Heilongjiang: Harbin (Deuve, 1997: 55); Henan (carabidae.org); Hubei: Yichang (Ichang) (Breuning, 1927: 217), San-tao-ho (Deuve, 1997: 55); Hunan: Yueyang (www.inaturalist.org); Jiangsu: Chinkiang (Zhenjiang), Suzhou (Soochow) (Mandl, 1981: 21), Nanjing (Nankin) (Jeannel, 1940: 116); Jiangxi: Jiujiang (Deuve, 1997: 55); Jilin: Lungtan Shan (Deuve, 1997: 55); Liaoning: ShenYang (Mukden) (EM), Dashiqiao (SB), Xiuyan (SB); Ningxia (carabidae.org); Qinghai: Xining city (VV); Shaanxi: Siao-k’iao-pan (mission) (Deuve, 1997: 55), Xi’an (www.inaturalist.org); Shandong: Jiāozhōu (=Kiaochow, Breuning, 1927: 217), Qingdao (= Tsing-tau, Deuve, 1997: 55) (Jeannel, 1940: 116); Shanghai (Jeannel, 1940: 116); Sichuan: Daliang Shan 2200m. (SB), Shimian co., Ya’an (Ebay, 2017), Wa Shan, Leshan (=Kiating Fu) (Deuve, 1997: 55), Jiuzhaigou (Deuve, 2013: 72), Panzhihua (SB); Yunnan: Yunnan (GP), Wumeng Shan 2200m (Ebay, 2015), Lugu Lake (AVT), Shizong (=Szetong, teste Deuve, 1997: 55; type of maderae yunnanense, Breuning, 1927: 217), Luxi (=Kwang-hsi-hien, teste Deuve, 1997: 55; sub maderae yunnanense, Breuning, 1927: 217), Longchuan (type of chinense dianxicum, Deuve & Tian 2000: 198); Zhejiang (carabidae.org).
Japan. Hokkaido: Asahikawa (SB), Asahi (SB), Yamabe (SB), Sapporo (EM); Honshu: Saitama, Tōkai (www.inaturalist.org), Chiba (SB), Osaka (EM), Kyoto (EM), Tokyo (SB); Shikoku: Ehime (SB).
Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Ryanggang: Mt P'urun-bong (http://www.carabidae.ru), Chagang-do: Chŏmam-san (SB), Sandu-san (SB).
Republic of Korea. Seoul (EM); Daegu do; Gangwon-do: Hwacheon (http://blog.naver.com/), Taebaek-si, Inje-gun (www.inaturalist.org); Chungcheongnam-do: Dangjin-si, Seosan (www.inaturalist.org); Jeju-do: Seogwipo-si (www.inaturalist.org); Gyeonggi-do: Gimpo (www.inaturalist.org).
Russia. Siberie (SB); Ussuri: Saputinski Nat. Park (SB), Primorsky Krai: Lake Khasan, (http://molbiol.ru/), Zanadvorovka (http://www.zin.ru/); Ussurigeb. (SB); Seaside and south of Khabarovsk Krai, Yevreyskaya (Sundukov, 2013: 85); South Sakhalin: Dolinsk (SB); Kuril Islands: Iturup and Kunashir islands (Sundukov, 2013: 85), Urup island (www.inaturalist.org).

Notes: Winged, adults and larvae feed mostly on caterpillars. They are soil dwellers but can be also climb at some extent on trees. Active individuals were captured from April to October. There are records of specimens overwintering (Burgess & Collins, 1917: 114; Kuwayama & Oshima, 1964).
A first description of the larva has been given by Lapouge (1908: 159)

Calosoma (Campalita) chinense
Kirby, 1818
China Pékin (Beijing)
Calosoma (Campalita) chinense
Kirby, 1818
Japan Chiba pref.,Ichikawa, 8.VIII.75, Horita lgt
Calosoma (Campalita) chinense
Hope, 1831
China: Yunnan, Lugu Lake - Luo Shui, 27°45'N 100°45'E,
8-9.VII.1992, S. Becvar lgt. (coll. Vigna Taglianti)
Calosoma (Campalita) chinense
Hope, 1831
China: Sichuan, Daliang Shan 2.200m., 28°38’N 103°20’E,
June 2006, leg. coll. Voktor Siniaev (coll. SB)
Calosoma (Campalita) chinense
Hope, 1831
China: Southern Sichuan (Ebay 2021)
Calosoma (Campalita) chinense
Hope, 1831
China: Sichuan, Panzhihua, Huidong VI 2021 (coll. SB)
Calosoma (Campalita) chinense ♀ Hope, 1831
(holotype of Campalita chinense dianxicum) photo
in Deuve, T., Tian. M. Y. (2000), "Note sur les Carabini
des forets subtropicales d'altitude de Chine meridionale
(Coleoptera, Carabidae)", Lambillionea 2: 201 fig. 16.
updated September 8 2021

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