Calosoma (Castrida) fulgens Chaudoir, 1869

Calosoma fulgens Chaudoir, 1869: 370 (described from Paraguay); original material 1♂ (from Bompland); holotype ♂ (no locality label) designated by Deuve (1978: 249) by monotypy in Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris [examined]
Calosoma alternans var. fulgens Campos, 1921: 29
Calosoma (Callistriga) fulgens Breuning, 1927: 197
Caminara (Callistriga) lateralis fulgens Lapouge, 1932: 417
Castrida (s. str.) fulgens Jeannel, 1940: 98
Calosoma (Castrida) fulgens Gidaspow, 1963: 293

Length 25-30 mm. The pronotum of C. fulgens is evenly rounded (more so in males) and the elytral sculpture is characterized by very slightly convex intervals. The elytra are elongated, the hind angles of pronotum very small, almost obliterated, the metatrochanter of males has a strongly pointed tip, the upper body is metallic bright red or more rarely green bronzed.
The male of C. fulgens is easily distinguished from the ones of other species, in which the metatrochanter has also a pointed tip, because of the shape of pronotum and because of the apex of aedeagus which is decidedly elongated and strongly bent. In case of the female, where the metatrochanter is obtuse, it can be distinguished from the female of C. retusum that sometimes can be confused with it, taking into account the smallness of the hind angles of pronotum as well as the shape of the intervals of the elytra, that are less convex than in retusum.
The label of the holotype of C. fulgens shows no locality details, but the author in the description gives Paraguay as the origin of the specimen. However, C. fulgens would seem restricted to the north-western region of South America, and seems highly improbable the presence in Paraguay as indicated in the original description and in Uruguay at San Carlos on the atlantic coast (Gidaspow, 1963: 295). Moreover the quotes from Bolivia (Breuning, 1927: 197), and the ones from Chile and Brazil (Erwin, 2007: 93) need confirmation.
It is known with certainty from the north-western Peru, Ecuador and Colombia. Recently one specimen has been found in Costarica. In this last case it could possibly be an occasional visitor; however, already Erwin (1991: 18), taking into account the characteristics of its habitat, had considered possible that C. fulgens could expand its distribution area in Central America when the forests are cut away to to obtain space for agricultural purposes.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Colombia. Huila: Gigante (SB), Cali (Baer, 1902: 83), Caldas dep., Norcasia, Reserva Natural Río Manso (Uribe & al., 2013)
Costarica. Limon (RS)
Ecuador.. Guayas: Pta Chapella (EM), Empalme (www.inaturalist.org), Playas, Puerto El Morro (Campos, 1921: 30), Santiago de Guayaquil (MCZR, SB), Posorja (Campos, 1921: 30), Durán, Naranjal, Chanduy, Pasaje (Moret, 1986: 91); Santa Elena: Punta Santa Elena (Gidaspow, 1963: 295); Punta Blanca (www.inaturalist.org); Los Ríos: Quevedo (Moret, 1986: 91); Manabí: Manabí (SB), Puerto López (Moret, 1986: 91), Pedernales, Jipijapa (www.inaturalist.org), Monte Cristi (SB); Esmeraldas: Atacames, Esmeraldas (Moret, 1986: 91); Zamora Chinchipe: Indanza (Moret, 1986: 91)
Peru. Tumbez: Grau, San Pedro de los Incas (Baer, 1902: 83)

Notes: Winged, diurnal and nocturnal, attracted to light at night. It prefers grasslands with sparse bushes, or tilled fields, it is more common in coastal area and has been observed preying on caterpillars of Lepidoptera Noctuidae. Captures of active individuals were noted from December to March (on the basis of the material examined) up to June (Moret, 1986: 92) and later from August to October (Erwin 2007: 93).

Calosoma (Castrida) fulgens
Chaudoir, 1869
Paraguay (holotype)
(Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris
Calosoma (Castrida) fulgens
Chaudoir, 1869
Costarica: Limon (coll R. Sciaky)
(photo Riccardo Sciaky
Calosoma (Castrida) fulgens
Chaudoir, 1869
Ecuador: Guayas, Pta Chapella, 10-15.1.91 (coll E. Migliaccio)
Calosoma (Castrida) fulgens
Chaudoir, 1869
Ecuador: Manabi, 15.2.89
updated June 27 2020

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