Calosoma (Campalita) chlorostictum Dejean, 1831

This species is characterized by the elytron with 16 intervals ("triploïde" type of Jeannel in which only one tertiary interval exists on each sides of a secondary one).
It is the only species of Campalita living in the palaeo-tropical region. Is present on the islands of Cabo Verde and St. Helena, but it seems to be missing in West Africa (Mandl 1954, however, has described as rugosum amabile a specimen indicated from Brazil but that he supposed would have been captured in West Africa). Jeannel (1940) has distinguished from the typical form, the two insular populations. Basilewski (1972), while maintaining the same systematic approach, noted that the population of St. Helena (chlorostictum helenae Hope 1838) is hardly distinguishable from typical one, as opposed to what happens instead for the well characterized population in Cabo Verde (chlorostictum cognatum Chaud. 1850), arguing in the first case for a recent introduction and in the second one for an ancient spread of the species along the Atlantic coast of Africa, from where today it is gone.

Calosoma (Campalita) chlorostictum chlorostictum Dejean, 1831

Carabus rugosus De Geer, 1783: 223 (described from: Cape of Good Hope) (preoccupied by Carabus rugosus Fabricius, 1775: 130)
Calosoma curvipes Kirby, 1818: 380 (described from Brazil, Natural History Museum, London; considered as nomen nudum by Jeannel, 1940: 101)
Calosoma rugosum var. chlorostictum Dejean, 1831: 558 (type Dongola, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma chlorostictum Klug, 1832: pl.23, fig 10.
Calosoma Helenae Hope, 1838: 130 (holotype: Saint Helena; Natural History Museum, London)
Calosoma crassipes Chaudoir, 1843: 745 (described from: Kordofan)
Calosoma australe Hope, 1845: 104 (type lost, described from Australia)
Calosoma haligena Wollaston, 1861: 208 (type: Saint Helena; Natural History Museum, London)
Calosoma rugosum elegans Géhin, 1885: 60 (described from: Mozambique)
Campalita calida sensu Lapouge, 1924: 43 (nec Fabricius, 1775)
Calosoma (Callistriga) maderae rugosum Breuning, 1927: 205
Calosoma (Callistriga) maderae chlorostictum Breuning, 1927: 205
Calosoma (Callistriga) maderae helenae Breuning, 1927: 205
Caminara (Campalita) calida calida Lapouge, 1932: 411
Caminara (Campalita) calida chlorosticta Lapouge, 1932: 412
Caminara (Campalita) calida calida helenae Lapouge, 1932: 411
Caminara chlorostictum Jeannel, 1940: 101
Caminara chlorostictum helenae Jeannel, 1940: 103
Calosoma (Callistriga) rugosum hadramautum Mandl, 1954: 160 (type: Keshin; Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien)
Calosoma (Callistriga) rugosum amabile Mandl, 1954: 161 (type: Rio de Janeiro, doubtful datum; Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien)
Calosoma (Callistriga) rugosum kasyi Mandl, 1967: 455 (paratype: Bagdad, Irak; Naturhistorisches Museum, Basel)
Calosoma (Callistriga) chlorostictum rugosulum Mandl, 1970: 60 (nomen novum pro rugosus De Geer)
Calosoma (Callistriga) rugosum vartianorum Mandl, nomen nudum (paratype: Ramadi, Irak; Naturhistorisches Museum, Basel) Campalita chlorostictum Basilewski, 1972: 37
Campalita chlorostictum helenae Basilewski, 1972: 37
Calosoma (Caminara) chlorostictum ivinskisi Obydov & Saldaitis, 2010: 54 (holotype: Socotra Isl., Ayhft River Valley; Institute of Ecology of Vilnius University)

Lenght 25-30 mm. chlorostictum chlorostictum consists of the continental populations and of the population of St. Helena island. The intervals of all these populations are raised and clearly scaly, the upper body can be light or dark bronze.
chlorostictum chlorostictum is found in South Africa (Namibia e RSA), along the coast of the Indian Ocean, on both coasts of the Red Sea up to Egypt, in the Arabian peninsula (reported sub rugosum hadramautum Mandl, 1954) and Socotra (described as chlorostictum ivinskisi Obydov & Saldaitis, 2010), up to the Iraq (reported sub rugosum kasyi Mandl, 1967).
In Egypt C. chlorostictum apparently replaces C. maderae and might be of some interest to note its continous presence in the area, in that a specimen was retrieved from the gut of a mummified Ibis of the fourth millennium BC (Blair, 1909, quoted by Moret, 1996: 186 and by Panagiotakopulu, 2001: 1235). It is absent in Mediterranean countries other than Egypt. A specimen of Algeria, of unspecified locality, existing in the National Museum, in Prague, has been published (Farkač & Häckel, 2012: 71) but it surely deserves confirmation.
Also in the case of the population of St. Helena island (described by Hope in 1838 as chlorostictum helenae), according with the above cited opinion of Basilewski (1972), we do not feel that a subspecific distinction is necessary. In fact, regardless of the relative smallness (20-26 mm.), that however is frequently encountered in insular populations, it is very difficult to distinguish helenae from the continental populations. Its intervals are raised and strongly scaly, as it happens in any other populations, and the differences in punctuation of the metaepisternum described by Jeannel (1940), are hardly noticeable and anyway are not constant.

Examined specimens and literature’s data:
British overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha: Saint Helena Isl. (MNHN; RMCA; SB)
Djibouti: Djibouti; Obock (Jeannel, 1940:104)
Egypt: Desbrocha (SB); El Cairo (NMP, SB); Mansura (MZR); Alexandria; Luxor (Breuning 1927: 209); Tura, Matarieh, Aboukir, Nile Delta, Ismailia (Schatzmayr, 1936: 24); Sinai Peninsula (Jeannel, 1940:104), (Hendawy & al., 2003: 6950); Sidi Bishr, Abu Qir, Kafr El-Sheikh, Wadi Halfa, Helwan, Kharga vill., Wadi El Arish (Alfieri, 1976: 3).
Eritrea: Massawa (AVT); Asmara (sub rugosum, Breuning 1927: 209)
Ethiopia. Shewa: Langano Lake (RMCA, SB); Abiata Lake (SB); 25 km East of Addis Ababa (RMCA), Harrar, Tigré (Mandl, 1970: 62).
Iraq: Bagdad (paratype of rugosum kasyi, NMB); Ramadi (paratype of rugosum vartianorum; NMB), Mesopotamia (MNHN)br> Yemen. Socotra: Hadibou (AVT, SB), Adho Demalu (BMNH, Vigna Taglianti & Bruschi, 1988: 238), Haghier Mountains (type of C. chlorostictum ivinskisi); Keshin (Kischin) at the output of the Wadi Hadramawi, Jafia (sub hadramautum Mandl, 1970: 62).
Kenya: Namanga, 1200m (Farkač & Häckel 2012: 71),
Lesotho: Basutoland, Mamates (RMCA)
Madagascar: La Mandraka (http://carabidae.org); Moramanga; Midongy Sud National Park; Sakaraha (Farkač & Häckel 2012: 71)
Namibia: Outjo (AVT); Hardap: Maltahohe 1350m. (SB); Erongo: Swakopmund (SB) Qatar: Abu Samrah (Abdu & Shaumar, 1985)
Saudi Arabia: Dhahlan, Al Jubail (AC); Jeddah (Mandl, 1970:62), Riyadh (Wittmer & al., 1979: 527)
Somalia: Togdheer, Gahan Libah (AVT); Hargeissa (sub rugosum Mandl, 1968c:128)
South Africa. Eastern Cape: Oliphant Pass (SB); Mpumalanga (Transvaal): Blade River Canyon (SB), Rustenburg (AVT); Northern Cape: Orania (EM), Van der Kloof (EM), Hopetown (EM), Strydenburg (AVT); Free State: Bothaville (SB), Ladybrand (EM), Oranjekrag (EM), Florisbad (AVT), Boshof (AVT); Western Cape: Citrusdal (SB), Swellendam (AVT), Piketberg (AVT), Wellington (AVT); Kwa Zulu-Natal: Ladysmith (AVT).
Sudan: Dongola (holotype rugosum var. chlorostictum, MNHN); Ambukol, (Schatzmayr, 1936: 24)
Tanzania. Kilimanjaro (zone des forêts) (SB); Arusha: Mount Meru (EM, RMCA), Sekei (AVT), Arusha airport (AVT), Manyara: Ngorongoro (SB,VV)
Zimbabwe: Harare (AVT)

Notes: Diurnal as well as nocturnal, winged, attracted to light at night. Given the extent of diffusion area, active individuals may be encountered during the whole year, more or less frequent depending on rainfall regime dominant in the different regions.
In Egypt the larvae and adults of C. chlorostictum were observed preying on the larvae and pupae of the noctuid moth Spodoptera littoralis that seriously damages the cotton farming (El-Borollosy & Al., 1974).
In Saint Helena it is common throughout the island at medium and low altitude and feeds mainly on caterpillar of Lepidoptera Noctuidae. Active individuals were captured starting from March to May, and from November up to January but most probably it is present all the year long (Basilewski, 1972: 39)

Calosoma (Calosoma) chlorostictum chlorostictum
Dejean, 1831
Dongola
(type of Calosoma rugosum var. chlorostictum Dejean, 1831)
(Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma (Calosoma) chlorostictum chlorostictum
Dejean, 1831
Ethiopia: Shoa, Langano lake, 22.9.85, Piantà lgt.
Calosoma (Calosoma) chlorostictum chlorostictum
Dejean, 1831
Ethiopia: Shoa, Abiata lake, VIII.84, Bruschi
Calosoma (Calosoma) chlorostictum chlorostictum
Dejean, 1831
Iraq, Bagdad (at light), 15.VI.60, P. Stacey lgt.
paratype of Calosoma (Callistriga) rugosum kasyi Mandl, 1967
(coll. Naturhistorischen Museum Basel)
Calosoma (Calosoma) chlorostictum chlorostictum
Dejean, 1831
Iraq, Ramadi, 12.V.63 Zazy u Vartian lgt.
paratype of Calosoma (Callistriga) rugosum vartianorum
Mandl, 1965 in litt.(coll. Naturhistorischen Museum Basel)
Calosoma (Calosoma) chlorostictum chlorostictum
Dejean, 1831
St. Helena, ex musaeo Fairmaire
(coll. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma (Calosoma) chlorostictum chlorostictum
Dejean, 1831
Sainte-Hélène

Calosoma (Campalita) chlorostictum cognatum Chaudoir, 1850

Calosoma cognatum Chaudoir, 1850: 421 (type Cap Vert; Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma tegulatum Wollaston, 1867: 4 (type: Cape Verde; Natural History Museum, London)
Calosoma (Callistriga) maderae cognatum Breuning, 1927: 205
Caminara (Campalita) calida cognata Lapouge, 1932: 411
Caminara chlorostictum cognatum Jeannel, 1940: 103

Lenght 22-26 mm. It is an insular population of reduced dimension, characterized by the upper body constantly blackish brown. The elytral sculpture is quite different from the one of the continental populations as the intervals are less raised and less evidently scaly. Moreover deep points are well visible along the striae.

Examined specimens and literature’s data:
Republic of Cabo Verde: Cabo Verde (lectotype, MNHN); Brava 400-700 m (MNHN); Santo Antão (SB); Fogo (Breuning 1927: 209)

Notes: Diurnal as well as nocturnal, winged. Active individuals were captured in October and February.

Calosoma (Calosoma) chlorostictum cognatum
Chaudoir, 1850
Cap Vert (type)
(Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma (Calosoma) chlorostictum cognatum
Chaudoir, 1850
Is Cabo Verde, Brava 400 700m, VIII.1998, I. Fea
(coll. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma (Calosoma) chlorostictum cognatum
Chaudoir, 1850
Cabo Verde: Chao de Lagoa Santo Antao Archibispo,
17.II.55, J. Mateu


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