Calosoma (Castrida) sayi Dejean, 1826

Calosoma Sayi Dejean, 1826: 198 (lectotype: Amérique boréale; Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma armata Laporte de Castelnau, 1835: 156 (lectotype: Mexique; Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma alternans, sensu Duval, 1857: 19 (nec Fabricius, 1792)
Castrida Sayi, Motschulsky 1865: 300
Calosoma var. abdominale Géhin, 1885: 58 (lectotype: Mexique intèrieur; Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma var. virginica Casey, 1897: 344 (lectotype: Norfolk, Virginia; National Museum of Natural History, Washington)
Calosoma alternans var. cuprascens Roeschke, 1900: 70
Calosoma (Callistriga) alternans sayi, Breuning, 1927a: 192
Caminara (Callistriga) alternans sayi, Lapouge, 1932: 417
Caminara (Callistriga) alternans armatum, Lapouge, 1932: 417
Castrida (s. str.) Sayi, Jeannel, 1940: 94
Calosoma (Castrida) alternans sayi, Gidaspow, 1959: 242
Calosoma (Castrida) sayi, Gidaspow, 1963: 300
Calosoma (Castrida) sayi, Erwin, 1991: 103

Length 24-30 mm. In most of Castrida species the segments of the hind tarsi, are short and thick, notably the second segment is not more than twice longer than large. So, C. sayi and the allied species C. alternans are easily sorted out from any other Castrida species as the segment of the hind tarsi are long and relatively slender and this is particularly evident in the second segment that is much longer than large.
Comparing with alternans, sayi can be differenciated because of its elytral sculpture having the secondary and tertiary intervals of the same width; only the primary ones, carefully considered, are a little larger than the others.
As in alternans, the metatrochanter of the males have an arcuated pointed tip, and the males have at most the two basal articles of the anterior tarsi very scarcely hairy, and on the apical part only. The color is always dark brown.
C. sayi, in effect, differs from the darker form of C. alternans only because the sculpture of the elytra.
It is encountered in central and eastern United States, in the Greater Antilles and in whole Mexico where it seems to be quite common. In this regard, it is very likely that the finds of southern Mexico, misidentified as C. calidum (Penagos & al., 2003: 158; Armenta & al., 2003: 658), are also to be attributed to C.sayi with which the first is sometimes confused. Moreover C. sayi occupies most of Central America spreading from Belize and Guatemala to Costa Rica. Further south, starting from Panama, we find the vicariant C. alternans.
The two species, however, seem overlapping, at least partially, since Erwin (1991), indicates an isolated finding of C. sayi in Panama and another of C. alternans in Honduras, to which later adds the news of the generic presence of C. alternans in Nicaragua (Erwin 2007).

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Belize: Western Hwy (Erwin, 1991: 25)
Costa Rica: Santa Elene, Santa Rosa National Park, Rio Carana, Palmira, Las Canas, Hamburg Farm, San Antonio de Belen. San Pedro, San Jose, Turrialba (Erwin, 1991: 25)
Cuba. Santa Clara prov: Villa Clara: (SB); Guantánamo prov; Holquin prov, Pinar del Rio prov: Guanahacabibes (Peck 2005: 27), La Habana prov: Avana (Jeannel,1940: 95), Diez De Octubre, Marianao, Boyeros, Santiago de las Vegas, Playa; Mayabeque prov: Nueva Paz; Isla de la Juventud prov: El Abra; Cienfuegos prov: Aguada De Pasajeros, Abreus; Camagüey prov (Fernández, 2015: 27-28); Las Tunas prov: Jobabo (Peck 2005: 27); Santiago de Cuba prov: Daiquiri (SB), Santiago de Cuba, Mella (Fernández, 2015: 28)
Dominican Republic (Bosquet, 2012: 229)
El Salvador: San Salvador (SB), Acajutla, San Diejo, Nancuchiname (Erwin, 1991: 25)
Guatemala: Cayuga, Quirigua (Erwin, 1991: 25)
Haiti Santiago de los Caballeros (Jeannel,1940: 95)
Honduras: Cerro Uyuca, 1500-1600m. (SB); Jicaro, Coyoles, La Lima (Erwin, 1991: 25)
Jamaica (Frank & Bennett, 1970: 7)
Mexico. Campeche: Costa de Champoton (AVT), Xipujil (SB); Chiapas: Ocozocoautla, Palenque, Comitan (UASM), Selva Lacandona (VV), Ciudad Cuauhtémoc env. (SB); Nuevo Leon: Monterrey (Gidaspow, 1959: 242); Michoacan: Nueva Italia (SB); Oaxaca: Zipolite (SB), Tehuantepec (Gidaspow, 1959: 242); Puebla: Mesa de San Diego (Gidaspow, 1959: 242); San Luis Potosi: Tamanzunchale (Gidaspow, 1959: 242), Axtla de Terrazas near Xilitla, (http://www.projectnoah.org/); Sinaloa: Rio Fuerte, Culiacan (UASM), Guamúchil (SB), Mazatlan, Rosario (Gidaspow, 1959: 242); Sonora: Alamos, Peon (UASM); Tamaulipas: Ciudad Mante, Nascimiento del Rio Frio, Ciudad Valles (UASM), 19.2 km W of La Pesca (sub alternans, UASM); Veracruz: Plan del Rio, Almolonga, Cordoba (Bates. 1884: 262), Fortin des Flores (AVT), Coatzacoalcos (UASM), Cotaxtla (Gidaspow, 1959: 242) Yucatàn: Pisté (EM), Yaxcabà (EM), Valladolid (AL)
Nicaragua: Chinandega, León, Masaya (www.bio-nica.info/), Nueva Segovia: Cerro Jesus 1300m. (SB); Granada: Reserva silvestre de Domitila (SB); Managua, Tipitapa (Erwin, 1991: 25)
Panama: Las Cumbas (Erwin, 1991: 25)
Puerto Rico. (Breuning, 1927: 197 sub alternans; Erwin, 2007: 1003)
United States. Alabama: Lee County (http://bugguide.net/), Madison County (http://bugguide.net/), Montevallo (SB); Arkansas: Vannedale (SB), Prairie County (http://bugguide.net/); Arizona (Gidaspow, 1959: 242); California (Burgess & Collins, 1917: 62); Florida: Belle Grade (EM), Levy County (VV); Georgia: Tift County (SB), Paulding County (http://bugguide.net/); Illinois: Carbondale (http://bugguide.net/); Iowa (Burgess & Collins, 1917: 62); Kansas: Atchinson (SB); Lousiana: St. Landry Parish (http://bugguide.net/); Maryland: Worchester County (EM), Anne Arundel County (http://bugguide.net/); Missouri: Buchanan County (SB), Carter County (http://bugguide.net/); Mississipi (Gidaspow, 1959: 242); Nebraska: Nemaha County (http://bugguide.net/); New Yersey (Burgess & Collins, 1917: 62); North Carolina: Southern Pines (EM); Oklahoma: Okmulgee County, Seminole County (http://bugguide.net/); Pennsylvania (Burgess & Collins, 1917: 62); South Carolina: Nashville (SB), Chattanooga (VV), Aiken County (http://bugguide.net/); Tennessee: Chester County, Hamilton County (http://bugguide.net/); Texas: Brazos County (SB), Nacogdoches County, Willacy County (EM; SB), Cameron County, Gregg County, Nueces County, Travis County, Victoria County (http://bugguide.net/); Virginia (Burgess & Collins, 1917: 62)

Notes: Winged. Adult are nocturnal and easily attracted to light at night but larvae are mostly diurnal. Adults are predaceous on noctuid and sphingid caterpillar and pupae, but they also were observed attacking Coleoptera, Orthoptera and other insects.
On the basis of the material examined were noted captures of active individuals from May to September. According to Erwin (2007: 103) they can be found almost all year round (January – November). However, Burgess and Collins (1917: 62) consider that this species, at least in the northern part of its area of diffusion, normally goes into hibernation.
The species is named after Thomas Say (1784 – 1834), an American entomologist, as well as malacologist, herpetologist and carcinologist, that is widely considered the father of descriptive entomology in the United States.

Calosoma (Castrida) sayi
Dejean, 1826
Amérique boréale (Lectotype)
(Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma (Castrida) sayi
Dejean, 1826
Mexique intèrieur (type de Calosoma abdominale Géhin, 1885) (Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma (Castrida) sayi
Dejean, 1826
USA Georgia, Tift county, Tifton, sept. 1981, Decoins lg.
Calosoma (Castrida) sayi
Dejean, 1826
USA Georgia, Tift county, Tifton, sept. 1981, Decoins lg.

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