Calosoma (Castrida) sayi Dejean, 1826

Calosoma Sayi Dejean, 1826: 198 (type locality: Amérique boréale); lectotype ♀ designated by Deuve (1978: 252) in Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris [examined]
Calosoma armata Laporte de Castelnau, 1835: 156 (type locality: Mexique); lectotype ♂ in Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (Erwin, 1991: 20).
Calosoma alternans, sensu Duval, 1857: 9
Castrida Sayi, Motschulsky 1865: 300
Calosoma Sayi var. abdominale Géhin, 1885: 58, note 58 (described from: Mexique); holotype (from Mexique intèrieur) ♂ designated by Deuve (1978: 252) by monotypy in Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris [examined]
Calosoma Sayi virginica Casey, 1897: 344 (type locality: Norfolk, Virginia); lectotype ♂ in National Museum of Natural History, Washington (Erwin, 1991: 20)
Calosoma alternans var. cuprascens Roeschke, 1900: 70 (described from an unspecified place, probably Greater Antilles); type possibly lost (Erwin, 1991: 20)
Calosoma (Callistriga) alternans sayi, Breuning, 1927a: 192
Caminara (Callistriga) alternans sayi, Lapouge, 1932: 417
Caminara (Callistriga) alternans armatum, Lapouge, 1932: 417
Castrida (s. str.) Sayi, Jeannel, 1940: 94
Calosoma (Castrida) alternans sayi, Gidaspow, 1959: 242
Calosoma (Castrida) sayi, Gidaspow, 1963: 300
Calosoma (Castrida) sayi, Erwin, 2007: 103

Length 24-30 mm. C. sayi and C. alternans are both characterized by the metatrochanter of the males having an arcuated pointed tip and by the intervals of the elytra differing in some way in width or height (heterodynamic sculpture); but comparing with the allied species C. alternans, C. sayi can be easily differenciated because only the primary intervals, carefully considered, are a little larger than the others.
The males have at most the two basal articles of the anterior tarsi very scarcely hairy, and on the apical part only. As a rule, the color is dark brown with feeble bronze reflections, but some specimens in the southernmost part of the distribution area, most commonly in Mexico, may have bright greenish metallic reflections .
It is encountered in central and eastern United States, and possibly it is present in southeastern Canada. It is also encountred in the Greater Antilles and in whole Mexico where it seems to be quite common. Moreover C. sayi occupies most of Central America spreading from Belize and Guatemala to Costa Rica. Further south, starting from Panama, we find the vicariant C. alternans.
The two species, however, seem overlapping, at least partially, in Central America as Erwin (1991: 25) indicates one observation of C. say in Panama and some isolated specimens attributable to C. alternans have been found mixed with populations of C. say in Honduras and Nicaragua. Finally, it can also happen to find some confusion between C. sayi and C. calidum in the scientific literature. In fact, also Lapouge (1930:43) had at one time noted that Fabricius' very short description of C. calidum had misled many entomologists who thought they could identify as C. calidum the species we now call C. sayi. A confirmation comes from the fact that the same Say had sent with the name C. calidum to Dejean the specimen, which was then dedicated to him. The misunderstanding still lasts today and so the finds of southern Mexico, misidentified as C. calidum (Penagos & al., 2003: 158; Armenta & al., 2003: 658), should be attributed to C. sayi.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Belize: Western Hwy (Erwin, 1991: 25)
Canada Prince Edward Island (www.inaturalist.org/obs./28587288)
Costa Rica. Alajuela: Cote, Caño Negro (www.gbif.org/); Cartago: Turrialba (Erwin, 1991: 25); Guanacaste: Puerto Carrillo (www.inaturalist.org/16183400), Liberia (www.inaturalist.org/25778517), Santa Elena, Santa Rosa National Park, Rio Carana, Palmira, Las Canas (Erwin, 1991: 25), Bagaces, San Antonio, Nacascolo, Mansión (www.gbif.org/); Heredia: San Antonio de Belen (Erwin, 1991: 25); Puntarenas: Pittier, Jiménez, Tárcoles, Sierpe, Quepos, La Ensenada (www.gbif.org/); San Jose: San Jose, San Pedro (Erwin, 1991: 25); Puntarenas: Osa (www.inaturalist.org/obs/17013076)
Cuba. Santa Clara prov: Villa Clara (SB); Guantánamo prov: Caimanera (www.inaturalist.org/obs/17894779); Holguin prov: Pinar del Rio (Peck 2005: 27); Guanahacabibes prov (Gidaspow, 1963: 301), La Habana prov: La Habana (Jeannel,1940: 95), Diez De Octubre, Marianao, Boyeros, Santiago de las Vegas, Playa; Mayabeque prov: Nueva Paz (Fernández, 2015: 27-28); Isla de la Juventud prov: El Abra; Cienfuegos prov: Aguada De Pasajeros, Abreus; Camagüey prov (Fernández, 2015: 27-28); Las Tunas prov: Jobabo (Gidaspow, 1963: 301); Santiago de Cuba prov: Daiquiri (SB), Santiago de Cuba, Mella (Fernández, 2015: 28)
Dominican Republic: (Bosquet, 2012: 229); Santo Domingo (www.inaturalist.org), S. Domingue (sub alternans Dejean, 1826: 201), Santiago (Gidaspow, 1963: 301)
El Salvador: San Salvador (SB), Acajutla, San Diejo, Nancuchiname (Erwin, 1991: 25)
Guatemala: Tiquisate (Gidaspow, 1963: 301), Cayuga, Quirigua (Erwin, 1991: 25)
Haiti: Santiago de los Caballeros (Jeannel,1940: 95), Port au Prince (Gidaspow, 1963: 301)
Honduras: Cerro Uyuca, 1500-1600m. (SB); Jicaro, Coyoles, La Lima (Erwin, 1991: 25); Francisco Morazán dep: San Antonio de Oriente, El Zamorano (www.inaturalist.org)
Jamaica: (Frank & Bennett, 1970: 7) , Montego bay, Claremont, Old Harbour, Saint Andrew, Port Antonio (Gidaspow, 1963: 301)
Mexico. Campeche: Costa de Champoton (AVT), Xipujil (SB); Chiapas: Ocozocoautla, Palenque, Comitan (UASM), Selva Lacandona (VV), Ciudad Cuauhtémoc env. (SB); Nuevo Leon: Monterrey (Gidaspow, 1959: 242); Michoacan: Nueva Italia (SB); Oaxaca: Zipolite (SB), Tehuantepec (Gidaspow, 1959: 242); Puebla: Mesa de San Diego (Gidaspow, 1959: 242); San Luis Potosi: Tamanzunchale (Gidaspow, 1959: 242), Axtla de Terrazas near Xilitla, (http://www.projectnoah.org/); Sinaloa: Rio Fuerte, Culiacan (UASM), Guamúchil (SB), Mazatlan, Rosario (Gidaspow, 1959: 242); Sonora: Alamos, Peon (UASM), Obregón, Vicam (www.inaturalist.org/); Tamaulipas: Ciudad Mante, Nascimiento del Rio Frio, Ciudad Valles (UASM), 19.2 km W of La Pesca (sub alternans, UASM); Veracruz: Plan del Rio, Almolonga, Cordoba (Bates. 1884: 262), Fortin des Flores (AVT), Coatzacoalcos (UASM), Cotaxtla (Gidaspow, 1959: 242) Yucatàn: Pisté (EM), Yaxcabà (EM), Valladolid (AL)
Nicaragua. Nueva Segovia: Cerro Jesus 1300m. (SB); Granada: Reserva silvestre de Domitila (SB); Managua, Tipitapa (Erwin, 1991: 25), Chinandega, León, Masaya (www.bio-nica.info/), Apapachoa (www.inaturalist.org/30668809); Esteli; Rio San Juan: Bartola, Volcan Casita, San Francisco Libre, Las Flores (sub alternans, www.gbif.org/);
Panama. Las Cumbas (Erwin, 1991: 25)
Puerto Rico. (Breuning, 1927: 197 sub alternans) (Erwin, 2007: 1003), Mayaguez, Anasco, Desengano, Ponce (Gidaspow, 1963: 301), Laguna Cartagena, Lares, (sub alternans www.gbif.org/), Santa Rita (YPM, sub alternans, discover.odai.yale.edu/)
United States. Alabama: Lee County, Madison County (http://bugguide.net/), Montevallo (SB), Daphne (www.inaturalist.org/), Mobile (Burgess & Collins, 1917: 63); Arkansas: Vannedale (SB), Prairie County (http://bugguide.net/); Arizona (Gidaspow, 1959: 242); California (Burgess & Collins, 1917: 62); District of Columbia: Washington (Burgess & Collins, 1917: 63), Florida: Belle Grade (EM), Levy County (VV), Citrus Company (http://molbiol.ru/); Georgia: Tift County (SB), Paulding County (http://bugguide.net/), Elberton (www.inaturalist.org/); Illinois: Jackson county (UASM); Carbondale (http://bugguide.net/); Iowa (Burgess & Collins, 1917: 62); Kansas: Atchinson (SB), Neosho (www.gbif.org/); Lousiana: St. Landry Parish (http://bugguide.net/), Baton Rouge (www.inaturalist.org/); Maryland: Worchester County (EM), Anne Arundel County (http://bugguide.net/); Missouri: Buchanan County (SB), Carter County (http://bugguide.net/); Mississipi (Gidaspow, 1959: 242); Nebraska: Nemaha County (http://bugguide.net/); New Yersey (Burgess & Collins, 1917: 62); New York: Long Island (Bosquet, 2012: 229); North Carolina: Southern Pines (EM), Fayetteville, Providence, Snow Camp (www.inaturalist.org/); Oklahoma: Stillwater (Burgess & Collins, 1917: 63), Durant (www.inaturalist.org/), Okmulgee County, Seminole County (http://bugguide.net/); Pennsylvania (Burgess & Collins, 1917: 62); South Carolina: Nashville (SB), Chattanooga (VV), Aiken County (http://bugguide.net/), Laurens County (www.inaturalist.org/); Tennessee: Chester County, Hamilton County (http://bugguide.net/), Obion county (UASM); Texas: Brazos County (SB), Nacogdoches County, Willacy County (EM; SB), Cameron County, Gregg County, Nueces County, Travis County, Victoria County (http://bugguide.net/), Dallas County, Bosque County (Clifton), McKinney, Grapevine, Georgetown (www.inaturalist.org/); Virginia: Norfolk (lectotype of var. virginica, NMNH).

Notes: Winged. Adult are nocturnal and easily attracted to light at night but larvae are mostly diurnal. Adults are predaceous on noctuid and sphingid caterpillar and pupae, but they also were observed attacking Coleoptera, Orthoptera and other insects.
Adult individuals of C. sayi were observed in activity mostly from May to July, up to October. As it happens with other species having a large area of diffusion, C. sayi can be found almost all year round, according to local climate condition. However, Burgess and Collins (1917: 62) observed that this species, when living in northern areas, normally goes into hibernation.
The species is named after Thomas Say (1784 – 1834), an American entomologist, as well as malacologist, herpetologist and carcinologist, that is universally considered the father of descriptive entomology in the United States.

Calosoma (Castrida) sayi
Dejean, 1826
Amérique boréale (lectotype)
(Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma (Castrida) sayi
Dejean, 1826
Mexique intèrieur (holotype of Calosoma sayi var. abdominale Géhin, 1885) (Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma (Castrida) sayi
Dejean, 1826
USA Georgia, Tift county, Tifton, sept. 1981, Decoins lg.
Calosoma (Castrida) sayi
Dejean, 1826
USA Georgia, Tift county, Tifton, sept. 1981, Decoins lg.
updated Oct 14 2019

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