Calosoma (Campalita) maderae (Fabricius, 1775)

C. maderae consists of a cluster of populations that vary considerably with regard to the color and to the elytral sculpture. For this reason these populations received in the past various names at species or subspecies level. Dealing with this confusion of names, Breuning (1927: 204), choose to include every described populations in one single species. On the contrary Jeannel (1940) considered four distinct species: maderae, auropunctatum indicum and chinense.
When you consider all of the vast range of the distribution of the group of these supposed species, it is apparent, even in the presence of a considerable individual variability, the emergence of a East to West geographical continous cline of variation, from the eastern chinense to the Atlantic island populations (maderae s. str.). Therefore we would prefer to consider a single species (C. maderae) characterized by the colour of upper body going from black to dark bronze and by elytral sculpture of triploid type with tendency to become of pentaploid type by doubling of the tertiary intervals, up to be transformed into a more or less recognizable pattern of granulation. Inside this species we consider maderae, dsungaricum, indicum as subspecies but we'd rather continue to treat chinense as a distinct species, taking into account the further evolution of other minor morphological characteristics, other than the elytral sculpture.
It is important to note that he word: subspecies, as used in this context, corresponds to groups of populations, differentiated by morphological criteria not too restrictive, but that are well defined when we consider their geographical area of distribution. In the areas of contact we find the transition between one and the other group. Here the cline of morphological variability does not always allow a sure differentiation of individuals, instead, the populations that occupy the farthest areas may be easily distinguished.
The elytral sculpture of triploid type, as the one that characterizes C. maderae dsungaricum, may considered the less advanced (Jeannel, 1940:25). This type of sculpture is progressively modified in the various populations encountered going eastward that we include in indicum (kashmirense - densegranulatum – indicum, auct.), through the gradual dissolution of the intervals, towards a uniformly granular sculpture, where only the primary intervals are indicated by the presence of large metallic foveae.
On the other side, going westward, the elytral sculpture is gradually changing in the different populations of what we consider maderae s. str, (auropunctatum - indagator – maderae auct.) by flattening of the intervals and, on parallel, by reducing the size of the foveae on the primary ones. Once again, these changes in morphology occur without perceivable break in continuity from one population to another.

Calosoma (Campalita) maderae maderae (Fabricius, 1775)

Carabus maderae Fabricius, 1775: 237 (described from Madeira) lectotypes in: Natural History Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen (Zimsen & Fabricius, 1964: 52); Natural History Museum, London (Andrewes, 1929: 57); Zoological Museum of Kiel University (Casale & al, 1982: 87)
Carabus auropunctatum Herbst, 1784: 131 (described from southern Sweden) lectotype in Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin (Casale & al, 1982: 90)
Carabus indagator Fabricius, 1787: 197 (described from Berberia) lectotype in Natural History Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen (Andrewes, 1929: 57)
Carabus sericeus Fabricius, 1792: 147 (described from "Germaniae sabuleti") lectotypes in Natural History Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen (Jeannel, 1940: 111); Zoological Museum of Kiel University (Andrewes, 1929: 57; Casale & al, 1982: 90)
Calosoma indagator Fabricius, 1801: 211
Calosoma sericeum Fabricius, 1801: 212
Calosoma tectum Motschoulsky, 1844: 122 (distribution: "Sud de nos possession Transcaucasiennes" = Talysch?); original material: unspecified number of specimens, no repository given.
Callisoma tauricum Motschoulsky, 1850: 88 (described from: Tauride)
Calosoma auropunctatum var obscurum Letzner, 1850: 97 (distribution: Schlesien); original material: unspecified number of specimens, no repository given.
Calosoma auropunctatum var auromarginatum Letzner, 1850: 97 ; idem
Calosoma auropunctatum var nitens Letzner, 1850: 97 ; idem
Campalita auropunctatum s. v. Duftschmidti Géhin, 1885: 63 ; nomen novum pro sericeum sensu Duftschmid, 1812: 15 (described from: Dorfe Dobling, Wien); original material: unspecified number of specimens, no repository given.
Campalita auropunctatum s. v. funestum Géhin, 1885: 63, note 63 ; (described from: Caucase); unspecified number of specimens but type formely in coll. R. Oberthür (Jeannel, 1940: 109)
Campalita calida maroccana Lapouge, 1924: 44 (distribution: interieur du Maroc); original material: unspecified number of specimens; no repository given.
Campalita maderae glabripenne Eidam, 1926: 94 (described from Madeira Is.); type material: holotype ♀ ( from S. Pral el Soor, Madeira) in Naturalis Biodiversity Centre, Leiden (de Boer, 202: 53)
Calosoma (Callistriga) maderae maderae Breuning, 1927: 210
Calosoma (Callistriga) maderae indagator Breuning, 1927: 210
Calosoma (Callistriga) maderae auropunctatum Breuning, 1927: 211
Calosoma (Callistriga) maderae funestum Breuning, 1927: 213
Calosoma (Callistriga) maderae tectum Breuning, 1927: 214
Campalita auropunctata syra Lapouge, 1930: 86 (distribution: Syria); original material: unspecified number of specimens; no repository given.
Campalita auropunctata Montandoni Lapouge, 1930: 87 (distribution: Romania); original material: unspecified number of specimens; no repository given.
Campalita Maderae indagatrix Lapouge, 1930: 96 (unnecessary nomen emendatum pro indagator Fabricius, 1787)
Campalita maderae maderae Jeannel, 1940: 110
Campalita maderae indagator Jeannel, 1940: 110
Campalita maderae tauricum Jeannel, 1940: 110
Campalita auropunctatum auropunctatum Jeannel, 1940: 111
Campalita tanganyicae Jeannel, 1940: 114; (type locality: Afrique orientale allemande) type material: holotype ♂, allotype ♀, originally in coll Bedel in Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris [examined].
Calosoma (Callistriga) iranicum Mandl, 1953: 55 (type locality: Westrand des Dschas Morian, Südostiran) Type material: holotype ♂ in former coll. Mandl
Calosoma (Campalita) nicolasi Schuler, 1965: 211
Calosoma (Callistriga) dsungaricum tectum Mandl, 1967: 44
Campalita auropunctata sturanii Raynaud et Marchal, 1967: 96 (described from Italie, Sicilie) syntypes, repository not stated. According to Casale & al. (1982: 87), the type material is from Fontana Fredda, Catania, in coll. Raynaud (at present in Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris).
Calosoma auropunctatum parvepunctatum Della Beffa, 1983 (cited in Lorenz, 2005: 69)
Calosoma maderae indagator impunctatus Branes, 1987

Length 22-35 mm. The populations attributed to C. maderae maderae present the elytral sculpture pattern of triploid type with a tendency to turn into pentaploid type by doubling the tertiary intervals. The intervals are flat or semi-obsolete and weakly imbricate; the colour is dull black .
In a more broad vision as we propose, auropunctatum, the populations of which Jeannel characterized by the predominantly triploid elytral sculptur, does not deserve to be distinguished from the other populations given the fickleness of the characteristics. Moreover often we find in a same locality individuals showing both the models of elytral sculpture.
C. maderae maderae can be found, with larger specimens (25-35 mm), on both coasts of the Mediterranean basin. On the western coast the sculpture is generally more flattened (indagator), up to the islands of Madeira and the Canary, where the sculpture is obsolete, or is only detectable by some streaks of weak punctures (maderae s. str.).
C. maderae maderae occupies also the central northern Europe up to Norway (Breuning, 1928b: 97) and the Alpine region where we find populations on average smaller in size (16-26 mm.). In the Eastern Medirranean coast, in Ukraine, Balkan Peninsula (Romania and Bulgaria), Southern Russia, Iraq, Iran up to Pakistan we find individuals or entire populations showing in the elytral sculpture a more pronounced triploid aspect (auropunctatum sensu Breuning, 1927).
The ancient authors already noticed the variability of populations and individuals in this large area, and this variability led to the identification of many forms some of which are considered by Breuning in his systematic framework (1927) close to the group maderae-auropunctatum (funestum from Asia Minor to Caucasus) and other to maderae dsungaricum (tectum in the regions around the southern Caspian sea).
C maderae has been indicated doubtfully from Egypt: Heluan (auropunctatum Breuning, 1927: 213) but Schatzmayr (1936: 24) thinks that this indication is erroneous and according to the opinion of Jeannel (1940: 112), C maderae in Egypt is substituted by the vicarious chlorostictum. Subsequently, Alfieri (1976: 3) while excluding the presence of C. auropunctatum, cites C. maderae indagator found on the sea shore more or less two hundred kilometers from the Lybian border. We think that the find, at least occasionally, of C. maderae in Egypt can not be excluded a priori since it is found in the conterminous countries Libya and Israel.
Finally, the examination of the types allowed us for assigning the two supposed species, Campalita tanganyicae Jeannel, 1940, described on two specimens incorrectly labelled and Campalita iranicum, described by Mandl from western Baluchistan, to the C. maderae group. Strangely these supposed species are quite similar. Both have the elytral sculpture of triploid type, slightly scaly and somewhat irregular, but with flat intervals. It is difficult to identify the group of populations to which these specimens are to be attributed, considering that in the case of C. maderae the characters are not constant in the individuals inside each group and that, therefore, in many cases it is almost impossible to decide on the basis of single specimens. In fact, the specimens of C. tanganyicae were attributed by Rougemont (1976: 245) to C. maderae dsungaricum, following the opinion of Basilewsky, and both the supposed species were later attributed by Bruschi & Vigna Taglianti (2012: 205) to C. maderae indicum. However, in the absence of additional information, all these specimens should be more properly considered as part of the variability of C. maderae maderae.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Afghanistan. Kabul (AVT); Bamian (SB); Paghman mts (sub dsungaricum Breuning, 1927: 214); Darufulun near Kabul 1800 m, Surobi on the Kabul river 900m., Sarekanda 2800m, Ghorband 1900m, Kandahar 950m, Schiva high steppe, 2800 m, Bashgul valley 1200m (sub dsungaricum Mandl, 1955: 325); Parwan: Bagram env (SB)
Algeria. Nemours, Lalla Maghnia, Daya, El Kreider, Mecheria, Sidi Bel Abbès, Mostaganem, Teniet-el-Had, Berouhaghi, env. Alger, Grande Kabylia Biskra, Bone, La Calle (Bedel, 1895: 21); El Goléa (Al-Manīʿa) (Jeannel, 1940: 110); Bou Kanefis (SB); Batna; Oran (SB)
Armenia. Erevan (sub maderae funestum Breuning, 1927: 214); Gechard (AVT); Selim pass (SB)
Austria. Burgenland: März, Neusiedl am See, Neusiedlerseegebiet (Mandl 1957: 106), Zurndorf (; Kärnten: Sagritz, Heiligenblut (Pacher, 1853); Niederösterreich: Auam, Leithagebirge, Herzogenburg, Garsam, Kamp, Laaa.d.Th., Langenzersdorf, Marchfeld, Mödling, Petronell Ravensburg, Trumaubei Baden (Mandl 1957: 106); Oberösterreich: Gosau, Linz-Umgebung, between Mariahilf and Schullerberg (Mandl 1957: 106); Tirol: Zirl (; Wien: Donauauen, Hadersdorf, Auhofgarten, Inzersdorf, Nußberg, Überschwemmungsgebiet (Mandl 1957: 106), Laaerberg (SB), Langenzersdorf (, Žatek (AVT).
Azerbajian. Talysh (Breuning, 1927: 215, sub maderae tectum), Elisabethpol (= Ganja) (Breuning, 1927: 214; sub maderae funestum)
Belarus. (sub auropunctatum,
Belgium. Limbourg: Helden; Anvers: Saint-Vliet (sub auropunctatum, Matieu, 1857: 120).
Bosnia-Erzegovina. Županjac (Tomislavgrad) (Apfelbeck, 1904 : 16), Mostarko Blato (Apfelbeck, 1904 : 16)
Bulgaria. Haskovo (sub auropunctatum, Buresch & Kantardjieva, 1928: 64); Dragomansko blato (Dragoman) (EM); Lozenets (Burgas) (EM, SB); Grudovo, Choveka 2000m. (Guéorguiev & Guéorguiev, 1995: 40); Obzor, (
Canaries Islands (Spain). El Hierro: Valverde; La Gomera: Laguna Grande, Laguna de Gomera (Machado, 1992: 89); La PaIma: (Wollaston, 1865: 3), Carretera S. Bartolomé de la Galga, San Isidro (Machado, 1992: 89); Tenerife: (Wollaston, 1865: 3), Santa Cruz de Tenerife (AVT, SB), San Andres (SB), Costa Sur (SB); Bajamar, Punta del Hidalgo 200m, Tejina 300m, Las Mercedes 600m, La Matanza 500m, Los Rodeos, 680m, Campo de Golf (Guamasa) 650m, Esperanza (Mña. Grande), Aguamansa, Agua Guillén, Agua GarcÍa (Salto Naranjo), La Orotava, Playa de San Juan (Machado, 1992: 89); Gran Canaria: (Wollaston, 1865: 3), Maspalomas (, Tafira, Las Palmas, Melenara, Telde (Machado, 1992: 89); Fuerteventura: La Oliva; Lanzarote: between Haría and El Río (Machado, 1992: 89).
Croatia. Krapan (Carpano); Rijeka (Fiume) (sub auropunctatum, Müller, 1926: 45).
Cyprus. Limassol, Akrotiri (SB); Akrotiri peninsula (Austin & al., 2011).
Czech Republic. Hodonín, Jezeřany-Maršovice, Šlapanice, Bochovice, Stařeč, Jihlava, Praha (sub auropunctatum
Denmark. Amager, Samsö (sub sericeum, Schiødte, 1841: 309), Rømø island (Lindroth, 1985: 48)
Egypt. Heluan (= Elwan, Cairo) (Breuning, 1927: 213; sub auropunctatum); Marsa Matruh (Alfieri, 1976: 3; sub maderae indagator).
Estonia. (
France. Aude : Narbonne (Jeannel, 1940: 110 & sub auropunctatum, Jeannel, 1940: 112); Canigou: Saint-André; Hérault: Valras Agde (, Béziers (Jeannel, 1940: 110 & sub auropunctatum, Jeannel, 1940: 112 ); Lozère: mont Aigoual (Jeannel, 1940: 110); Montpellier (sub auropunctatum, Jeannel, 1940: 112); Pyrénées-Orientales: Saint-André (; Seine et Oise: Montemorency (SB), Le Pecq (SB); Seine-Saint-Denis: Aubervilliers (sub auropunctatum, Jeannel, 1940: 112); Vienne: Poitiers (sub auropunctatum, Jeannel, 1940: 112)
Georgia: Tibilisi (Tiflis) (Breuning, 1927: 214 sub maderae funestum)
Germany. Lauterberg (EM), Thüringen (Hartmann, 2007: 162); Brandenburg: Papproth (
Greece. Creta, Cyclades islands: Syros, Milos, Paros (Apfelbeck, 1904 : 15); Parnassos mt. (Apfelbeck, 1904 : 15), Peloponneso (Morea), Lesbos (Mytilene), Rhodes (sub maderae auropunctatum Breuning, 1927: 211); Limnos (sub auropunctatum, Jeannel, 1940: 112); Thessaloniki (sub auropunctatum dsungaricum, Jeannel, 1940: 113)
Hungary. Gyulaj, Miskolc, Sátoraljaújhely Nyíregyháza, Debrecen, Felsoireg (Tolna distr.), Hortobagy National Park, Barabás, Budapest, Pestszentlőrinc-Pestszentimre, Rakoskeresztur, Rakosmezo (Narozsny, 1938: 75)
Iran. Bushehr prov: Bushehr (Bushire) (MZUR) (sub maderae dsungaricum Breuning, 1928b: 96); Fars prov: Shiraz (sub sericeum; Kollar & Redtenbacher, 1848: 45); Gilan prov: Gysoum, Asalem (sub auropunctatum dsungaricum Salari & al.2014: 451); Golestan prov: Gorgan (Astrabad) (MZUR; Breuning, 1927: 215 sub maderae tectum), Salikandeh (sub Campalita iranicum; Ghahari & al., 2009: 439); Hormozgan prov: Bandar Abbas (EM); Kerman prov: Kerman (DS), Jaz Murian Depression (sub auropunctatum tectum, Mandl, 1953: 55); Khūzestān prov: Omidyeh (NMP), Haft-Tapeh (AVT), Gachsaran 2850m (; Mazadaran prov: Nowshahr (sub dsungaricum tectum Mandl, 1967c: 44), Behshahr (sub maderae dsungaricum, Ghahari, 2018: 100); Razavi Khorasan prov: Mashhad (sub maderae tectum Namaghi & al., 2010: 199); Sistan and Baluchistan prov: western edge of Jaz Murian Depression (type of iranicum), to the west of Baluchistan (cotype of iranicum NMB), Bampur (sub iranicum, Mandl, 1967c: 44); South Khorasan prov: Nehbandan (sub maderae tectum Namaghi & al., 2010: 199); Teheran: Teheran (NMP); ; Tabriz: Sīāh Chaman (sub dsungaricum tectum, Heinz, 1970: 363).
Iraq. Mossul (sub maderae dsungaricum Breuning, 1928b: 96); Bagdad (; Basra (; Al Qibla, Basrah (;
Israel. Mt. Hermon. (; Mt. Carmel, Jaffa (Tel Aviv) (Breuning, 1927: 213 sub maderae auropunctatum)
Italy. Abruzzo: Atessa (; Basilicata: Policoro (AVT), Matera (; Calabria: Catanzaro (MCZR), Crotone, Santa Cristina d’Aspromonte (Magistretti, 1965: 59), Reggio Calabria (AC); Campania: Napoli (SB), Roccarainola (AVT), Orta di Atella (, Camaldoli (Magistretti, 1965: 59); Emilia Romagna: Ravenna (AVT, SB), Lido di Classe (AC, AVT), Cervia (EM), Baricella (EM), Sesto Imolese (De Giovanni, 1978: 12), Massalombarda, Ravenna Punta Marina, Mesola, Bubano di Mordano, Piacenza (, Castelnuovo Rangone (CKmap), Cesena, (Magistretti, 1965: 59); Friuli: Gorizia, Tolmezzo (sub auropunctatum, Müller, 1926: 45); Lazio: Gaeta (AVT), Salto di Fondi (AVT), P.N. Circeo (AVT), Terracina (AVT), Sabaudia (AVT), Campoverde (EM), Padiglione (AVT), Priverno Scalo (AVT), Maenza (AVT), Acilia (MZUR), Sassofurbara (AVT), Lido di Roma (AVT), Anzio (AVT), Caffarella (MCZR), Colli Albani (EM), Genzano di Roma (AVT), Roccapriora (EM), Rocca di Papa (Bruno, 1974), Zagarolo (AVT), Monte Tagliente (EM), Marino (Bruno, 1974), Castelromano (EM), Ten. S. Alessio (EM), Cavallo Morto (AVT), Nuova Florida (AVT), Monte Sacro (AVT), Santa Maria di Galeria (AVT), Tor Sapienza (AVT), Ponte Galeria, (AVT) Maccarese (AVT, EM, SB), Castel di Guido (SB), Tenuta Capocotta (SB), Monterazzano (AVT), Montalto di Castro (Bruno, 1974); Lombardia: Lanzo d'Intelvi (Breuning, 1927: 211), Pavia (AVT), Milano dint. (AVT), Marmirolo, Bosco Fontana (AVT), Bigarello (AVT), Quistello, Belgioioso (AC), Voghera, Cervesina (Magistretti, 1965: 59), Langosco, Mezzana Bigli (GA); Marche: Marcelli, Osimo, Camerata Picena (; Piemonte: Collina di Torino (GA), Casale Monferrato (GA), Bozzolo (GA), Pecetto di Valenza (AVT, GA), Frassineto Po (MAl), Occimiano (MAl), Langosco (MAl), Mezzana (MAl), Bigli (MAl), Magliano Alfieri (MAl), Loazzolo (MAl), Castagnola (MAl), S. Martino Alfieri (MAl), Verduno (MAl), Alba (MAl), Monforte d'Alba (MAl), Neive (MAl), Vezza, Limone, Gamalero, Alessandria (Magistretti, 1965: 59), Asti dint, Biella dint (Casale et al., 1982: 90), Entracque (AC, AVT), Spinetta Marengo (AC); Puglia: antico lago di San Egidio, Trinitapoli, lago Macchiapiana, lago di Varano (Magistretti, 1965: 59); Sardegna: Arborea (AC), Capoterra(AVT), Capo Mannu (AVT), Oristano dint. (AVT), Olbia, Massiccio dei Sette Fratelli, Pula- Is Cannoneris (, Cagliari (Magistretti, 1965: 59), Orosei, Ottana (Magistretti, 1968), Isola San Pietro, Isola Sant'Antioco (Piras & Pisano, 1972); Sicilia: Castelbuono, Messina, Spartà (Vitale, 1912: 202), Liccia (Minà Palumbo, 1883: 175), Catania (AVT, SB), Lampedusa (AVT), Pantelleria, (Failla, 1887: 158), Degala del Re, foce del Fiume Irminio, Mazara del Vallo (, foce del Fiume Simeto, Piani di Mascali (AVT), Palermo, Fiume Ciane (Aliquò, 1970); Toscana: Alberese, Isola Pianosa (AVT), Pisa (Piccioli, 1869:207), Isola del Giglio (Gridelli, 1926: 434), Castiglion della Pescaia (SB); Umbria: Castelgiorgio (; Val d'Aosta: Cogne (AVT), Epinel (Bisio & al., 2016: 82); Veneto: Verona, Bertacchina, Porto Tolle (Magistretti, 1965: 58), Peschiera del Garda (teste D. Birtele), Lonigo (Magistretti, 1968), Castagnole (MAl), Chioggia, Venezia Lido (CKmap).
Jordan. Zarqah (AVT)
Kuwait. (AVT)
Latvia. Dubna vill.(sub auropunctatum, Balalaikins et al., 2018: 60)
Libya. Baninha (AVT); Bengasi (SB); Ben Badis (AC), Tripolitania: Al Mardum (Bani Whalid); Fazzan: Tikiumit, NW of Al Awainat (; Giarabub, Tobruch, Derna, Tilimùn, Cirene, El Abiar, Augila, Gialo (sub maderae indagator, Gridelli, 1930: 11)
Lithuania. (sub auropunctatum,
Madeira islands (Portugal). Madeira: Fanal, Ribeiro Frio (Wollaston, 1854: 15); Porto Santo: Ileo de Baixo (Wollaston, 1854: 15).
Malta. Gozo: Rabat (Magrini & al, 1997: 218)
Moldova. (sub auropunctatum,
Morocco. Forêt de Mamora (SB); Casablanca (SB); Kenitra (AVT, SB); Safi, Oualidia (AVT, EM); Port Lyautey (Em); Nador (EM); Marrakech (AVT); Meknès (AVT); Azrou (AVT); Ouarzazate (; Bou-Izakaren (Kocher, 1938: 78); Tanger, Tetuan (Bedel, 1895: 21); Melilla, Mogador, Mskala (Escalera, 1914: 8); Meknès-Tafilalet: Rissani (
Norway. near Oslo (Breuning, 1928b: 97).
Pakistan. Balochistan: Quetta (SB), Khuzdar (SB), Mergara (AVT).
Poland. Jaroslaw (Breuning, 1927: 213)
Portugal. Cabo Espichel ( SPEN); Faro, Corte do Gago (
Romania. Craiova (SB), Barlad (sub auropunctatum dsungaricum , Jeannel, 1940: 113); Murighiol, (
Russia. Saint Petersburg (sub maderae auropunctatum Breuning, 1927: 213), Stavropol' krai, Novoalexandrovsk (as turcomannica Breuning, 1927: 215), Saratov reg: Saratov distr., Novoburas distr, Tatishevsky distr., (sub auropunctatum, Sazhnev, 2007: 350); Volgograd region., Olkhovskiy district (; Kaliningrad region: Sambian peninsula, Mechnikov, Yantarny (sub auropunctatum, Alekseev, 2008: 158); 70 km S. Astrachan' (SB)
Slovakia. Nitra (SB)
Spain. Almeria: Almeria (Jeanne, 1969: 103); Balearic Islands. Menorca: Plaia de Son Bou (SB ex coll. VV) Mahón (Jeanne, 1969: 103); Mallorca: Marrachí (http://listadoentomologicomallorca); Barcelona, Torrelles de Foix (SB), Osona, Maresme, Hostalets de Balenyà (, Prat de Llobregat, Tarrasa (Jeanne, 1969: 103); Badajoz: Montijo (Jeanne, 1969: 103), Cádiz: San Roque (Durán, 1965: 66), Algesiras, San Fernando (Jeanne, 1969: 103); Galicia: Santiago, Foz, Monforte, Trives (Campos Gómez & al., 2006: 53), Arzúa, Betanzos, (; Gibilterra, La Linea (EM); Girona: Sant Martí de Llémena, la Selva (; Granada: Pórtugos, Sierra Nevada, Laguns del Cerro Pelado (Jeanne, 1969: 103); Huelva: Aljaraque, Huelva, Palos de la Frontera, Punta Umbría (López-Pérez & al., 2014: 264); Huesca: Bajaruelo (Jeanne, 1969: 103); Jaén: Postal de Becerro, Hornos (Jeanne, 1969: 103), Marrachí, serra de Cazorla (; Lérida: Barbèns (Jeanne, 1969: 103); Lleida: Segrià, Pla d´Urgell (; Lugo: Samos (Jeanne, 1969: 103); Madrid (; Murcia: Cartagena (; Navarra, Cascante (SB); Ourense: Pobra de Trives (; Rioja: La Navarrete (; Salamanca: Centena de Béjar, Ciudad Rodrigo (Zaballos, 1986: 74); Sevilla: Villamanrique (Jeanne, 1969: 103) (Jeanne, 1969: 103); Soria: Morón de Almazán (; Tarragona: Miravet (Jeanne, 1969: 103), Teruel: Alcabia (Jeanne, 1969: 103); Baix Penedès (; Valencia; Llocnou de Sant Jeroni, Natural Park of Serra d'Irta (; Zaragoza: Zaragoza (SB), Belchite (Jeanne, 1969: 103)
Syria. Damascus (AC)
Sweden. Öland island (Breuning, 1927: 213)
Switzerland. (sub auropunctatum,
Tunisia. Tunisia (AVT), Kairouan prov. (Ghannem & al, 2016: 69); Gabès (Bedel, 1895: 21)
Turkey. Tuz Gôlu (AVT, EM, SB); Akşehir, Konya, Ankara, Trabzon, Bitlis (sub maderae funestum Breuning, 1927: 214); Ankara: Yenimahalle (sub maderae Tezcan & al., 2018: 549); Tokat (sub auropunctatum dsungaricum, Jeannel, 1940: 113) Incekum (AVT), Adana (AVT), Antalya (Ova Gölü) (AC); Hazar Gôlu (sub auropunctatum, Karaman (sub maderae dsungaricum,; Diyarbakır: Karacadağ, (sub maderae funestum Tezcan & al., 2018: 549); İzmir: Bornova ( sub auropunctatum Tezcan & al., 2018: 549); Kars: Göle (sub auropunctatum funestum Heinz, 1970:363)
Turkmenistan. Kopetdagh (Kryzhanovsky & Atamuradov, 1994: 416)
Ucraina. Central Ucraina (SB), Crimea (Sudak) (SB), Dolinskaja (SB); Berehovo (Beregszasz) (Narozsny, 1938: 75); Simferopol (; Donec'k: Lyman (sub auropunctatum,

Notes: Winged diurnal but attracted to light at night. Preferably inhabits open areas and tilled fields. It is a terricoluos predator of larvae and pupae of Lepidoptera (mainly Noctuidae) and of other insects. Active individuals were captured from April to October It has one generation a year and in Autumn the adults, newly emerged from the cells of pupation, are active before the hibernation and in these occasion they can be found very abundant.
The species of genus Calosoma, unlike some other beetles, have little inspired artists and novelists. For this reason it may be interesting to remember that with regard to this species, the abbot de Marseul (1875) in a short scientific note in the journal he founded (“Mélanges”, in L’Abeille, 15, 6: 22-24), relates the macabre story of a individual that, pierced by a pin, survived for 18 months, feeding himself voraciously during the entire time.
The incident, originally reported as a biological curiosity, struck the public imagination, and, some years later, was fictionally used in a book by another priest, the abbot Pioger (Dieu dans ses Oeuvres – Les Insectes leurs metamorphoses, leur structure et leurs moeurs, René Haton, Paris, 1882, 487-491). In this case, the story of the unfortunate “Calosoma auropunctatum” turns into a morality tale of an insect that survived its avid collector and tormentor.

Calosoma (Campalita) maderae maderae
(Fabricius, 1775)
Islas Canarias: S.ta Cruz Tenerife, cote sd., 3.XII.61, Rabaron
Calosoma (Campalita) maderae maderae
(Fabricius, 1775)
Maroc: Kenitra, V.1975, Olivella
Calosoma (Campalita) maderae maderae
(Fabricius, 1775)
Italia: Lazio, Roma, Maccarese, 15.X.92, Bruschi
Calosoma (Campalita) maderae maderae
(Fabricius, 1775)
Austria: bei Wien, Laaerberg, 28.VIII.55, Baldia lgt.
Calosoma (Campalita) maderae maderae
(Fabricius, 1775)
Turkey: near Incekum, VI.2000, Werner & Lizler leg.
(coll. Vigna Taglianti)
Calosoma (Campalita) maderae maderae
(Fabricius, 1775)
Iran: Bushire (coll. Museo Civico di Zoologia di Roma)

Calosoma (Campalita) maderae maderae
(Fabricius, 1775)
sub Calosoma (Callistriga) iranicum; Iran zum Western der Balouchistan
(coll. Naturhistorischen Museum, Basel - ex coll Mandl)
Calosoma (Campalita) maderae maderae
(Fabricius, 1775)
type of Campalita tanganyicae
"Afrique orientale allemande"!?
(coll. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)

Calosoma (Campalita) maderae dsungaricum Gebler, 1833

Calosoma dsungaricum Gebler, 1833: 274 (distribution inferred from the title of the work: Western Siberie); original material: unspecified number of specimens; no repository given.
Calosoma laeviusculum Motschoulsky, 1844: 122 (described from: Saisan Nor); original material: unspecified number of specimens, no repository given.
Calosoma turcomannica Motschoulsky, 1844: 123 (described from: Novo-Aleksandrowsk); original material: unspecified number of specimens, no repository given.
Calosoma parallelum Motschoulsky, 1844: 123 (described from: Saisan Nor); original material: unspecified number of specimens, no repository given.
Calosoma (Callistriga) maderae dsungaricum Breuning, 1927: 214
Campalita auropunctata alaiensis Lapouge, 1930: 85 (desribed from Alai, Ispajran = Isfara) syntypes in Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Müncheberg (Döbler 1975: 102)
Campalita auropunctata serica Lapouge, 1930: 86 (distribution: “ancien pays des Sères” = Xinjiang); original material: unspecified number of specimens, no repository given.
Campalita auropunctata afgana Lapouge, 1930: 94 (described from: Paghman hills north of Kabul); original material: unspecified number of specimens, no repository given.
Campalita auropunctatum dsungaricum Jeannel, 1940: 113

Length 20-28 mm We chose to consider as C. maderae dsungaricum a cluster of populations characterized by a more consistent morphology of the elytral sculpture in which intervals are convex, strongly scaly and regularly aligned, always of triploid type.
C. maderae dsungaricum occupies the central Asia including north-western China (Xinjiang), in continuity with the populations of Kazakhstan, and up to Mongolia.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
China. Xinjiang: Yining (Kuldsha) (as Calosoma auropunctatum; Ballion, 1878: 266); Kashgar (type of serica, Lapouge, 1930: 85), Borohoro Shan (AVT), Karlyk-Tag (=Karlik Shan) (AC, SB), Lob Nor (Breuning, 1927: 214)
Kazakhstan. Mangistau Region: Novo-Aleksandrovsk (sub C. turcomannica, Motschoulsky, 1844: 123); Semipalatinsk, Saisan Nor (sub C. parallelum, Motschoulsky, 1844: 123); Astana (SB); Almati prov.Taugum desert 440m,(SB); Tshatcal mountains (SB), Talass Ala Tau, Aksu Dzhabagly (SB), Aksej-Karačagenek (SB); Uralsk (Breuning, 1927: 214), Taryn (DP); Aktolagai (; Ketmeni pass 2100.2700m (
Kyrgyzstan. W. Tian-Shan, Pskemskyi Mts. (SB), Transalai Mt. Range, Bugu river valley (http://www.ebay /)
Mongolia. Gobi-Altai aimak: Alag-Nur Lake (SB)
Russia. Astrakhan (Breuning, 1927: 214), Orenburg: Akbulak (SB); Volgograd Oblast, Lake Elton (Matalin & Makarov, 2011); Vilgort (sub auropunctatum,
Tajikistan. West Pamir, Tadjikabad (AVT); Tojikobod distr., 2500m. (SB); Ezgan (sub auropunctatum,; Boukharie Est (SB)
Turkmenistan. Ashkhabad (sub maderae tectum Breuning, 1927: 215)
Uzbekistan. Ghissar range (EM); Ljutfabad (sub maderae tectum Breuning, 1927: 215); Khorezm reg., Karakapakstan rep. (Khamraev, 2003: 47)

Notes: Nocturnal, winged. Active individuals were captured from May to September

Calosoma (Campalita) maderae dsungaricum
Gebler, 1833
Pakistan: Balochistan, Khuzdar, 23.VII.2009, Muhammad Akter
Calosoma (Campalita) maderae dsungaricum
Gebler, 1833
Kazachistan: Aksej-Karačagenek, VI.88, Čermék leg.

Calosoma (Campalita) maderae indicum Hope, 1831

Calosoma indicum Hope, 1831: 24 (type locality: Nepaul) type material: not stated, description compatible with one specimen only, originally in coll. Hardwicke, presumably lost (Andrewes, 1919: 171).
Calosoma nigrum Parry, 1845: 85 (described of Assam, Kasya Hills) type material: not stated, description compatible with one specimen only, at present lost (Andrewes, 1929: 69)
Calosoma scabripenne Chaudoir, 1869: 371 (described from Nord de l'Hindoustan) lectotype ♂ designated by Deuve (1978: 249) in Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris [examined]
Calosoma (Callistriga) maderae indicum Breuning, 1927: 215
Calosoma (Callistriga) maderae nivale Breuning, 1927: 216 (type locality: Pir Panjal); holotype ♂ in Naturalis Biodiversity Centre, Leiden (de Boer, 2002: 84)
Calosoma (Callistriga) maderae kashmirense Breuning, 1927: 216 (type locality: Lahoul, Sumdeo); holotype ♂ in Naturalis Biodiversity Centre, Leiden (de Boer, 2002: 63)
Campalita chinensis nivicola Lapouge, 1930: 87 (distribution: “cimes du Chachemire”) original material: unspecified number of specimens, no repository given.
Campalita auropunctatum kashmirense Jeannel, 1940: 113
Campalita indicum Jeannel, 1940: 115
Calosoma (Callistriga) chinense densegranulatum Mandl, 1954: 161 (type locality: Ost-Turkestan, Khotan Geb.); holotype ♀ in Naturhistorischen Museum Wien (ex coll. Hauser)
Calosoma sculpturi Hasmi et al., 2005: 268 (type locality: Pakistan, Devsai, Northern areas); holotype ♂ in coll. Kamaluddin
Calosoma stratum Hashmi et al., 2005: 270 (type locality: Pakistan, Northern areas); holotype ♂ in coll. Kamaluddin
Calosoma (Campalita) maderae indicum Bruschi & Vigna Taglianti 2012: 205

Length 15-22 mm. The various populations we include in C. maderae indicum are charecterized by the imbrication which tends to break into a rugose surface where fine striae are still visible, or the intervals are entirely transformed into a granular surface whose granules are more or less aligned in series. The sites beyond the third primary and the apical fourth of elytra (series umbilicata) are invariably roughened with numerous minute granules. The elytral sculpture pattern goes from triploid to pentaploid type by doubling the tertiary intervals. The colour is dark bronze or, sometimes, light bronze with metallic lustre.
C. maderae indicum is found along the western side of Himalaya from Afghanistan, Pakistan, Northern India up to Nepal and to the Indian State of Meghalaya, in the East. As C. maderae kashmirense it is indicated by Breuning (1927: 216) of China (Thibet), based on an ancient quotation from Roeschke.
The populations that are found at higher altitude in Pakistan and northern India mantain a unmistakable triploid pattern of elytral sculpture, but the intervals are deeply tegulate and tend to dissolve into a rugose surface, the ones beyond the third primary and the apical fourth, are transformed in numerous minute granules. These populations are also slightly differentiated by their smaller size and in most cases they show a dark bronze colour (nivale and kashmirense auct.). According to Breuning (1927: 216), the Tibetan specimens (Roeschke 1900: 60) should also be attributed to these populations.
Instead, the populations that live in the hills and medium altitude mountain ranges between Afghanistan and northern Pakistan have mostly a grainy elytral sculpture with a pattern of pentaploid type (densegranulatum). Finally, in the populations living in northern India and Nepal the intervals have become series of more or less aligned rough granules (indicum auct.).
These series of variation in elytral sculpture that we observe among and inside the populations of C. maderae indicum seem to represent intermediate steps in the evolutionary process that apparently occurred in the Himalayan species of Campalita, ending into the complete dissolution of sculpture in the easternmost related species (C. chinense).
Recently specimens of C. maderae have been cited from the state of Karnataka in southern India (Kumar & Rajagopal, 1996: 611), but it is hard to make assumptions about the bio-geographycal significance of this quote which still deserves to be confirmed.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Afghanistan. Nuristan prov: Bashgul valley 1100m. (sub densegranulatum AVT, NMB), Achmede Dewane 2700 m, Apsai 2000m, Kamu 1500m (Mandl, 1955: 325)
China. Xizang (Tibet) (Breuning, 1927: 216)
India. Jammu and Kashmir: Sissu (AC), Shrinagar (AC, AVT, VV), Pahlgam (EM, NMP, SB), Ladakh (Breuning, 1927: 216), Pir Panjal (paratype indicum nivale, NMB), Lidarwat (NMP); Sonamarg (sub maderae auropunctatum Andrewes, 1929: 59) (AVT), Aru (AC, NMP, SB); Himachal Pradesh: Lahaul Sumdei (type maderae kasmirense, Breuning, 1927: 216; sub maderae auropunctatum Andrewes, 1929: 59), Lahaul Chatru (AVT, GP, SB, MNHN), Rohtang valley (sub maderae auropunctatum Andrewes, 1929: 59), Poo (MCZR), Kulu (sub maderae kasmirense Andrewes, 1929: 60) (sub maderae auropunctarum Andrewes, 1929: 59) (NMB), Spiti (MNHN), Chamba distr. (sub maderae auropunctatum Andrewes, 1929: 59) (AVT), Kangra valley, Bajaura (Andrewes, 1929: 62); Western Bengala: Calcutta (Andrewes, 1929: 62); Bihar: Pusa, Chapra (Andrewes, 1929: 62); Uttarakhand: Bashar (Breuning, 1927: 216), Dehra Dun (Andrewes, 1929: 62), Chakrata (sub maderae auropunctatum Andrewes, 1929: 59), Meghalaya: Khasi (Kasya) Hills (sub nigrum, Breuning, 1927: 215).
Nepal. Bagmati: Nagarkot (SB), Katmandu (EM), southern Kathmandu Valley, Mount Polchowki (; Narayani: Gunganagar (JS), Aru (AC).
Pakistan. Federally Administred Tribal Area: Khaar (SB); Gilgit Baltistan: Skardu (AVT, SB), Deosai (NIM), Chilas (NIM), Gilgat River (SB), Gilgit, Satil (Mandl 1961: 36); Punjab: Bashna (SB); Islamabad: Rawal Lake (AVT); Khyber Pakhtunkhwa: Swat valley (AC, AVT, SB), Kagan valley (AC, AVT, EM, GP, SB), Naran (SB), Kalam (SB), Peshawar (AVT, MNHN, SB), Temergara (AVT), Shringal (AVT), Tarai (AVT), Ch-Ayun (AVT), Daggar (AVT), Chakdara (AVT) Chitral (SB), Kohat (NIM); Punjab: Bahawalpur (NIM), Anjum (NIM), Faisalabad (; Sindh: Tharparkar (SB); Tarai (AVT), Mithi (NIM); Balochistan: Quetta (SB), Khuzdar (SB), Mergara (AVT)

Notes: Mostly nocturnal, winged, attracted to light at night. Lives in pastures and tilled fields, preying on caterpillar of moths of the Noctuidae family (Andrewes, 1929: 62). Active individuals were captured just before and during the rainy season typical of the himalayan foothills, from March to August. In the alpine zone the adult individuals take refuge on daytime under stones where they are often associated with Tenebrionidae. In this habitat they are found from July to September and some time hibernating under snow (Mani 1962:188). The larval stage seem to be more tolerant of low temperature remainig active until the fall of snow, possibly up to November.
The description of the larva can be found in Fletcher (1919: 33).

Calosoma (Campalita) maderae indicum
Hope, 1831
Afghanistan: Achmede Dewanw, 1100m Bashgul tal, Nuristan, J.Klapperich, 7.4.53
(Calosoma (Callistriga) chinense densegranulatum);
(coll. Naturhistorischen Museum, Basel)
Calosoma (Campalita) maderae indicum
Hope, 1831
Afghanistan: Achmede Dewanw, 2700m Bashgul tal, Nuristan, J.Klapperich, 25.7.52
(Calosoma (Callistriga) chinense densegranulatum);
(coll. Vigna Taglianti)
Calosoma (Campalita) maderae indicum
Hope, 1831
Pakistan: Khyber Pakhtunkhwa,
Swat valley, Mingora, 24.6.2009, Muhammad Akter
Calosoma (Campalita) maderae indicum
Hope, 1831
Pakistan: Khyber Pakhtunkhwa,
Swat valley, Mingora, 24.6.2009, Muhammad Akter
Calosoma (Campalita) maderae indicum
Hope, 1831
Pakistan: Khyber Pakhtunkhwa,
Swat valley, Mingora, 07.6.2008, Muhammad Akter
Calosoma (Campalita) maderae indicum
Hope, 1831
Pakistan: Khyber Pakhtunkhwa,
Kagan valley, 2300-2750 m., 24.7.78
Calosoma (Campalita) maderae indicum
Hope, 1831
India: Himachal Pradesh, Lahaul Chatru
3200 m., 8.9.1993 Lassalle lgt.
(coll. Pontuale)
Calosoma (Campalita) maderae indicum
Hope, 1831
India: Jammu and Kashmir, Pir Panjal
(paratype of Calosoma (Callistriga) maderae nivale)
(coll. Naturhistorischen Museum, Basel)
Calosoma (Campalita) maderae indicum
Hope, 1831
India: Himachal Pradesh, Kolu 1250m, 10.V.77,
Wittmer & Brancucci lgt.
(coll. Naturhistorischen Museum, Basel)
Calosoma (Campalita) maderae indicum
Hope, 1831
Nepal: Nagarkot 1800m., 3.VI.1990 Bruschi lgt.

updated Sept. 16 2019