Calosoma (Castrida) sayi Dejean, 1826

Calosoma Sayi Dejean, 1826: 198 (type material: unspecified number of female specimens;) distribution: Amérique septentrionale; lectotype ♀ (Amérique boréale) designated by Deuve (1978: 252) in Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris [examined]
Calosoma armata Laporte de Castelnau, 1835: 156 (type locality: Mexique); lectotype ♂ designated by Erwin in Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (Bosquet, 2012: 229).
Calosoma alternans, sensu Duval, 1857: 9
Castrida Sayi, Motschulsky 1865: 300
Calosoma Sayi var. abdominale Géhin, 1885: 58, note 58 (described from: Mexique); lectotype (from Mexique intèrieur) ♂ designated by Deuve (1978: 252) in Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris [examined]
Calosoma Sayi virginica Casey, 1897: 344 (type locality: Norfolk, Virginia); lectotype ♂ designated by Erwin in National Museum of Natural History, Washington (Bosquet, 2012: 229)
Calosoma alternans var. cuprascens Roeschke, 1900: 70 (described from an unspecified place, probably Greater Antilles); type material: 1 ♂, possibly lost (Bosquet, 2012: 229)
Calosoma (Callistriga) alternans sayi, Breuning, 1927a: 192
Caminara (Callistriga) alternans sayi, Lapouge, 1932: 417
Caminara (Callistriga) alternans armatum, Lapouge, 1932: 417
Castrida (s. str.) Sayi, Jeannel, 1940: 94
Calosoma (Castrida) alternans sayi, Gidaspow, 1959: 242
Calosoma (Castrida) sayi, Gidaspow, 1963: 300
Calosoma (Castrida) sayi, Erwin, 2007: 103

Length 24-30 mm. C. sayi and C. alternans are both characterized by the metatrochanter of the males having an arcuated pointed tip; but C. sayi can be easily differentiated from its allied species, C. alternans, because all its elytral intervals have the same width and elevation.
The males have at most the two basal articles of the anterior tarsi very scarcely hairy, and on the apical part only. As a rule, the color is dark brown with feeble bronze reflections, but some specimens in the southernmost part of the distribution area, most commonly in Mexico, may have bright greenish metallic reflections .
It is encountered in central and eastern United States, and isolate findings in southeastern Canada have been signaled. It is also encountred in the Greater Antilles and in whole Mexico where it seems to be quite common. Moreover C. sayi occupies most of Central America spreading from Belize and Guatemala to Costa Rica. Further south, starting from Panama, we find the vicariant C. alternans.
However, the two species seem to overlap, at least partially, in the southern part of Central America and on the border between the Greater and Lesser Antilles. In fact, in Panama, where C. alternans predominates, some specimens of C. say have been reported. Moreover, isolated specimens attributable to C. alternans mixed with populations of C. say were found in Honduras. Something similar seems to happen in Puerto Rico where C. say is widespread but isolated specimens of C. alternans were reported.
It can also happen to find some confusion between C. sayi and C. calidum in the scientific literature. In fact, Lapouge (1930:43) at one time noted that Fabricius' very short description of C. calidum had misled many entomologists who thought they could identify as C. calidum the species we now call C. sayi. A confirmation comes from the fact that the same Say had sent with the name C. calidum to Dejean the specimen, which was subsequently dedicated to him. The confusion still lasts today and so, for for instance, the finds of southern Mexico, quoted as C. calidum (Penagos & al., 2003: 158; Armenta & al., 2003: 658), most probably should be attributed to C. sayi.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Belize: Spanish Lookout (Erwin, 1991: 25), Orange Walk (
Canada Alberta: Wainwright Dunes (; Nova Scotia: Inverness County (; Ontario: Erin, Nipissing (Algonquin Provincial Park), Chatham-Kent (; Prince Edward Island: Queens co.(Stanhope Campground) (; Saskatchewan: Etonami (
Costa Rica. Alajuela: Cote, Caño Negro (, San Rafael de Guatuso, San Carlo (; Cartago: Turrialba (Erwin, 1991: 25); Guanacaste: Puerto Carrillo, Liberia, Tamarindo (, Santa Elena, Santa Rosa National Park, Rio Carana, Palmira, Las Canas (Erwin, 1991: 25), Bagaces, San Antonio, Nacascolo, Mansión (; Heredia: San Antonio de Belen (Erwin, 1991: 25), Sarapiquí (; Pittier, Jiménez, Tárcoles, Sierpe, Quepos, La Ensenada (; Limon: Guacimo (SB); Puntarenas: Punta Morales, Puerto Jiménez, Osa (; San José: San Jose, San Pedro (Erwin, 1991: 25), Puriscal (
Cuba. Camagüey prov (Fernández, 2015: 27-28); Cienfuegos prov: Aguada De Pasajeros, Abreus (Fernández, 2015: 27-28); Granma prov: Niquero, Bartolomé Masó (; Guantánamo prov: Caimanera (; Holguin prov (Peck 2005: 27): Playa Pesquero (; Pinar del Rio prov: Guanahacabibes (Gidaspow, 1963: 301); Isla de la Juventud prov: El Abra (Fernández, 2015: 27-28); La Habana prov: La Habana (Jeannel,1940: 95), Diez De Octubre, Marianao, Boyeros, Santiago de las Vegas, Playa (Fernández, 2015: 27-28); Las Tunas prov: Jobabo (Gidaspow, 1963: 301); Mayabeque prov: Nueva Paz (Fernández, 2015: 27-28); Santa Clara prov: Villa Clara: (SB); Santiago de Cuba prov: Daiquiri (SB), Santiago de Cuba, Mella (Fernández, 2015: 28); Matanzas prov: Cárdenas (Fernández et al., 2009: 2).
Dominican Republic: S. Domingue (sub alternans, Dejean, 1826: 201 ); (Bosquet, 2012: 229); Azua: Sabana Yegua (; Camagüey prov (Fernández, 2015: 27-28); Cibao: Santiago de los Caballeros (Gidaspow, 1963: 301); Duarte: San Francisco de Macorís (; Pedernales: Las Mercedes, Oviedo (; Puerto Plata: La Isabela, Sosúa (; Salcedo: Tenares (; San Juan: San Juan de la Maguana (; Santiago: Villa González (; Santo Domingo (
El Salvador: San Salvador (SB), Acajutla, San Diego, Nancuchiname (Erwin, 1991: 25)
Guatemala: Tiquisate (Gidaspow, 1963: 301), Cayuga, Quirigua (Erwin, 1991: 25), Escuintla (
Haiti: Santiago de los Caballeros (Jeannel,1940: 95), Port au Prince (Gidaspow, 1963: 301)
Honduras. Yoro: Coyoles (Erwin, 1991: 25); Cortés: La Lima (Erwin, 1991: 25), Cofradía, Santa Cruz de Yojoa, San Pedro Sula (; Francisco Morazán: Cerro Uyuca, 1500-1600m. (SB), El Zamorano (, San Antonio de Oriente (; Valle: Jicaro (Erwin, 1991: 25), Aramecina (; Colón: Sonaguera (; Olancho: Catacamas (; Valle: Nacaome (
Jamaica: (Bates. 1884: 20) , Montego bay, Claremont, Old Harbour, Saint Andrew, Port Antonio (Gidaspow, 1963: 301); Portmore, Hopewell, Kingston (
Mexico. Campeche: Costa de Champoton (AVT), Xipujil (SB); Chiapas: Ocozocoautla, Palenque, Comitan (UASM), Selva Lacandona (VV), Ciudad Cuauhtémoc env. (SB); Colima: Manzanillo (; Guerrero: Acapulco de Juárez (; Jalisco: Melaque (SB); Michoacan: Nueva Italia (SB); Nayarit: Santiago Ixcuintla, Tuxpan, Palma Grande, Maria Madre island (; Nuevo Leon: Monterrey (Gidaspow, 1959: 242); Oaxaca: Zipolite (SB), Tehuantepec (Gidaspow, 1959: 242), San Pedro Pochutla, Santa Maria Tonameca (; Puebla: Mesa de San Diego (Gidaspow, 1959: 242); Quintana Roo: Othón P. Blanco (; San Luis Potosi: Tamanzunchale (Gidaspow, 1959: 242), Axtla de Terrazas near Xilitla, (; Sinaloa: Rio Fuerte, Culiacan (UASM), Guamúchil (SB), Mazatlan, Rosario (Gidaspow, 1959: 242), Los Mochis, Ahome (; Sonora: Alamos, Peon (UASM), Obregón, Vicam (; Tabasco: Villahermosa (UASM), Nacajuca, Frontera, Emiliano Zapata (; Tamaulipas: Ciudad Mante, Nascimiento del Rio Frio, Ciudad Valles (UASM), 19.2 km W of La Pesca (sub alternans, UASM), Ciudad Victoria (; Veracruz: Plan del Rio, Tuxpan, Jalapa, Córdoba (sub armatum, Bates. 1884: 20), Fortin des Flores (AVT), Coatzacoalcos (UASM), Cotaxtla (Gidaspow, 1959: 242), Coatzintla, Álamo Temapache, Tierra Blanca, Tantoyuca, Poza Rica de Hidalgo, La Vigueta (, Los Tuxtlas (SB); Yucatàn: Pisté (EM), Yaxcabà (EM), Valladolid (AL), Itzincab, Tizimín (
Nicaragua. Chinandega: Chinandega (, Volcan Casita (sub alternans,; Granada: Reserva silvestre de Domitila (SB); Esteli (sub alternans,; León (; Managua: Tipitapa (Erwin, 1991: 25), El Crucero (, San Francisco Libre (sub alternans,; Masaya: Los Altos de Masaya, Las Flores (; Nueva Segovia: Cerro Jesus 1300m. (SB); Rio San Juan: Bartola lodge (sub alternans,; Rivas: San Juan del Sur (
Panama. Chiriquí: Alanje (, Puerto Armuelles (; Coclé: El Vale de Antón (SB); Ngäbe-Buglé prov: La Verrugosa (SB); Panama city: Barriada Santa Monica (Erwin, 1991: 25)
Puerto Rico. (Erwin, 2007: 1003), Mayaguez (Gidaspow, 1963: 301;, Anasco, Desengano (Gidaspow, 1963: 301), Cabo Rojo, Lajas (, Ponce (Gidaspow, 1963: 301;
United States. Alabama: Lee County, Madison County (, Montevallo (SB), Daphne (, Mobile (Burgess & Collins, 1917: 63); Arkansas: Vannedale (SB), Prairie County (, Lonoke County, Craighead County (; Arizona (Breuning, 1927: 194): Pima County, Cochise County (; California: (Burgess & Collins, 1917: 62), Oakland (, Riverside (; Delaware: New Castle County, Kent County, Sussex County (; District of Columbia: Washington (Burgess & Collins, 1917: 63), Florida: Belle Grade (EM), Levy County (VV), Citrus Company (, Pensacola Bay (; Georgia: Tift County (SB), Paulding County (, Elberton (; Illinois: Jackson county (UASM); Carbondale (, Madison County (; Iowa (Burgess & Collins, 1917: 62); Kansas: Atchinson (SB), Neosho (; Kentucky: Carlisle County (, Metcalfe County (SB); Lousiana: St. Landry Parish (, Mandeville, New Iberia, La Fayette Parish, Baton Rouge (; Maryland: Worchester County (EM), Anne Arundel County (; Minnesota: Pine county, St. Croix State Park (; Missouri: Buchanan County (SB), St. Louis, Bolivar (, Carter County (; Mississipi (Gidaspow, 1959: 242); Nebraska: Nemaha County (; New Hampshire: White Mountain National Forest (; New Mexico: Portales (; New Yersey: Cape May County (; New York: Long Island (Bosquet, 2012: 229); North Carolina: Southern Pines (EM), Fayetteville, Providence, Snow Camp (; Ohio (Bosquet, 2012: 229): Chagrin Falls (; Oklahoma: Stillwater (Burgess & Collins, 1917: 63), Mayes County, Durant (, Okmulgee County, Seminole County (; Pennsylvania (Burgess & Collins, 1917: 62): Allegheny County, Forest Hills (; South Carolina: Nashville (SB), Chattanooga (VV), Aiken County (, Laurens County (; South Dakota: Fort Pierre (; Tennessee: Sevier County (, Chester County, Hamilton County (, Obion county (UASM); Texas: Brazos County (SB), Nacogdoches County, Willacy County (EM; SB), Cameron County, Gregg County, Nueces County, Travis County, Victoria County (, Dallas County, Bosque County (Clifton), McKinney, Grapevine, Georgetown (; Utah: Utah County (; Vermont: Albany (; Virginia: Norfolk (lectotype of var. virginica, NMNH), Giles County, Mecklenburg County, Virginia Beach County (; Wisconsin: Devil's Lake State Park, Wood County (

Notes: Winged. Adult are nocturnal and easily attracted to light at night but larvae are mostly diurnal. Adults are predaceous on noctuid and sphingid caterpillar and pupae, but they also were observed attacking Coleoptera, Orthoptera and other insects.
Adult individuals of C. sayi were observed in activity mostly from June to October, with a maximum in August - September. As it happens with other species having a large area of diffusion, C. sayi can be found almost all year round, according to local climate condition. However, Burgess and Collins (1917: 62) observed that this species, when living in northern areas, normally goes into hibernation.
The species is named after Thomas Say (1784 – 1834), an American entomologist, as well as malacologist, herpetologist and carcinologist, that is universally considered the father of descriptive entomology in the United States.

Calosoma (Castrida) sayi
Dejean, 1826
Amérique boréale (lectotype)
(Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma (Castrida) sayi
Dejean, 1826
Mexique intèrieur (holotype of Calosoma sayi var. abdominale Géhin, 1885) (Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma (Castrida) sayi
Dejean, 1826
USA Georgia, Tift county, Tifton, sept. 1981, Decoins lg.
Calosoma (Castrida) sayi
Dejean, 1826
USA Georgia, Tift county, Tifton, sept. 1981, Decoins lg.
updated June 6 2024