Calosoma (Carabops) aethiopicum Breuning, 1928

Calosoma (Carabomorphus) kovacsi sensu Breuning, 1926: 342.
Calosoma (Carabomorphus) aetiopicum Breuning, 1928: 130 (type: Aleila; holotype: Aleila; Naturalis Biodiversity Centre, Leiden) (formerly in ZMAN)
Carabomorphus (Carabops) aetiopicus Lapouge, 1932: 398
Carabops aetiopicus Jeannel, 1940: 139
Carabops vermiculatus Straneo, 1942:62 (paratype: Gondar; Musée Royal de l'Afrique Central, Tervuren)
Carabops rugolosus sensu Rougemont, 1976: 272

Length 22-24 mm. aetiopicum has the head and pronotum very strongly punctuated. The pronotum is moderately transverse, posteriorly narrowed and weakly sinuata. The elytra and the legs are elongated. Its dimensions are relatively large.
The elytral sculpture is highly variable, even inside the same population. In the few ancient specimens coming from Harrar you can find both a model of elytral sculpture characterized by intervals of the same width and height but with primary ones interrupted by large foveae, as well as another where all the intervals are irregularly interrupted and sometime confluent. Instead, on some specimens that later were found in the Great Lakes region, Sidamo and Gamo Gofa, the sculpture of the elytra consists in primary intervals that are segmented in tubercles, secondary ones transformed in continuous ribs, and tertiary intervals, less developed, reduced in loose granules.
Rougemont (1976: 272) identified these specimens as Carabops rugolosus, that was described (Beheim and Breuning, 1943) on a specimen doubtfully referred to northern Tanzania but held by the same author as most likely coming from Ethiopia.
In fact rugolosum, of which quite a number of specimens were subsequently found in Tanzania, is superficially similar to aetiopicum. But the species can be easily distinguished, albeit their penis does not present significant differences, because in aetiopicumthe elytra are more regularly rounded and not noticeably broadened in the posterior third, the surface of pronotum is a bit less wrinkled, and because, by looking more closely at the elytral sculpture, is easily perceived that in rugolosum the tertiary intervals have disappeared completely replaced not by granules but by an evident transverse roughness.
Therefore, on the basis of these later findings, aetiopicum can be described as a species with variable sculpture of the elytra, from a form with equal intervals, confluent or interrupted, to another one with tertiary intervals reduced. Taking into account the great variability that exists among the different populations of aetiopicum as regard to body shape and elytral sculpture, vermiculatum of northern Ethiopia, that was described as a distinct species because of some small differences in body shape and that has an elytral sculpture pertaining to the same model, must be considered as a population inside of aetiopicum.
In any way, also if more information are needed in order to ascertain so vast and uneven distribution, we can be satisfied that the habitat of aetiopicum spreads on a much wider area than the one hypothesized by Jeannel (1940: 139). In fact, it has been found at moderate heights (at 2100m altitude in Harrar, dropping up to 1300m in the Great Lakes), in the ancient Ethiopian province of Harrar, spreadint to south along the Rift valley up to Sidamo, Kaffa, Shewa and Gamo Gofa, and to north up to Begemder with the isolate population of Gondar.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Ethiopia. Shewa: Langano (Rougemont, 1976: 272; sub rugolosum); Harar: Harar (AC), Dire Dawa (MNHN); Sidamo: Agere Maryam (PS), Shakiso (sub rugolosum RMCA), 2 km W of Yavello (RMCA), 25km SW Kibre Mengist (Rougemont, 1976: 272; sub rugolosum), Arero (Müller, 1939: 179), Oromia region, Arero forest (SB); Gamo Gofa: Arba Minch (sub rugolosum RMCA), Konso (JM); Kaffa, Omo Nada (Rougemont, 1976: 272; sub rugolosum); Begemder: Gondar (paratype of vermiculatus RMCA)

Notes: Wingless, the wings are reduced to a rudimental stump. It is presumably nocturnal: adults were collected in daytime under shelter, at an altitude between 1300 and 2100 m, in August and October at the end of the rainy season (Rougemont, 1976: 272).

Calosoma (Carabops) aethiopicum
Breuning, 1928
Ethiopia, Sidamo, 2km W of Yavello, 1700m,
9.V.1975, R.O.S. Clarke
Musée Royal de l'Afrique Central, Tervuren
Calosoma (Carabops) aethiopicum
Breuning, 1928
Ethiopia, Sidamo, 2km W of Yavello, 1700m,
8.V.1975, R.O.S. Clarke
Musée Royal de l'Afrique Central, Tervuren
Calosoma (Carabops) aethiopicum
Breuning, 1928
Ethiopia, Dire Dawa
(coll. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma (Carabops) aethiopicum
Breuning, 1928
Ethiopia, Sidamo. 16km S. Agere Maryam, 14.IV.07,
Werner leg. (coll. P. Schüle)
Calosoma (Carabops) aethiopicum
Breuning, 1928
Ethiopia, Gamo Gofa, Arba Minch, 1972, Hans Rupp
(sub Carabops rugolosum)
Musée Royal de l'Afrique Central, Tervuren
Calosoma (Carabops) aethiopicum
Breuning, 1928
Abissinien Chakiso (= Shakiso)
(sub Carabops rugolosum)
Musée Royal de l'Afrique Central, Tervuren
Calosoma (Carabops) aethiopicum
Breuning, 1928
Ethiopia: Harrar (coll. A. Casale)


Calosoma (Carabops) aethiopicum
Breuning, 1928
Abys. Gondar, 7.1923, U. Ignesti
(paratype of Carabops vermiculatum)
Musée Royal de l'Afrique Central, Tervuren

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