Calosoma (Campalita) chlorostictum Dejean, 1831

This species is characterized by the elytron with 16 intervals ("triploïde" type of Jeannel in which only one tertiary interval exists on each sides of a secondary one).
It is the only species of Campalita living in the palaeo-tropical region. Is present on the islands of Cabo Verde and St. Helena, but it seems to be missing in West Africa (Mandl 1954, however, has described as rugosum amabile a specimen indicated from Brazil but that he supposed would have been captured in West Africa). Jeannel (1940) has distinguished from the typical form, the two insular populations. Basilewski (1972), while maintaining the same systematic approach, noted that the population of St. Helena (chlorostictum helenae Hope 1838) is hardly distinguishable from typical one, as opposed to what happens instead for the well characterized population in Cabo Verde (chlorostictum cognatum Chaud. 1850), arguing in the first case for a recent introduction and in the second one for an ancient spread of the species along the Atlantic coast of Africa, from where today it is gone.

Calosoma (Campalita) chlorostictum chlorostictum Dejean, 1831

Carabus rugosus De Geer, 1778: 223, pl. 47, fig. 2 (described from: Cape of Good Hope) (preoccupied by Carabus rugosus Fabricius, 1775: 130)
Calosoma curvipes Kirby, 1818: 380 (described from Brazil); holotype ♂ in Natural History Museum, London (Roeschke 1900: 58) (considered as nomen nudum by Jeannel, 1940: 101)
Calosoma rugosum var. chlorostictum Dejean, 1831: 558 (type locality: Dongola), holotype ♀ designated by Deuve (1978: 247) by monotypy in Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris [examined]
Calosoma chlorostictum Klug, 1832: pl.23, fig 10.
Calosoma Helenae Hope, 1838: 130 (type locality: Island of St Helena); holotype in Natural History Museum, London
Calosoma crassipes Chaudoir, 1843: 745 (described from: Kordofan)
Calosoma australe Hope, 1845: 104 (described from Australia) type lost (Breuning, 1927: 208)
Calosoma haligena Wollaston, 1861: 208 (type locality: Saint Helena); holotype in Natural History Museum, London
Calosoma rugosum v. elegans Géhin, 1885: 60, note 60 (nec Kirsh, 1859 ) (described from Mozambique)
Campalita calida sensu Lapouge, 1924: 43 (misinterpretation of calidum Fabricius, 1775)
Calosoma (Callistriga) maderae ssp. rugosum Breuning, 1927: 205
Calosoma (Callistriga) maderae var. helenae Breuning, 1927: 205
Calosoma (Callistriga) maderae var. chlorostictum Breuning, 1927: 205
Caminara chlorostictum Jeannel, 1940: 101
Caminara chlorostictum helenae Jeannel, 1940: 103
Calosoma (Callistriga) rugosum hadramautum Mandl, 1954: 160 (type locality: Keshin); holotype ♀ in Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien
Calosoma (Callistriga) rugosum amabile Mandl, 1954: 161 (type locality: Rio de Janeiro, doubtful datum); holotype ♂ in Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien
Calosoma (Callistriga) rugosum kasyi Mandl, 1967: 455 (described from Ramadi, Irak); type material holotype ♂, allotype and one pair of paratypes (Ramadi and Bakuba), depository not stated
Calosoma (Callistriga) rugosum vartianorum Mandl (nomen nudum) (from Ramadi, Irak) specimens ♂ ♀ (labelled paratype) in Naturhistorisches Museum, Basel [examined]
Calosoma (Callistriga) chlorostictum rugosulum Mandl, 1970: 60 (unnecessary replacement of the name rugosus De Geer)
Campalita chlorostictum Basilewski, 1972: 37
Campalita chlorostictum helenae Basilewski, 1972: 37
Calosoma (Caminara) chlorostictum ivinskisi Obydov & Saldaitis, 2010: 54 (type locality: Socotra Isl., Ayhft River Valley); holotype ♂ in Institute of Ecology of Vilnius University; synonymy later established by Farkač & Häckel (2012: 71).
Calosoma (Campalita) chlorostictum Bruschi, 2013: 55

Lenght 25-30 mm. C. chlorostictum chlorostictum consists of the continental populations and of the population of St. Helena island. The elytral intervals of all these populations are raised and clearly scaly, the upper body can be light or dark bronze.
In the tormented events of the name to be attributed to the species, starting from rugosum to get to chlorostictum further confusion arose at a certain point from the fact that Lapouge (1924: 43) reported that he had he had noticed two specimens among the typical material of C. calidum preserved in the collection of Fabricius at the Natural History Museum of London, that instead belonged to the species that three years later would be described by De Geer as C. rugosum. For this reason, according to his opinion, the name of calidum should prevail for that species that today instead we call chlorostictum and the one we call C. calidum should have been called C. lepidum. Jeannel (1940: 101) then rejected this interpretation and definitively imposed the name chlorostictum with his authority.
C. chlorostictum chlorostictum is found in South Africa (Namibia e RSA) and it occupies the coast of the Indian Ocean and both coasts of the Red Sea up to Egypt. It is present in the Arabian peninsula (reported sub rugosum hadramautum Mandl, 1954) including Socotra (described as chlorostictum ivinskisi Obydov & Saldaitis, 2010), up to the Iraq (reported sub rugosum kasyi Mandl, 1967). and Iran, though without exact locality (Farkač & Hackel, 2012: 72).
In Egypt C. chlorostictum apparently replaces C. maderae and might be of some interest to note its continous presence in the area, in that a specimen was retrieved from the gut of a mummified Ibis of the fourth millennium BC (Blair, 1935, quoted by Moret, 1996: 186 and by Panagiotakopulu, 2001: 1235). It is absent in Mediterranean countries other than Egypt. A specimen of Algeria, of unspecified locality, existing in the National Museum, in Prague, has been published (Farkač & Häckel, 2012: 71) but it seems unlikely and could be a mishandling error.
In the case of the population of St. Helena island (described by Hope in 1838 as chlorostictum helenae), according with the above cited opinion of Basilewski (1972), we do not feel that a subspecific distinction is necessary. In fact, regardless of the relative smallness (20-26 mm.), that however is frequently encountered in insular populations, it is very difficult to distinguish helenae from the continental populations. Its intervals are raised and strongly scaly, as it happens in any other populations, and the differences in punctuation of the metaepisternum described by Jeannel (1940), are hardly noticeable and anyway are not constant.

Examined specimens and literature’s data:
Botswana. Serowe (www.gbif.org/)
British overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha. Saint Helena Isl. (MNHN; RMCA; SB), Wood Cot, Plantation, Casons, High Peak, West Lodge, Stitch’s Ridge, Diana’s Peak (Wollaston, 1877: 4), Rupert’s Valley, Deadwood Plain, Flagstaff, Prosperous Bay Plain, Basse Fisher’s Valley, Pleasant Valley, Haute Deep Valley, Varney’s, Sandy Bay, entre Luffkins and Peak Farm (Basilewski, 1972: 39)
Djibouti. Djibouti; Obock (Jeannel, 1940:104)
Egypt. Desbrocha (SB); El Cairo (NMP, SB); Mansura (MZR); Alexandria; Luxor (Breuning 1927: 209); Tura, Matarieh, Aboukir, Nile Delta, Ismailia (Schatzmayr, 1936: 24); Sinai Peninsula (Jeannel, 1940:104), (Hendawy & al., 2003: 6950); Sidi Bishr, Abu Qir, Kafr El-Sheikh, Wadi Halfa, Helwan, Kharga vill., Wadi El Arish (Alfieri, 1976: 3).
Eritrea. Massawa (AVT); Asmara (sub rugosum, Breuning 1927: 209), Nefasit (Rougemont, 1976: 246)
Ethiopia. Hararge (Jeannel, 1940:104); Shewa: Langano Lake (RMCA, SB), Abijata Lake (SB), 25 km W of Addis Ababa (RMCA), Menagesha forest (Rougemont, 1976: 246), Mt Salale (Rougemont, 1976: 246), Sidamo: Neghelli (sub C. rugosum Müller, 1939: 179), Abaya Lake (Margherita) (sub C. rugosum Alluaud 1923: 128); Tigré: Axum (Rougemont, 1976: 246), Deresgie Mariam (13°01’N 38°10’E) (Rougemont, 1976: 246); South Wello: Tula (11°25’N 39°40’E); Wadja (12°25’N 39°35’E) (Rougemont, 1976: 246).
Iran. (Farkač & Hackel, 2012: 72)
Iraq. Bagdad (sub rugosum kasyi, NMB); Bakuba (= Baʿqūba) (Mandl: 1967; 456); Ramadi (sub rugosum vartianorum; NMB), Mesopotamia (MNHN)
Yemen. Socotra: Hadibou (AVT, SB), Adho Demalu (BMNH, Vigna Taglianti & Bruschi, 1988: 238), Haghier Mountains (type of C. chlorostictum ivinskisi); Keshin (Kischin) at the output of the Wadi Hadramawi, Jafia (sub hadramautum Mandl, 1970: 62).
Kenya. Namanga, 1200m (Farkač & Häckel 2012: 71), Marsabit: Loiyangalani (www.gbif.org/); Lake turkana, Loyongalani (www.gbif.org/)
Lesotho. Basutoland, Mamates (RMCA)
Madagascar. La Mandraka (http://carabidae.org); Moramanga; Midongy Sud National Park; Sakaraha (Farkač & Häckel 2012: 71)
Mozambique. type of rugosum v. elegans (Géhin, 1885: 60, note 60)
Namibia. Outjo (AVT); Hardap: Maltahohe 1350m. (SB); Capricorn rest camp 1380m (SB); Erongo: Swakopmund (SB); Kuzikus Wildlife Reserve (www.gbif.org/)
Oman. (carabidae.org)
Qatar. Abu Samrah (Abdu & Shaumar, 1985)
Saudi Arabia. Dhahlan, Al Jubail (AC); Jeddah (Mandl, 1970:62), Riyadh (Wittmer & al., 1979: 527); El Edjaz (= Hegiaz) (RMCA); Al Bahah (SB)
Somalia. Togdheer, Gahan Libah (AVT); Hargeissa (sub rugosum Mandl, 1968c:128)
South Africa. Free State: Bothaville (SB), Ladybrand (EM), Oranjekrag (EM), Florisbad (AVT), Boshof (AVT), Smithfield (www.gbif.org/); Gauteng: Pretoria (www.gbif.org/); Seringveld (https://www.ispotnature.org/), Florida (AVT); Kwa Zulu-Natal: Ladysmith (AVT), Karkkloof (www.gbif.org/); Mpumalanga (Eastern Cape): Blade River Canyon, Oliphant Pass, Stormsriver (SB), Dunbrody, Uitenhage, Port Elizabeth (www.gbif.org/) ; Northern Cape: Orania (EM), Van der Kloof (EM), Hopetown (EM), Strydenburg (AVT), Kimberley, Calvinia (www.gbif.org/), Postmasburg (www.inaturalist.org/); Transvaal: Blade River Canyon (SB), Rustenburg (AVT), Presidentsrus (https://www.ispotnature.org/), Potchefstroom (www.gbif.org/); Western Cape: Citrusdal, George, Cederberg (SB), Swellendam (AVT), Piketberg (AVT), Wellington (AVT), Sir Lowry's Pass, Stellenbosch, Koringberg, Cape Town, Merweville (www.gbif.org/), De Hoop Nature Reserve, Aberdeen (https://www.ispotnature.org/).
North Sudan. Dongola (holotype rugosum var. chlorostictum, MNHN); Ambukol wells (Schatzmayr, 1936: 24), Wadi Halfa (Mandl, 1963b: 419)
Swaziland. (carabidae.org)
Tanzania. Kilimanjaro (zone des forêts) (SB); Arusha: Mount Meru (EM, RMCA), Sekei (AVT), Arusha airport (AVT), Manyara: Ngorongoro (SB,VV)
Zambia. (carabidae.org)
Zimbabwe. Harare (AVT)

Notes: Diurnal as well as nocturnal, winged, attracted to light at night. Given the extent of diffusion area, active individuals may be encountered during the whole year, more or less frequent depending on rainfall regime dominant in the different regions.
In Egypt the larvae and adults of C. chlorostictum were observed preying on the larvae and pupae of the noctuid moth Spodoptera littoralis that seriously damages the cotton farming (El-Borollosy & Al., 1974).
In Saint Helena it is common throughout the island at medium and low altitude and feeds mainly on caterpillar of Lepidoptera Noctuidae. Active individuals were captured starting from March to May, and from November up to January but most probably it is present all the year long (Basilewski, 1972: 39)

Calosoma (Calosoma) chlorostictum chlorostictum
Dejean, 1831
Dongola
(type of Calosoma rugosum var. chlorostictum Dejean, 1831)
(Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma (Calosoma) chlorostictum chlorostictum
Dejean, 1831
Ethiopia: Shoa, Langano lake, 22.9.85, Piantà lgt.
Calosoma (Calosoma) chlorostictum chlorostictum
Dejean, 1831
Ethiopia: Shoa, Abiata lake, VIII.84, Bruschi
Calosoma (Calosoma) chlorostictum chlorostictum
Dejean, 1831
Iraq, Bagdad (at light), 15.VI.60, P. Stacey lgt.
Calosoma (Callistriga) rugosum kasyi Mandl, 1967
det. Mandl (coll. Naturhistorischen Museum Basel)
Calosoma (Calosoma) chlorostictum chlorostictum
Dejean, 1831
Iraq, Ramadi, 12.V.63 Zazy u Vartian lgt.
paratype of Calosoma (Callistriga) rugosum vartianorum
Mandl, 1965 in litt.(coll. Naturhistorischen Museum Basel)
Calosoma (Calosoma) chlorostictum chlorostictum
Dejean, 1831
St. Helena, ex musaeo Fairmaire
(coll. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma (Calosoma) chlorostictum chlorostictum
Dejean, 1831
Sainte-Hélène

Calosoma (Campalita) chlorostictum cognatum Chaudoir, 1850

Calosoma cognatum Chaudoir, 1850: 421 (described from: Cap-Vert); lectotype ♂ designated by Deuve (1978: 249) in Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris [examined]
Calosoma tegulatum Wollaston, 1867: 4 (described from: Cape Verdes); types in Natural History Museum, London (Jeannel, 1940: 101)
Calosoma (Callistriga) maderae cognatum Breuning, 1927: 205
Caminara (Campalita) calida cognata Lapouge, 1932: 411
Caminara chlorostictum cognatum Jeannel, 1940: 103

Lenght 22-26 mm. It is an insular population of reduced dimension, characterized by the upper body constantly blackish brown. The elytral sculpture is quite different from the one of the continental populations as the intervals are less raised and less evidently scaly. Moreover deep points are well visible along the striae.

Examined specimens and literature’s data:
Cabo Verde (Republic of). (lectotype of cognatum, MNHN); Ilha de Boa Vista (Oromí & al., 2005: 79); Ilha Brava 400-700 m (MNHN); Ilha do Fogo (sub tegulatum, Wollaston, 1867: 5); Ilha do Maio (Oromí & al., 2005: 79); Ilha de Santo Antão: (SB), Cova (Herbert, 1987: 97); Ilha de São Nicolau (Oromí & al., 2005: 79); Ilha de Santiago (Oromí & al., 2005: 79); Ilha de São Vicente (sub tegulatum, Wollaston, 1867: 5).

Notes: Diurnal as well as nocturnal, winged. Active individuals were captured in the temperate period from October to February. According to Mateu reported by Basilewsky (1972: 39) the species can be meet more easily, under stones or wandering in the meadows, on the heights towards 1400 m, where even during the dry period, a bit of cloudiness can form, and a bit of rain or drizzle can fall.

Calosoma (Calosoma) chlorostictum cognatum
Chaudoir, 1850
Cap Vert (type)
(Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma (Calosoma) chlorostictum cognatum
Chaudoir, 1850
Is Cabo Verde, Brava 400 700m, VIII.1998, I. Fea
(coll. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma (Calosoma) chlorostictum cognatum
Chaudoir, 1850
Cabo Verde: Chao de Lagoa Santo Antao Archibispo,
17.II.55, J. Mateu

updated July 10 2019

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