Calosoma (Campalita) maderae (Fabricius, 1775)

C. maderae consists of a cluster of populations that vary considerably with regard to the colour and elytral sculpture. For this reason these populations received in the past various names at species or subspecies level. Dealing with this confusion of names, Breuning (1927: 204), choose to include every described populations in one single species. On the contrary Jeannel (1940) considered four distinct species: maderae, auropunctatum indicum and chinense.
When you consider all of the vast range of the distribution of the group of these supposed species, it is apparent, even in the presence of a considerable individual variability, the emergence of a East to West geographical continous cline of variation, from the eastern chinense to the Atlantic island populations (maderae s. str.). Therefore we would prefer to consider a single species (C. maderae) characterized by the colour of upper body going from black to dark bronze and by elytral sculpture of triploid type with tendency to become of pentaploid type by doubling of the tertiary intervals, up to be transformed into a more or less recognizable pattern of granulation. Inside this species we consider maderae, dsungaricum, indicum as subspecies but we'd rather continue to treat chinense as a distinct species, taking into account the further evolution of other minor morphological characteristics, other than the elytral sculpture.
It is important to note that he word: subspecies, as used in this context, corresponds to groups of populations, differentiated by morphological criteria not too restrictive, but that are well defined when we consider their geographical area of distribution. In the areas of contact we find the transition between one and the other group. Here the cline of morphological variability does not always allow a sure differentiation of individuals, instead, the populations that occupy the farthest areas may be easily distinguished.
The elytral sculpture of triploid type, as the one that characterizes C. maderae dsungaricum, may considered the less advanced (Jeannel, 1940:25). This type of sculpture is progressively modified in the various populations encountered going eastward that we include in indicum (kashmirense - densegranulatum – indicum, auct.), through the gradual dissolution of the intervals, towards a uniformly granular sculpture, where only the primary intervals are indicated by the presence of large metallic foveae.
On the other side, going westward, the elytral sculpture is gradually changing in the different populations of what we consider maderae s. str, (auropunctatum - indagator – maderae auct.) by flattening of the intervals and, on parallel, by reducing the size of the foveae on the primary ones. Once again, these changes in morphology occur without perceivable break in continuity from one population to another.

Calosoma (Campalita) maderae maderae (Fabricius, 1775)

Carabus maderae Fabricius, 1775: 237 (lectotype: Madera; Natural History Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen)
Carabus auropunctatum Herbst, 1784: 131 (type: southern Swerige; Museum für Naturkunde Humboldt Universität, Berlin)
Carabus indagator Fabricius, 1787: 197 (lectotype: Berberia; Natural History Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen)
Carabus Herbsti Gmelin, 1788: 1968
Carabus sericeus Fabricius, 1792: 147(described from: in Germaniae sabuleti; lectotype: Natural History Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen)
Calosoma indagator Fabricius, 1801: 211
Calosoma sericeum Fabricius, 1801: 212
Calosoma tectum Motschoulsky, 1844: 122 (described from: Talysch)
Calosoma turcomannicum Motschoulsky, 1844: 123 (described from: Nowo Aleksandrowsk)
Callisoma tauricum Motschoulsky, 1850: 88 (described from: Tauride)
Calosoma auropunctatum var obscurum Letzner, 1850: 97
Calosoma auropunctatum var auromarginatum Letzner, 1850: 97
Calosoma auropunctatum var nitens Letzner, 1850: 97
Campalita auropunctatum Duftschmidti Géhin, 1885: 63 (described from: Wien)
Campalita auropunctatum funestum Géhin, 1885: 63 (type: Caucase, formely in coll. Oberthür)
Calosoma (Campolyta) maderae, Bedel, 1895: 18
Caminara (Campalita) maderae indagatrix Lapouge, 1920: 97
Campalita calida maroccana Lapouge, 1924: 44 (described from: Morocco)
Campalita maderae glabripenne Eidam, 1926: 94 (holotype: Madeira Is.; Naturalis Biodiversity Centre, Leiden)
Calosoma maderae var. auropunctatum Andrewes, 1929: 58 (partim)
Calosoma (Callistriga) maderae maderae Breuning, 1927: 210
Calosoma (Callistriga) maderae indagator Breuning, 1927: 210
Calosoma (Callistriga) maderae auropunctatum Breuning, 1927: 211
Calosoma (Callistriga) maderae funestum Breuning, 1927: 213
Calosoma (Callistriga) maderae tectum Breuning, 1927: 214
Campalita auropunctata syra Lapouge, 1930: 86 (described from: Syria)
Campalita auropunctata Montadoni Lapouge, 1930: 87 (described from: Romania)
Campalita maderae maderae Jeannel, 1940: 110
Campalita maderae indagator Jeannel, 1940: 110
Campalita maderae tauricum Jeannel, 1940: 110
Campalita auropunctatum auropunctatum Jeannel, 1940: 111
Campalita tanganyicae Jeannel, 1940: 114 (type: Afrique orientale allemande; ex coll. Bedel, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma (Callistriga) iranicum Mandl, 1953: 55 (type: Iran, Sistan and Baluchistan, western edge of Jaz Murian Depression, cotype Naturhistorischen Museum, Basel)
Calosoma (Campalita) nicolasi Schuler, 1965
Calosoma (Callistriga) dsungaricum tectum Mandl, 1967: 44
Campalita maderae sturanii Raynaud et Marchal, 1967: 86 (type: Catania, Fiume Freddo, formerly in coll. Raynaud)
Calosoma auropunctatum parvepunctatum Della Beffa, 1983 (Lorenz, 2005: 69)
Calosoma maderae indagator impunctatus Branes, 1987
Calosoma (Campalita) maderae maderae Bruschi & Vigna Taglianti, 2012: 200.
Calosoma maderae auropunctatum Schmidt & Trautner, 2016: 39

Length 22-35 mm. The populations attributed to C. maderae maderae present the elytral sculpture pattern of triploid type with a tendency to turn into pentaploid type by doubling the tertiary intervals. The intervals are flat or semi-obsolete and weakly imbricate; the colour is dull black .
In a more broad vision as we propose, auropunctatum, the populations of which Jeannel characterized by the predominantly triploid elytral sculptur, does not deserve to be distinguished from the other populations given the fickleness of the characteristics. Moreover often we find in a same locality individuals showing both the models of elytral sculpture.
C. maderae maderae occurs, with larger specimens (25-35 mm), on both coasts of the Mediterranean basin. On the western coast the sculpture is generally more flattened (indagator), up to the islands of Madeira and the Canary, where the sculpture is obsolete, or is only detectable by some streaks of weak punctures (maderae s. str.).
C. maderae maderae occupies also the central northern Europe up to Norway (Breuning, 1928b: 97) and the Alpine region where we find populations on average smaller in size (16-26 mm.). In the Eastern Medirranean coast Ukraine, Balkan Peninsula (Romania and Bulgaria), Southern Russia, Iraq, Iran up to Pakistan we find individuals or entire populations shoving in the elytral sculpture a more pronounced triploid aspect (auropunctatum sensu Breuning, 1927).
The ancient authors already noticed the variability of populations and individuals in this large area, and this variability led to the identification of many forms some of which are considered by Breuning in his systematic framework (1927) close to the group maderae-auropunctatum (funestum from Asia Minor to Caucasus) and other to maderae dsungaricum (tectum in the regions around the southern Caspian sea).
C maderae has been indicated doubtfully from Egypt: Heluan (auropunctatum Breuning, 1927: 213) but Schatzmayr (1936: 24) thinks that this indication is erroneous and according to the opinion of Jeannel (1940: 112), C maderae in Egypt is substituted by the vicarious chlorostictum. Subsequently, Alfieri (1976: 3) while excluding the presence of C. auropunctatum, cites C. maderae indagator found on the sea shore more or less two hundred kilometers from the Lybian border. We think that the find, at least occasionally, of C. maderae in Egypt can not be excluded a priori since it is found in the conterminous countries Libya and Israel.
Finally, the examination of the types allowed us for assigning the two supposed species, Campalita tanganyicae Jeannel, 1940, described on two specimens incorrectly labelled and Campalita iranicum, described by Mandl from western Baluchistan, to the C. maderae group. Strangely these supposed species are quite similar. Both have the elytral sculpture of triploid type, slightly scaly and somewhat irregular, but with flat intervals. It is difficult to identify the group of populations to which these specimens are to be attributed, considering that the characters are not constant in the individuals inside each group and that, therefore, in many cases it is almost impossible to decide on the basis of single specimens. In fact, the specimens of C. tanganyicae were attributed by Rougemont (1976: 245) to C. maderae dsungaricum, following the opinion of Basilewsky, and both the supposed species were later attributed by Bruschi & Vigna Taglianti (2012: 205) to C. maderae indicum. However, in the absence of additional information, all these specimens should be more properly considered as part of the variability of C. maderae maderae.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Afghanistan: Kabul (AVT), Bamian (SB), Paghman mts (Breuning, 1927: 214)
Algeria: Nemours, Lalla Maghnia, Daya, El Kreider, Mecheria, Sidi Bel Abbès, Mostaganem, Teniet-el-Had, Berouhaghi, env. Alger, Grande Kabylia Biskra, Bone, La Calle (Bedel, 1895: 21); El Goléa (Al-Manīʿa) (Jeannel, 1940: 110); Bou Kanefis (SB); Batna; Oran (SB)
Armenia: Erevan (sub maderae funestum Breuning, 1927: 214); Gechard (AVT); Selim pass (SB)

Austria: Wien, Laaerberg (SB), Langenzersdorf (sub auropunctatum; Žatek (AVT); Carinthia: Sagritz, Heiligenblut (Pacher, 1853); Burgenland: Zurndorf; Tyrol: Zirl; Upper Austria: Gosau (sub auropunctatum
Azerbajian Talysh (Breuning, 1927: 215, sub maderae tectum), Elisabethpol (= Ganja) (Breuning, 1927: 214; sub maderae funestum)
Belarus (sub auropunctatum,
Belgium. Limbourg: Helden; Anvers: Saint-Vliet (sub auropunctatum, Matieu, 1857: 120).
Bosnia-Erzegovina Mostarsko Blato (Narozsny, 1938: 75)
Bulgaria: Dragomansko blato (Dragoman) (EM); Lozenets (Burgas) (EM, SB); Grudovo, Choveka 2000m. (Guéorguiev & Guéorguiev, 1995: 40); Obzor, (
Canaries Islands (Spain): El Hierro: Valverde; La Gomera: Laguna Grande, Laguna de Gomera (Machado, 1992: 89); La PaIma: (Wollaston, 1865: 3), Carretera S. Bartolomé de la Galga, San Isidro (Machado, 1992: 89); Tenerife: (Wollaston, 1865: 3), Santa Cruz de Tenerife (AVT, SB), San Andres (SB), Costa Sur (SB); Bajamar, Punta del Hidalgo 200m, Tejina 300m, Las Mercedes 600m, La Matanza 500m, Los Rodeos, 680m, Campo de Golf (Guamasa) 650m, Esperanza (Mña. Grande), Aguamansa, Agua Guillén, Agua GarcÍa (Salto Naranjo), La Orotava, Playa de San Juan (Machado, 1992: 89); Gran Canaria: (Wollaston, 1865: 3), Maspalomas (, Tafira, Las Palmas, Melenara, Telde (Machado, 1992: 89); Fuerteventura: La Oliva; Lanzarote: between Haría and El Río (Machado, 1992: 89).
Croatia: Krapan (Carpano); Rijeka (Fiume) (sub auropunctatum, Müller, 1926: 45).
Cyprus: Limassol, Akrotiri (SB); Akrotiri peninsula (Austin & al., 2011).
Czech Republic: Hodonín, Jezeřany-Maršovice, Šlapanice, Bochovice, Stařeč, Jihlava, Praha (sub auropunctatum
Denmark. Amager, Samsö (sub sericeum, Schiødte, 1841: 309), Rømø island (Lindroth, 1985: 48)
Egypt. Heluan (= Elwan, Cairo) (Breuning, 1927: 213; sub auropunctatum); Marsa Matruh (Alfieri, 1976: 3; sub maderae indagator).
Estonia (
France: Aude : Narbonne (Jeannel, 1940: 110 & sub auropunctatum, Jeannel, 1940: 112); Canigou: Saint-André; Hérault: Valras Agde (, Béziers (Jeannel, 1940: 110 & sub auropunctatum, Jeannel, 1940: 112 ); Lozère: mont Aigoual (Jeannel, 1940: 110); Montpellier (sub auropunctatum, Jeannel, 1940: 112); Pyrénées-Orientales: Saint-André (; Seine et Oise: Montemorency (SB), Le Pecq (SB); Seine-Saint-Denis: Aubervilliers (sub auropunctatum, Jeannel, 1940: 112); Vienne: Poitiers (sub auropunctatum, Jeannel, 1940: 112)
Georgia: Tibilisi (Tiflis) (Breuning, 1927: 214 sub maderae funestum)
Germany. Lauterberg (EM), Thüringen (Hartmann, 2007: 162); Brandenburg: Papproth (
Greece. Creta, Cyclades islands: Syros, Milos (Breuning, 1927: 211); Parnassos mt., Peloponneso (Morea), Lesbos (Mytilene), Rhodes (sub maderae auropunctatum Breuning, 1927: 211); Limnos (sub auropunctatum, Jeannel, 1940: 112); Thessaloniki (sub auropunctatum dsungaricum, Jeannel, 1940: 113)
Hungary. Gyulaj, Miskolc, Sátoraljaújhely Nyíregyháza, Debrecen, Felsoireg (Tolna distr.), Hortobagy National Park, Barabás, Budapest, Pestszentlőrinc-Pestszentimre, Rakoskeresztur, Rakosmezo (Narozsny, 1938: 75)
Iran. Bushehr prov: Bushehr (Bushire) (MZUR) (sub maderae dsungaricum Breuning, 1928b: 96); Fars prov: Shiraz (sub sericeum; Kollar & Redtenbacher, 1848: 45); Gilan prov: Gysoum, Asalem (sub auropunctatum dsungaricum Salari & al.2014: 451); Golestan prov: Gorgan (Astrabad) (MZUR; Breuning, 1927: 215 sub maderae tectum), Salikandeh (sub Campalita iranicum; Ghahari & al., 2009: 439); Hormozgan prov: Bandar Abbas (EM); Kerman prov: Kerman (DS), Jaz Murian Depression (sub auropunctatum tectum, Mandl, 1953: 55); Khūzestān prov: Omidyeh (NMP), Haft-Tapeh (AVT), Gachsaran 2850m (; Mazadaran prov: Nowshahr (sub dsungaricum tectum Mandl, 1967c: 44), Behshahr (sub maderae dsungaricum, Ghahari, 2018: 100); Razavi Khorasan prov: Mashhad (sub maderae tectum Namaghi & al., 2010: 199); Sistan and Baluchistan prov: western edge of Jaz Murian Depression (type of iranicum), to the west of Baluchistan (cotype of iranicum NMB), Bampur (sub iranicum, Mandl, 1967c: 44); South Khorasan prov: Nehbandan (sub maderae tectum Namaghi & al., 2010: 199); Teheran: Teheran (NMP).
Iraq: Mossul (sub maderae dsungaricum Breuning, 1928b: 96); Bagdad (; Basra (
Israel Mt. Hermon. (; Mt. Carmel, Jaffa (Tel Aviv) (Breuning, 1927: 213 sub maderae auropunctatum)
Italy. Abruzzo: Atessa (; Basilicata: Policoro (AVT), Matera (; Calabria: Catanzaro (MCZR), Crotone, Santa Cristina d’Aspromonte (Magistretti, 1965: 59), Reggio Calabria (AC); Campania: Roccarainola (AVT), Orta di Atella (, Camaldoli (Magistretti, 1965: 59); Emilia Romagna: Ravenna (AVT, SB), Lido di Classe (AC, AVT), Cervia (EM), Baricella (EM), Sesto Imolese (De Giovanni, 1978: 12), Massalombarda, Ravenna Punta Marina, Mesola, Bubano di Mordano, Piacenza (, Castelnuovo Rangone (CKmap), Cesena, (Magistretti, 1965: 59); Friuli: Gorizia, Tolmezzo (sub auropunctatum, Müller, 1926: 45); Lazio: Gaeta (AVT), Salto di Fondi (AVT), P.N. Circeo (AVT), Terracina (AVT), Sabaudia (AVT), Campoverde (EM), Padiglione (AVT), Priverno Scalo (AVT), Maenza (AVT), Acilia (MZUR), Sassofurbara (AVT), Lido di Roma (AVT), Anzio (AVT), Caffarella (MCZR), Colli Albani (EM), Genzano di Roma (AVT), Roccapriora (EM), Rocca di Papa (Bruno, 1974), Zagarolo (AVT), Monte Tagliente (EM), Marino (Bruno, 1974), Castelromano (EM), Ten. S. Alessio (EM), Cavallo Morto (AVT), Nuova Florida (AVT), Monte Sacro (AVT), Santa Maria di Galeria (AVT), Tor Sapienza (AVT), Ponte Galeria, (AVT) Maccarese (AVT, EM, SB), Castel di Guido (SB), Tenuta Capocotta (SB), Monterazzano (AVT), Montalto di Castro (Bruno, 1974); Lombardia: Lanzo d'Intelvi (Breuning, 1927: 211), Pavia (AVT), Milano dint. (AVT), Marmirolo, Bosco Fontana (AVT), Bigarello (AVT), Quistello, Belgioioso (AC), Voghera, Cervesina (Magistretti, 1965: 59), Langosco, Mezzana Bigli (GA); Marche: Marcelli, Osimo, Camerata Picena (; Piemonte: Collina di Torino (GA), Casale Monferrato (GA), Bozzolo (GA), Pecetto di Valenza (AVT, GA), Frassineto Po (MAl), Occimiano (MAl), Langosco (MAl), Mezzana (MAl), Bigli (MAl), Magliano Alfieri (MAl), Loazzolo (MAl), Castagnola (MAl), S. Martino Alfieri (MAl), Verduno (MAl), Alba (MAl), Monforte d'Alba (MAl), Neive (MAl), Vezza, Limone, Gamalero, Alessandria (Magistretti, 1965: 59), Asti dint, Biella dint (Casale et al., 1982: 90), Entracque (AC, AVT), Spinetta Marengo (AC); Puglia: antico lago di San Egidio, Trinitapoli, lago Macchiapiana, lago di Varano (Magistretti, 1965: 59); Sardegna: Arborea (AC), Capoterra(AVT), Capo Mannu (AVT), Oristano dint. (AVT), Olbia, Massiccio dei Sette Fratelli, Pula- Is Cannoneris (, Cagliari (Magistretti, 1965: 59), Orosei, Ottana (Magistretti, 1968), Isola San Pietro, Isola Sant'Antioco (Piras & Pisano, 1972); Sicilia: Castelbuono, Messina, Spartà (Vitale, 1912: 202), Liccia (Minà Palumbo, 1883: 175), Catania (AVT, SB), Lampedusa (AVT), Pantelleria, (Failla, 1887: 158), Degala del Re, foce del Fiume Irminio, Mazara del Vallo (, foce del Fiume Simeto, Piani di Mascali (AVT), Palermo, Fiume Ciane (Aliquò, 1970); Toscana: Alberese, Isola Pianosa (AVT), Pisa (Piccioli, 1869:207), Isola del Giglio (Gridelli, 1926: 434); Umbria: Castelgiorgio (; Val d'Aosta: Cogne (AVT), Epinel (Bisio & al., 2016: 82); Veneto: Verona, Bertacchina, Porto Tolle (Magistretti, 1965: 58), Peschiera del Garda (teste D. Birtele), Lonigo (Magistretti, 1968), Castagnole (MAl), Chioggia, Venezia Lido (CKmap).
Jordan: Zarqah (AVT)
Kuwait (AVT)
Latvia: Dubna (sub auropunctatum, Balalaikins et al., 2018: 60)
Libya: Baninha (AVT); Bengasi (SB); Ben Badis (AC), Tripolitania: Al Mardum (Bani Whalid); Fazzan: Tikiumit, NW of Al Awainat (; Giarabub, Tobruch, Derna, Tilimùn, Cirene, El Abiar, Augila, Gialo (sub maderae indagator, Gridelli, 1930: 11)
Lithuania (sub auropunctatum,
Madeira islands (Portugal). Madeira: Fanal, Ribeiro Frio (Wollaston, 1854: 15); Porto Santo: Ileo de Baixo (Wollaston, 1854: 15).
Malta. Gozo: Rabat (Magrini & al, 1997: 218)
Moldova (sub auropunctatum,
Morocco: Forêt de Mamora (SB); Casablanca (SB); Kenitra (AVT, SB); Safi, Oualidia (AVT, EM); Port Lyautey (Em); Nador (EM); Marrakech (AVT); Meknès (AVT); Azrou (AVT); Ouarzazate (; Bou-Izakaren (Kocher, 1938: 78); Tanger, Tetuan (Bedel, 1895: 21); Melilla, Mogador, Mskala (Escalera, 1914: 8)
Norway: near Oslo (Breuning, 1928b: 97).
Pakistan. Balochistan: Quetta (SB), Khuzdar (SB), Mergara (AVT).
Poland: Jaroslaw (Breuning, 1927: 213)
Portugal. Cabo Espichel ( SPEN); Faro, Corte do Gago (
Romania: Craiova (SB), Barlad (sub auropunctatum dsungaricum , Jeannel, 1940: 113); Murighiol, (
Russia: Saint Petersburg (sub maderae auropunctatum Breuning, 1927: 213), Stavropol' krai, Novoalexandrovsk (as turcomannica Breuning, 1927: 215), Saratov reg: Saratov distr., Novoburas distr, Tatishevsky distr., (sub auropunctatum, Sazhnev, 2007: 350); Volgograd region., Olkhovskiy district (; Kaliningrad region: Sambian peninsula, Mechnikov, Yantarny (sub auropunctatum, Alekseev, 2008: 158)
Slovakia: Nitra (SB)
Spain.Balearic Islands: Menorca, Plaia de Son Bou (SB ex coll. VV); Mallorca, Marrachí (http://listadoentomologicomallorca); Barcelona, Torrelles de Foix (SB), Osona, Maresme (; Cádiz: San Roque (Durán, 1965: 66); Gibilterra, La Linea (EM); Girona: Sant Martí de Llémena, la Selva (; Jaén: serra de Cazorla (; La Coruña; Arzúa, Betanzos, Santiago de Compostela (; Lleida: Segrià, Pla d´Urgell (; Lugo: Foz, Samos (; Madrid (; Murcia: Cartagena (; Navarra, Cascante (SB); Ourense: Pobra de Trives (; Rioja: La Navarrete (; Salamanca: Centena de Béjar, Ciudad Rodrigo (Zaballos, 1986: 74); Soria: Morón de Almazán (; Tarragona: Baix Penedès (; Valencia; Llocnou de Sant Jeroni, Natural Park of Serra d'Irta (; Zaragoza (SB)
Syria: Damascus (AC)
Sweden. Öland island (Breuning, 1927: 213)
Switzerland (sub auropunctatum,
Tunisia: Tunisia (AVT), Kairouan prov. (Ghannem & al, 2016: 69); Gabès (Bedel, 1895: 21)
Turkey: Tuz Gôlu (AVT, EM, SB); Akşehir, Konya, Ankara, Trabzon, Bitlis (sub maderae funestum Breuning, 1927: 214), Tokat (sub auropunctatum dsungaricum, Jeannel, 1940: 113) Incekum (AVT), Adana (AVT), Antalya (Ova Gölü) (AC)
Turkmenistan: Kopetdagh (Kryzhanovsky & Atamuradov, 1994: 416)
Ucraina: Central Ucraina (SB), Crimea (Sudak) (SB), Dolinskaja (SB); Berehovo (Beregszasz) (Narozsny, 1938: 75); Simferopol (; Donec'k: Lyman (sub auropunctatum,

Notes: Winged diurnal but attracted to light at night. Preferably inhabits open areas and tilled fields. It is a terricoluos predator of larvae and pupae of Lepidoptera (mainly Noctuidae) and of other insects. Active individuals were captured from April to October It has one generation a year and in Autumn the adults, newly emerged from the cells of pupation, are active before the hibernation and in these occasion they can be found very abundant.
The species of genus Calosoma, unlike some other beetles, have little inspired artists and novelists. For this reason it may be interesting to remember that with regard to this species, the abbot de Marseul (1875) in a short scientific note in the journal he founded (“Mélanges”, in L’Abeille, 15, 6: 22-24), relates the macabre story of a individual that, pierced by a pin, survived for 18 months, feeding himself voraciously during the entire time.
The incident, originally reported as a biological curiosity, struck the public imagination, and, some years later, was fictionally used in a book by another priest, the abbot Pioger (Dieu dans ses Oeuvres – Les Insectes leurs metamorphoses, leur structure et leurs moeurs, René Haton, Paris, 1882, 487-491). In this case, the story of the unfortunate “Calosoma auropunctatum” turns into a morality tale of an insect that survived its avid collector and tormentor.

Calosoma (Campalita) maderae maderae
(Fabricius, 1775)
Islas Canarias: S.ta Cruz Tenerife, cote sd., 3.XII.61, Rabaron
Calosoma (Campalita) maderae maderae
(Fabricius, 1775)
Maroc: Kenitra, V.1975, Olivella
Calosoma (Campalita) maderae maderae
(Fabricius, 1775)
Italia: Lazio, Roma, Maccarese, 15.X.92, Bruschi
Calosoma (Campalita) maderae maderae
(Fabricius, 1775)
Austria: bei Wien, Laaerberg, 28.VIII.55, Baldia lgt.
Calosoma (Campalita) maderae maderae
(Fabricius, 1775)
Turkey: near Incekum, VI.2000, Werner & Lizler leg.
(coll. Vigna Taglianti)
Calosoma (Campalita) maderae maderae
(Fabricius, 1775)
Iran: Bushire (coll. Museo Civico di Zoologia di Roma)

Calosoma (Campalita) maderae maderae
(Fabricius, 1775)
cotype of Calosoma (Callistriga) iranicum; Iran zum Western der Balouchistan
(coll. Naturhistorischen Museum, Basel)
Calosoma (Campalita) maderae maderae
(Fabricius, 1775)
type of Campalita tanganyicae
"Afrique orientale allemande"!?
(coll. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)

Calosoma (Campalita) maderae dsungaricum Gebler, 1833

Calosoma dsungaricum Gebler, 1833: 274 (described from: Dzungaria)
Calosoma laeviusculum Motschoulsky, 1844: 122 (described from: Saisan Nor)
Calosoma parallelum Motschoulsky, 1844: 123 (described from: Saisan Nor)
Calosoma (Callistriga) maderae dsungaricum Breuning, 1927: 214
Campalita auropunctata parallela Lapouge, 1930: 85
Campalita auropunctata alaiensis Lapouge, 1930: 85 (syntype: Alai; Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Berlin)
Campalita auropunctata serica Lapouge, 1930: 86 (described from: Xinjiang: Kashgar)
Campalita auropunctata afgana Lapouge, 1930: 94
Campalita auropunctatum dsungaricum Jeannel, 1940: 113
Calosoma (Campalita) maderae Subsp. dsungaricum Deuve, 1997: 55

Length 20-28 mm We chose to consider as C. maderae dsungaricum a cluster of populations characterized by a more consistent morphology of the elytral sculpture in which intervals are convex, strongly scaly and regularly aligned, always of triploid type.
C. maderae dsungaricum occupies the central Asia including north-western China (Xinjiang), in continuity with the populations of Kazakhstan, and up to Mongolia.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
China: Xinjiang: Kashgar (type of serica, Lapouge, 1930: 85), Borohoro Shan (AVT), Karlyk-Tag (=Karlik Shan) (AC, SB), Lob Nor (Breuning, 1927: 214)
Kazakhstan: Astana (SB), Tshatcal mountains (SB), Talass Ala Tau, Aksu Dzhabagly (SB), Aksej-Karačagenek (SB); Uralsk (Breuning, 1927: 214), Taryn (DP); Aktolagai (; Ketmeni pass 2100.2700m (
Kyrgyzstan: W. Tian-Shan, Pskemskyi Mts. (SB), Transalai Mt. Range, Bugu river valley (http://www.ebay /)
Mongolia. Gobi-Altai aimak: Alag-Nur Lake (SB)
Russia. Astrakhan (Breuning, 1927: 214), Orenburg: Akbulak (SB); Volgograd Oblast, Lake Elton (Matalin & Makarov, 2011); Vilgort (sub auropunctatum,
Tajikistan: West Pamir, Tadjikabad (AVT); Tojikobod distr., 2500m. (SB); Ezgan (sub auropunctatum,; Boukharie Est (SB)
Turkmenistan Ashkhabad (sub maderae tectum Breuning, 1927: 215)
Uzbekistan: Ghissar range (EM); Ljutfabad (sub maderae tectum Breuning, 1927: 215); Khorezm reg., Karakapakstan rep. (Khamraev, 2003: 47)

Notes: Nocturnal, winged. Active individuals were captured from May to September

Calosoma (Campalita) maderae dsungaricum
Gebler, 1833
Pakistan: Balochistan, Khuzdar, 23.VII.2009, Muhammad Akter
Calosoma (Campalita) maderae dsungaricum
Gebler, 1833
Kazachistan: Aksej-Karačagenek, VI.88, Čermék leg.

Calosoma (Campalita) maderae indicum Hope, 1831

Calosoma indicum Hope, 1831: 24 (described of Nepal, type not to be found)
Calosoma nigrum Parry, 1845: 85 (described of Assam, Kasya Hills)
Calosoma scabripenne Chaudoir, 1869: 371 (lectotype: Nord de l'Hindoustan; Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma (Callistriga) maderae indicum Breuning, 1927: 215
Calosoma (Callistriga) maderae nivale Breuning, 1927: 216 (holotype: Pir Panjal; Naturalis Biodiversity Centre, Leiden)
Calosoma (Callistriga) maderae kashmirense Breuning, 1927: 216 (holotype: Lahoul; Naturalis Biodiversity Centre, Leiden)
Calosoma maderae var. kashmirense Andrewes, 1929: 60
Calosoma maderae var. indicum Andrewes, 1929: 61
Campalita chinensis nivicola Lapouge, 1930: 87 (described from: Chachemire)
Caminara (Campalita) chinensis indica Lapouge, 1929-32: 412
Caminara (Campalita) chinensis indica nivalis Lapouge, 1929-32: 412
Campalita auropunctatum kashmirense Jeannel, 1940: 113
Campalita indicum Jeannel, 1940: 115
Calosoma (Callistriga) chinense kashmirense Mandl, 1954: 161
Calosoma (Callistriga) chinense densegranulatum Mandl, 1954: 161 (type: Ost-Turkestan, Khotan Geb.; coll. Hauser, Naturhistorischen Museum Wien)
Calosoma sculpturi Hasmi et al., 2005: 268 (type: Pakistan, Devsai, Northern areas; coll. Kamaluddin)
Calosoma stratum Hashmi et al., 2005: 270 (type: Pakistan, Northern areas; coll. Kamaluddin)

Length 15-22 mm. The various populations we include in C. maderae indicum are charecterized by the imbrication which tends to break into a rugose surface where fine striae are still visible, or the intervals are entirely transformed into a granular surface whose granules are more or less aligned in series. The sites beyond the third primary and the apical fourth of elytra (series umbilicata) are invariably roughened with numerous minute granules. The elytral sculpture pattern goes from triploid to pentaploid type by doubling the tertiary intervals. The colour is dark bronze or, sometimes, light bronze with metallic lustre. C. maderae indicum is found along the western side of Himalaya from Afghanistan to Nepal up to Sichuan in China.
The populations that are found at higher altitude in Pakistan and northern India mantain a unmistakable triploid pattern of elytral sculpture, but the intervals are deeply tegulate and tend to dissolve into a rugose surface, the ones beyond the third primary and the apical fourth, are transformed in numerous minute granules. These populations are also slightly differentiated by their smaller size and in most cases they show a dark bronze colour (nivale and kashmirense auct.). According to Breuning (1927: 216), the Tibetan specimens (Roeschke 1900: 60) should also be attributed to these populations.
Instead, the populations that live in the hills and medium altitude mountain ranges between Afghanistan and northern Pakistan have mostly a grainy elytral sculpture with a pattern of pentaploid type (densegranulatum). Finally, in the populations living in northern India and Nepal the intervals have become series of more or less aligned rough granules (indicum auct.).
These series of variation in elytral sculpture that we observe among and inside the populations of C. maderae indicum seem to represent intermediate steps in the evolutionary process that apparently occurred in the Himalayan species of Campalita, ending into the complete dissolution of sculpture in the easternmost related species (C. chinense).
Recently specimens of C. maderae have been cited from the state of Karnataka in southern India (Kumar & Rajagopal, 1996: 611), but it is hard to make assumptions about the bio-geographycal significance of this quote which still deserves to be confirmed.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Afghanistan. Nuristan: Bashgul tal (paratypes densegranulatum (AVT, NMB)
China. Xizang (Tibet) (
India. Jammu and Kashmir: Sissu (AC), Shrinagar (AC, AVT, VV), Pahlgam (EM, NMP, SB), Ladakh (Breuning, 1927: 216), Pir Panjal (paratype indicum nivale, NMB), Lidarwat (NMP); Sonamarg (sub maderae auropunctatum Andrewes, 1929: 59) (AVT), Aru (AC, NMP, SB); Himachal Pradesh: Lahaul Sumdei (type maderae kasmirense, Breuning, 1927: 216; sub maderae auropunctatum Andrewes, 1929: 59), Lahaul Chatru (AVT, GP, SB, MNHN), Rohtang valley (sub maderae auropunctatum Andrewes, 1929: 59), Poo (MCZR), Kulu (sub maderae kasmirense Andrewes, 1929: 60) (sub maderae auropunctarum Andrewes, 1929: 59) (NMB), Spiti (MNHN), Chamba distr. (sub maderae auropunctatum Andrewes, 1929: 59) (AVT), Kangra valley, Bajaura (Andrewes, 1929: 62); Western Bengala: Calcutta (Andrewes, 1929: 62); Bihar: Pusa, Chapra (Andrewes, 1929: 62); Uttarakhand: Bashar (Breuning, 1927: 216), Dehra Dun (Andrewes, 1929: 62), Chakrata (sub maderae auropunctatum Andrewes, 1929: 59), Meghalaya: Khasi (Kasya) Hills (sub nigrum, Breuning, 1927: 215).
Nepal. Bagmati: Nagarkot (SB), Katmandu (EM), southern Kathmandu Valley, Mount Polchowki (; Narayani: Gunganagar (JS), Aru (AC).
Pakistan. Federally Administred Tribal Area: Khaar (SB); Punjab: Bashna (SB); Islamabad: Rawal Lake (AVT); Khyber Pakhtunkhwa: Swat valley (AC, AVT, SB), Kagan valley (AC, AVT, EM, GP, SB), Naran (SB), Kalam (SB), Peshawar (AVT, MNHN, SB), Temergara (AVT), Shringal (AVT), Tarai (AVT), Ch-Ayun (AVT), Daggar (AVT), Chakdara (AVT) Chitral (SB), Kohat (NIM); Gilgit Baltistan: Skardu (AVT, SB), Deosai (NIM), Chilas (NIM), Gilgat River (SB); Sindh: Tharparkar (SB); Tarai (AVT), Mithi (NIM); Balochistan: Khuzdar (SB); Punjab: Bahawalpur (NIM), Anjum (NIM).

Notes: Mostly nocturnal, winged, attracted to light at night. Lives in pastures and tilled fields, preying on caterpillar of moths of the Noctuidae family (Andrewes, 1929: 62). Active individuals were captured just before and during the rainy season typical of the himalayan foothills, from March to August. In the alpine zone the adult individuals take refuge on daytime under stones where they are often associated with Tenebrionidae. In this habitat they are found from July to September and some time hibernating under snow (Mani 1962:188). The larval stage seem to be more tolerant of low temperature remainig active until the fall of snow, possibly up to November.
The description of the larva can be found in Fletcher (1919: 33).

Calosoma (Campalita) maderae indicum
Hope, 1831
Afghanistan: Achmede Dewanw, 1100m Bashgul tal, Nuristan, J.Klapperich, 7.4.53
(paratype Calosoma (Callistriga) chinense densegranulatum);
(coll. Naturhistorischen Museum, Basel)
Calosoma (Campalita) maderae indicum
Hope, 1831
Afghanistan: Achmede Dewanw, 2700m Bashgul tal, Nuristan, J.Klapperich, 25.7.52
(paratype Calosoma (Callistriga) chinense densegranulatum);
(coll. Vigna Taglianti)
Calosoma (Campalita) maderae indicum
Hope, 1831
Pakistan: Khyber Pakhtunkhwa,
Swat valley, Mingora, 24.6.2009, Muhammad Akter
Calosoma (Campalita) maderae indicum
Hope, 1831
Pakistan: Khyber Pakhtunkhwa,
Swat valley, Mingora, 24.6.2009, Muhammad Akter
Calosoma (Campalita) maderae indicum
Hope, 1831
Pakistan: Khyber Pakhtunkhwa,
Swat valley, Mingora, 07.6.2008, Muhammad Akter
Calosoma (Campalita) maderae indicum
Hope, 1831
Pakistan: Khyber Pakhtunkhwa,
Kagan valley, 2300-2750 m., 24.7.78
Calosoma (Campalita) maderae indicum
Hope, 1831
India: Himachal Pradesh, Lahaul Chatru
3200 m., 8.9.1993 Lassalle lgt.
(coll. Pontuale)
Calosoma (Campalita) maderae indicum
Hope, 1831
India: Jammu and Kashmir, Pir Panjal
(paratype of Calosoma (Callistriga) maderae nivale)
(coll. Naturhistorischen Museum, Basel)
Calosoma (Campalita) maderae indicum
Hope, 1831
India: Himachal Pradesh, Kolu 1250m, 10.V.77,
Wittmer & Brancucci lgt.
(coll. Naturhistorischen Museum, Basel)
Calosoma (Campalita) maderae indicum
Hope, 1831
Nepal: Nagarkot 1800m., 3.VI.1990 Bruschi lgt.

last review 12.1.2019