Calosoma (Castrida) alternans (Fabricius, 1792)

Calosoma (Castrida) alternans alternans (Fabricius, 1792)

Carabus alternans Fabricius, 1792: 146 (lectotype: "Americae insulis"; Natural History Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen)
Calosoma alternans Weber, 1801. 20
Calosoma laterale sensu Dejean, 1826: 199 (nec Kirby, 1818)
Calosoma granulatum Perty, 1830: 9 (described from: Brésil)
Calosoma armatum sensu Reiche, 1842: 377 (nec Castelnau, 1835)
Calosoma brullei Blanchard, 1843: 42
Calamata coxalis Motschulsky, 1865: 307
Calamata rugata Motschulsky, 1865: 308 (described from: South America)
Calosoma (Callistriga) alternans Breuning, 1927: 192
Calosoma (Callistriga) granulatum Breuning, 1927: 195
Caminara (Callistriga) alternans Lapouge, 1932: 417
Castrida alternans Jeannel, 1940: 95
Castrida alternans ssp granulatum Jeannel, 1940: 96
Calosoma (Castrida) alternans Gidaspow, 1959: 241
Calosoma (Castrida) alternans granulatum Gidaspow, 1963: 300
Calosoma (Castrida) alternans Erwin, 2007: 86

Length 24-30 mm. As we explained speaking of C. sayi, C. alternans differs from its allied species because, while the primary intervals are of the same width than the secondary ones, the tertiary intervals are markedly reduced in size and elevation.
C. alternans occupies the southern part of Central America and most of South America up to northern Argentina. In this species we find two morphotypes. One consists of dark brown individuals superficially similar to C. sayi, with males having, in general, only one or two articles of the basal anterior tarsi with scarce hairy pads on the ventral side, on the apical part only. This morphotype is dominant in the populations of northward spreading area: Lesser Antilles (Dominica, Martinique, Trinidad), Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Peru and northern Brazil.
The other morphotype is characterized by brightly metallic upper side of the body, with the pronotum slightly more transverse and males having three articles of the anterior tarsi with thick hairy pads, as it is the rule in the species of Castrida. This second morphotype tends to be dominant in the populations of the central western part of South America: central southern Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina. These populations were regarded by Breuning (1927: 195) as pertaining to a distinct species (Calosoma (Callistriga) granulatum), but were considered by Jeannel (1940: 96), and by later authors, rather as constituting a southern subspecies of C. alternans. However, taking into account the mingling of individuals of one type or another inside the same population, more recent authors (Erwin, 1999: 20) prefer to consider the infraspecific subdivision unnecessary.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Antigua e Barbuda: Barbuda (Peck, 2009: 10)
Antilles Françaises: Martinique, La Trinité; St Barthélemy (Breuning, 1927: 197 sub granulatum coxale)
Argentina. Misiones: Panambi (SB); Bahia Blanca (Gidaspow, 1963: 300); Entre Rios: Pronunciamiento (EM), Liebig, (, Villaguay (; Buenos Aires (Breuning, 1927: 196), BA prov. San Pedro (sub retusum
Barbados. (Peck, 2009: 10)
Bolivia: Santa Cruz (Gidaspow, 1963: 300)
Brazil. Brazil. Rio de Janeiro: Rio Bonito (SB); Bahia: Villa Victoria (SB); Santa Catarina: Florianopolis (EM), Nova Teutonia (SB); Goyaz: Tejuco (Breuning, 1927: 196); Mato Grosso: Uirapuru (SB), Diamantino (SB), Tangarà da Serra (SB), Rosario Oeste (SB), Corumba (Breuning, 1927: 196); Brasilia (AMNH); Amazonas: Manaus (Breuning, 1927: 196); Santa Catarina: Corupà (SB); São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro (Breuning, 1927: 196); Manicoré, Santarem, Marañhão, Jaguariba river, Recife, Rio Grande do Sul: Porto Alegre; Minas Gerais: Lavras (Gidaspow, 1963: 300), Santo Hipolito (sub retusum; Paranà: Rolândia (Gidaspow, 1963: 300)
Chile: Santiago reg., Melipilla (
Colombia. La Garita (Breuning, 1927: 197)
Curação. (Breuning, 1927: 196)
Dominica. (AMNH)
Guyana: Georgetown (AMNH), Upper Rupununi (Gidaspow, 1963: 298)
Honduras: Choluteca (Erwin, 1991: 22)
Martinique (France): La Trinité; St Barthélemy (Breuning, 1927: 197 sub granulatum coxale)
Nicaragua. (Erwin, 2007: 86)
Panama: Chiriqui (Breuning, 1927: 197); Margarita, Madden Dam, Altos de Maje, Diablo, Anton, Rio Hato, La Sabanas (Erwin, 1991: 22)
Paraguay. San Pedro: Nova Germania (SB), Cororo (SB); Caaguazu (SB); Dep. Alto Parana, Estancia Dimas (
Peru. Ica: Nazca 590 m ;(SB), Tumbez (Breuning, 1927: 197)
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines: Saint Vincent (Peck, 2009: 10)
Trinidad and Tobago (Erwin, 2007: 86)
Uruguay. Canelones: Las Piedras (EM, SB)
Venezuela. Araqua: Palo Negro (SB); Caracas, Maracaibo (Breuning, 1927: 197); Cabimas, San Fernando de Apure, Monagas, Caripito, Bolivar (Gidaspow, 1963: 298)
Virgin Islands of the United States: St Croix (Peck, 2009: 10)

Notes: Winged. It is attracted to the light at night. Adults and larvae may be caught using pitfall traps.
It lives in a variety of habitat from evergreen forests to pastures and plantations. Predaceous on Lepidoptera larvae and pupae of Anomis spp., Spodoptera spp., Diatraea saccharalis, Plutella xylostella, Trichoplusia ni, Pseudoplusia includens, Anticarsia gemmatalis, etc. (Peck, 2009: 10). In Bolivia it has been noted as a possible auxiliary to agriculture because of predation of caterpillars injurious to cotton plantations such as Alabama argillacea and Spodoptera frugiperda (Allen, 1977: 74).
Active individuals were captured mostly in the rainy season, from October to April.

Calosoma (Castrida) alternans
(Fabricius, 1775)
Perù, Ica prov., Nazca 590m., 9-11.3.1988, Czadek lg.
Calosoma (Castrida) alternans
(Fabricius, 1775)
Argentina, Misiones, Panambi, XII.57, Walz lg.
Calosoma (Castrida) alternans granulatum
Perty, 1830
Paraguay, San Pedro prov., 6km NW Nova Germania, 8-11.II.2008, Halada lg.
Calosoma (Castrida) alternans granulatum
Perty, 1830
Brazil, Bahia, Villa Victoria, Ch Pujol 1890
Calosoma (Castrida) alternans granulatum
Perty, 1830
Brésil (holotype of Calosoma laterale Dejean, 1826)
(coll. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)