Calosoma (Castrida) alternans (Fabricius, 1792)

Calosoma (Castrida) alternans alternans (Fabricius, 1792)

Carabus alternans Fabricius, 1792: 146 (type locality: "Americae insulis"); lectotype in Natural History Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen (Gidaspow, 1963: 285)
Calosoma alternans Weber, 1801. 20
Calosoma laterale holotype ♂ designated by Deuve (1978: 246) by monotipy in Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris [examined] (preoccupied by Calosoma laterale Kirby, 1818 = Calosoma (Castrida) retusum (Fabricius, 1775)
Calosoma granulatum Perty, 1830: 9 (described from: Brésil)
Calosoma armatum Reiche, 1842: 377 (described from: Venezuela) (nec Laporte, 1835)
Calosoma Brullei Blanchard, 1843 (cited in Csiki, 1927: 11)
Callistriga coxalis Motschulsky, 1865: 307 (nomen novum pro armatum Reiche, 1842)
Calama(ta) rugata Motschulsky, 1865: 308 (described from: South America)
Calosoma (Callistriga) alternans Breuning, 1927: 192
Calosoma (Callistriga) granulatum Breuning, 1927: 195
Caminara (Callistriga) alternans Lapouge, 1932: 417
Castrida alternans Jeannel, 1940: 95
Castrida alternans ssp granulatum Jeannel, 1940: 96
Calosoma (Castrida) alternans Gidaspow, 1959: 241
Calosoma (Castrida) alternans granulatum Gidaspow, 1963: 300
Calosoma (Castrida) alternans Erwin, 2007: 86


Length 24-30 mm. C. sayi and C. alternans are both characterized by the metatrochanter of the males having an arcuated pointed tip but C. alternans differs from this allied species because, while the tertiary intervals are of the same width than the primary ones, the secondary intervals are markedly reduced in size and elevation (heterodynamic sculpture).
C. alternans is quite common in the southern part of Central America, where it can possibly overlap, at least partially, with C. sayi, and in most of South America down to northern Argentina.
In this species we find two morphotypes. One consists of dark brown individuals superficially similar to C. sayi, with males having, in general, only one or two articles of the anterior tarsi with scarce hairy pads on the ventral side, on the apical part only. This morphotype is dominant in the populations of northward spreading area: Lesser Antilles (Dominica, Martinique, Trinidad), Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Peru and northern Brazil.
The other morphotype is characterized by the brightly metallic upper side of the body, with the pronotum slightly more transverse and by the males having three articles of the anterior tarsi with thick hairy pads, as it is the rule in the species of Castrida. This second morphotype tends to be dominant in the populations of the central western part of South America: central southern Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina. The Andes chain limit the spread of C. alternans in the countries of the western side, but the presence of isolated individuals has been reported also in these countries. .
All the populations pertaining to this second morphotype were regarded by Breuning (1927: 195) as a distinct species (Calosoma (Callistriga) granulatum), but they were considered by Jeannel (1940: 96), and by later authors, rather as a southern subspecies of C. alternans. However, taking into account the mingling of individuals of one type or another inside the same population, more recent authors (Erwin, 1999: 20) prefer to consider the infraspecific subdivision unnecessary.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Antigua e Barbuda. Barbuda (Peck, 2009: 10)
Antilles Françaises. Martinique: La Trinité; (Breuning, 1927: 197 sub granulatum coxale), St Barthélemy (Dejean, 1826: 201)
Argentina. Buenos Aires: Buenos Aires (sub laterale, Bruch, 1911; 152; Breuning, 1927: 196), San Pedro (sub retusum http://www.freewebs.com), La Plata (Gidaspow, 1963: 300), Bahia Blanca (Breuning, 1928: 96); Cordoba: (sub laterale, Bruch, 1911; 152), Ischilín (www.inaturalist.org); Corrientes (Breuning, 1928: 96); Entre Rios: Pronunciamiento (EM), Liebig, (http://www.insecte.org), Colón (www.inaturalist.org), Villaguay (http://insecterra.forumactif.com), Chajari (sub granulatum, www.ecoregistros.org/); La Rioja: Olta (www.gbif.org/); Misiones: Panambi (SB); Rio Negro (sub laterale, Bruch, 1911; 152), San Antonio Oeste (www.inaturalist.org/); Salta: Hipólito Irigoyen (www.gbif.org/); Santa Fe: Presidente Roca (www.inaturalist.org/).
Barbados. (Peck, 2009: 10)
Bolivia. Andrés Ibáñez prov: Santa Cruz (Gidaspow, 1963: 300; Allen, 1977: 74), Buena Vista (Gidaspow, 1963: 300); Sara prov. (Gidaspow, 1963: 300)
Brazil. Amazonas: Manaus (Breuning, 1927: 196), Manicoré (Gidaspow, 1963: 300); Bahia: Villa Victoria (SB), Itabuna (sub granulosum , www.gbif.org), Itapetinga (www.inaturalist.org); Brasilia (AMNH); Ceará: Iguatu (www.inaturalist.org/); Espírito Santo: Sooretama (sub granulosum , www.gbif.org); Goyaz: Tejuco (Breuning, 1927: 196), Catalão, Anápolis (www.inaturalist.org); Marañhão: Jussural (Gidaspow, 1963: 300); Mato Grosso: Uirapuru (SB), Diamantino (SB), Tangarà da Serra (SB), Rosario Oeste (SB), Corumba (Breuning, 1927: 196), Bodoquena (sub granulosum , www.gbif.org), Campo Grande, Alta Floresta (www.inaturalist.org); Minas Gerais: Passa Quatro, Lavras (Gidaspow, 1963: 300), Buritizeiro, Ituiutaba (www.inaturalist.org), Corinto (sub C. retusum, www.projectnoah.org/), Santo Hipolito (sub C. retusum, http://www.flickriver.com), Espinosa, Poços de Caldas, Pedro Leopoldo (sub granulosum , www.gbif.org); Parà: Santarem (Gidaspow, 1963: 300), Marabá (www.inaturalist.org/), Cachimbó (sub granulosum , www.gbif.org); Paranà: Rolândia (Gidaspow, 1963: 300), Ponta Grossa (sub granulosum , www.gbif.org), Ibiporã, Umuarama (www.inaturalist.org/); Pernambuco: Caruaru (www.inaturalist.org/); Recife (Breuning, 1927: 196); Rio de Janeiro: Itaguaí, Praia do Peró, Arraial do Cabo, Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro, Guaratiba, Manguinhos (sub granulosum , www.gbif.org), Rio Bonito (SB); Rio Grande do Norte: São José do Campestre (sub granulatum , faunaefloradorn.blogspot.it/), Icapuí (www.inaturalist.org/), Jaguariba river (Gidaspow, 1963: 300), Mossoró (sub granulosum , www.gbif.org); Rio Grande do Sul: Porto Alegre, Pelotas (Gidaspow, 1963: 300), Praia do Pinhal (www.insetologia.com.); Rondônia: Porto Velho (www.inaturalist.org); Santa Catarina: Florianopolis (EM), Nova Teutonia (SB); Corupà (SB); São Paulo: Avaré, Rio Claro, Itu, Ribeirão Preto (sub granulosum, www.gbif.org), Fartura (www.inaturalist.org); Tocantins: Monte Santo do Tocantins (www.inaturalist.org).
Chile. Santiago reg., Melipilla (http://www.entomologiitaliani.net)
Colombia. Atlántico: Soledad (www.inaturalist.org); Bolívar: Cartagena (www.inaturalist.org); Boyacá (Forero Chavez, 2019: 58); Caldas: La Dorada (sub granulosum, www.gbif.org); Caquetá, Casanare (Forero Chavez, 2019: 58); Córdoba: Montería, Pueblo Nuevo (www.inaturalist.org); Cundinamarca (Forero Chavez, 2019: 58); Huila: Villavieja (www.inaturalist.org); La Guajira: Uribia (www.inaturalist.org); Magdalena: Pozo Colorado (www.inaturalist.org); Meta (Forero Chavez, 2019: 58); Norte de Santander: La Garita (Breuning, 1927: 197), Villa Del Rosario (www.inaturalist.org); Santander: Floridablanca, Girón, Cimitarra (www.inaturalist.org); Sucre: Nueva Granada, San Benito Abad (www.inaturalist.org); Valle del Cauca: Palmira, Jamundí, Cali (www.gbif.org/), Santiago De Cali (www.inaturalist.org);Tolima: Venadillo, Armero, Guayabal, Ibagué, Coyaima, Espinal (sub granulosum, www.gbif.org), Alvarado, Fresno, Guamo, Honda, Mariquita, Melgar, Natagaima,Purificación, Saldaña, Venadillo (Forero Chavez, 2019: 58).
Curação. (Breuning, 1927: 196)
Ecuador. Manabi: Manta (www.inaturalist.org/obs/39649622)
Dominica. (AMNH), (Peck, 2006b: 173)
Guadeloupe (France). Vieux-Habitants, Saint-Claude (www.gbif.org/)
Guyana. Georgetown (AMNH), Upper Rupununi (Gidaspow, 1963: 298)
Honduras. Choluteca (Erwin, 1991: 22), Francisco Morazán: San Antonio de Oriente (www.inaturalist.org/obs/33636052)
Martinique (France). (Gidaspow, 1963: 298)
Panama. Chiriqui (Breuning, 1927: 197), David (www.inaturalist.org/obs/6452704); Margarita, Madden Dam, Altos de Maje, Diablo, Anton, Rio Hato, La Sabanas (Erwin, 1991: 22); Coclé: El Vale de Antón (SB), Penonomé (www.inaturalist.org/obs/25201867); Veraguas: Santiago (www.inaturalist.org/obs/43550839)
Paraguay. San Pedro: Nova Germania (SB), Cororo (SB); Caaguazu (SB); Dep. Alto Parana, Estancia Dimas (www.insecte.org); Boquerón: Nueva Asuncion (www.pybio.org); dep. Guairà: Paso Yobay; dep. San Pedro: Villarica, Tucuara (Gidaspow, 1963: 300); dep. Central: Itauguá (www.inaturalist.org/); Paraguari: Eco-reserva Mbatoví (www.inaturalist.org/)
Peru. Ica: Nazca 590 m ;(SB), Tumbez: Grau, San Pedro de los Incas (Baer, 1902: 83)
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Saint Vincent (Peck, 2009: 10)
Trinidad and Tobago. (Erwin, 2007: 86); Trinidad, Fyzabad (subfossil remains, sub curvipes, Blair, 1927: 137)
Uruguay. Canelones: Las Piedras (EM, SB), Montevideo (Gidaspow, 1963: 300)
Venezuela.. Apure: San Fernando de Apure (Jeannel,1940: 96), Araqua: Palo Negro (SB), Turmero (Gidaspow, 1963: 298), Girardot (www.inaturalist.org); Bolivar (Gidaspow, 1963: 298); Carabobo: La Vuelta (Jeannel,1940: 96), Las Trincheras (Gidaspow, 1963: 298), Bejuma (http://www.fotoreiseberichte.de/venezuela/); Guárico: Infante (www.inaturalist.org); Yaracuy: José Antonio Páez (www.inaturalist.org/); Miranda: Falcon (Gidaspow, 1963: 298), Guaicaipuro (www.inaturalist.org); isla de Margarita: El Valle del Espíritu Santo (Gidaspow, 1963: 298), Caracas (Breuning, 1927: 197), Caracas, Santa Clara (www.inaturalist.org); Monagas: Caripito (Gidaspow, 1963: 298); Zulia: Maracaibo (Breuning, 1927: 197), Cabimas (Gidaspow, 1963: 298), Lagunillas (www.inaturalist.org).
Virgin Islands of the United States. St Croix (Peck, 2009: 10), Saint Croix: North Coast (www.gbif.org/)

Notes: Winged. It is attracted to the light at night. Adults and larvae may be caught using pitfall traps.
It lives in a variety of habitat from evergreen forests to pastures and plantations. Predaceous on Lepidoptera larvae and pupae of Anomis spp., Spodoptera spp., Diatraea saccharalis, Plutella xylostella, Trichoplusia ni, Pseudoplusia includens, Anticarsia gemmatalis, etc. (Peck, 2009: 10). In Bolivia it has been noted as a possible auxiliary to agriculture because of predation of caterpillars injurious to cotton plantations such as Alabama argillacea and Spodoptera frugiperda (Allen, 1977: 74).
In the southern part of its areal the active individuals were observed mostly in the rainy season, from October to March.

Calosoma (Castrida) alternans
(Fabricius, 1775)
Perù, Ica prov., Nazca 590m., 9-11.3.1988, Czadek lg.
Calosoma (Castrida) alternans
(Fabricius, 1775)
Argentina, Misiones, Panambi, XII.57, Walz lg.
Calosoma (Castrida) alternans
(Fabricius, 1775)
Paraguay, San Pedro prov., 6km NW Nova Germania,
8-11.II.2008, Halada lg.
Calosoma (Castrida) alternans
(Fabricius, 1775)
Brazil, Bahia, Villa Victoria, Ch Pujol 1890
Calosoma (Castrida) alternans
(Fabricius, 1775)
Brésil (holotype of Calosoma laterale Dejean, 1826)
(coll. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)

updated September 13 2020

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