Calosoma (Ctenosta) senegalense Dejean, 1831

Calosoma senegalense Dejean, 1831: 562 (described from: Sénegal); lectotype ♂ designated by Deuve (1978: 247) in Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris [examined]
Calosoma mosabicense Klug, 1853: 247 (described from: Tette = Tete) original material and depository not stated
Calosoma (Ctenosta) senegalense Breuning, 1927: 187
Calosoma (Ctenosta) senegalense mossabicense Breuning, 1927: 187
Ctenosta senegalense Jeannel, 1940: 129


Length 25-30 mm. In this species, as it happens in C. planicolle, the sculpture of the elytra is heterodynamic, that is it is characterized by the tertiary intervals that are more elevated than the others and that are deeply incised, while the primary and secondary ones consist of rough grains.
However, C. senegalense easily stands out from C. planicolle by the dark bronze color of the upper body having brightly copper foveae on the primary intervals, and by the acuminate tip of the males' metatrochanter.
It occupies the entire Sub-Saharan Africa, including Madagascar and Cabo Verte islands, and recently it has also been found on the opposite coast of the Red Sea, in the Arabian Peninsula.
In the 1950s C. senegalense was imported from Kenya to Hawaii as a possible predator of the Noctuidae Spodoptera mauritia, but acclimatization was unsuccessful (Liebherr et al., 2023: 8).

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Angola. Galinda (RMCA), Lobito (Serrano & al., 2017: 205)
Benin. Malanville: Kantoro (www.inaturalist.org); Tanguiéta (www.inaturalist.org)
Botswana. (= NW Bechuanaland) Massaringam (Breuning, 1927: 187); Ngamiland district, NE of Maun, Tamalakane (Häckel et al, 2016: 15); Southern distr: Sedibeng (www.inaturalist.org).
Burkina Fasu. Ouagadougou (SB), Nanoro (=Boulkiamdé) (EM) Yatenga: Ouahigouya; Dpt de Tangaye: Ouahigouya (www.insecte.org)
Burundi. (Häckel et al, 2016: 15)
Cabo Verde (Republic of). Ilha de Boa Vista (SB): Curral Velho (www.inaturalist.org); Ilha Brava (Wollaston, 1867: 4): Cachaco 550-800m, Fajã d'Agua 300m, Nova Sintra, Lem, Covada 480m, Ribeira do Sorno, Santana 490m (Aistleitner & Baehr 2016: 53); Ilha do Fogo (Wollaston, 1867: 4); Ilha de Santo Antão (Oromí & al., 2005: 79); Ilha de São Nicolau (Oromí & al., 2005: 79); Ilha de Santiago: road from Cidade Velha to Santa Ana (Herbert, 1987: 97), Sra. Malagueta occ. 750m (Aistleitner & Baehr 2016: 53), Ponta Moreira, Porto Gouveia (www.inaturalist.org); Ilha de São Vicente (Wollaston, 1867: 4)
Cameroon. (Häckel et al, 2016: 15)
Chad. Léré (SB), Bebedjia (RMCA)
Congo (Republic of Congo-Brazzaville). Kouilou dept., Kola (SB)
Congo (Democratic Republic of Congo). Haut Congo (RMCA); Boma (RMCA); Lemba (Jeannel, 1940: 130), Luvungi (sub senegalense ssp. mossambicense Burgeon, 1937: 18)
Eritrea. Ailet (AC, MGe), Ghinda (MGe), Ugaró (RMCA)
Ethiopia. Hararge: Harar, Dire Dawa (Rougemont, 1976: 248), Babile (SB); Illubador: Gambela env., 400 m (Häckel et al, 2016: 15); Shewa: Awash nat.park (SB), Buffet d'Aouache (Rougemont, 1976: 248); Sidamo: lake Abaya (Margherita) (Alluaud 1923: 128).
Gabon. (Häckel et al, 2016: 15)
Gambia. Bakau, Kiang West National Park, Kolili (Baehr, 2003: 401, Janjanbureh (SB)
Ghana. Northern Prov., West Gonja district, Damongo env. (Häckel et al, 2016: 15), Larabanga (www.inaturalist.org)
Guinea (Republic of). (Häckel et al, 2016: 15)
Guinea-Bissau. (Häckel et al, 2016: 15)
Guinea Equatorial. (Häckel et al, 2016: 15)
Kenya. Nairobi (SB), Bura (SB), Rukanga (SB), South Turkana lake (Jeannel, 1940: 130); Eastern Province: Kitui (Breuning, 1927: 187), Ngurunit (Ebay.com), Taveta 750 m (SB); Coast Province: Tsavo National Park (www.kaefer-der-welt.de/), Voi (SB), Kilifi (www.inaturalist.org), Garissa (VV), Lamu: Garsen (VV)
Lesotho. (Häckel et al, 2016: 15)
Liberia. (Häckel et al, 2016: 16)
Madagascar. Berenty reserve (SB), Rainomaìnty (EM); Ambovombe-Androy (RMCA); Antsiranana (RMCA), Moramanga district, Amboasary (SB); Toliara (= Tuléar) (Jeannel, 1940: 130) Toliara prov: Ejeda env., Mahajanga Prov: Ampatika env. (Häckel et al, 2016: 15), Tsimanampetsotsa (carabidae.org/); Reserve de Périnet (Andasibe) (TL)
Malawi. Thyolo: Mikolongwe (www.inaturalist.org)
Mali. Mopti (SB); Gao (www.inaturalist.org)
Mauritania. (NMP)
Moçambique. Maputo (SB); Gorongosa (RMCA), Tete, Beira (Breuning, 1927: 187)
Namibia. Caprivi reg: Bagani-Popa Falls (Häckel et al, 2016: 15); Erongo: Omaruru (EM), Karibib, Spitzkoppe (Kuntzen, 1919: 113); Hardap Region: Maltahohe 1350m (SB), Deadvlei (www.inaturalist.org/), Rehoboth (Kuntzen, 1919: 113); Karas: Keetmanshoop (Kuntzen, 1919: 113); Khomas: Windhoek (EM); Daan Viljoen (www.inaturalist.org), Arnhem cave & lodge 1543m (SB); Kunene: Etosha vill. (www.inaturalist.org/); Okonjima: Kleiner Waterberg (www.inaturalist.org/); Omaheke: Witvlei (TL), 16 Km S of Leonardville (www.gbif.org); Oshana: Etosha N.P. (TL); Otjozondjupa: Otjiwarongo (SB), between Otjosondu and Kid, Okahandja, between Okahandja and Windhuk (Windhoek) (Kuntzen, 1919: 113); Oshikoto: Halali (www.inaturalist.org).
Niger. Agadés reg. Arlit (https://www.insecte.org/forum/viewtopic.php?t=193243)
Nigeria. Sarkin Pawa (EM)
Réunion Island (France). Sain Paul: Plateau-Caillou (www.inaturalist.org)
Rwanda. (Häckel et al, 2016: 16)
Saudi Arabia. Jazan: 4Km E Al Kadarah (SB)
Senegal. (lectotype of Calosoma senegalense MNHN); Dakar N'Gor (EM), Linguére (RMCA), Fatick (SB); Richard Toll (VV); Petite Côte, Nianing (www.insecte.org); M’bour dept., Saly Portudal (Häckel et al, 2016: 15); Reserve de Bandia (www.inaturalist.org/)
Sierra Leone. (Häckel et al, 2016: 16)
Somalia. Lower Shebeli, Afgoi (AVT, SB), Togdheer, Gahan Libah (AVT)
South Africa. Gauteng: Pretoria (www.gbif.org), Centurion (www.inaturalist.org); KwaZulu-Natal: Durban (Breuning, 1927: 188), Stanger (Durban National Science Museum, gbif.org); Northern Cape: Siyanda, Pixley ka Seme (www.inaturalist.org); Transvaal: Kruger park (SB), Warmbaths (EM), Johannesburg (Breuning, 1927: 188).
Sudan. (https://www.ebay.com/)
Swaziland. (Häckel et al, 2016: 16)
Tanzania. Arusha reg: Lake Eyasi (www.inaturalist.org/); Iringa reg: Ruaha NP (SB); Kilimanjaro reg: Kilema (SB), Moshi (Breuning, 1927: 187); Morogoro reg: Mikumi (Häckel et al, 2016: 15), Turiani (SB), Kilosa (www.inaturalist.org); Mwanza reg: Ukerewe (RMCA), Pwani reg: Bagamoyo (Chaudoir,1878: 72); Singida reg: Kintinku (SB)
Togo. Kuma Konda (SB), Badou (http://www.ebay/)
Uganda. Kikorongo (Jeannel, 1940: 130), Kazinga (SB)
Zambia. Lusaka (NMP); Myumbe (RMCA), 9 km S. Itezhi Tezhi (SB), Kasisi mission (www.inaturalist.org)
Zimbabwe. Mutare (VV), Harare (= Salisbury) (Breuning, 1927: 188); 20 km NE Shamva (Häckel et al, 2016: 15), Bulawayo (www.inaturalist.org/)

Notes: Diurnal and nocturnal, winged, attracted to light at night. In the savannah, C. senegalense is an active predator of other insects but it is worth noting that in turn it can be sometime preyed by large reptils (Cisse, 1972). It may be locally quite common and can easily fall under the eye of the local farmers. This is evidenced by the fact that it has earned a name from the Dogon people of Mali and it is known by them as "kękę’ gùmmomolo kù palá" that can be translated as "the elongated gibbous insect" (Griaule, 1961: 28).
Given the extent of the diffusion area, active individuals have been encountered during the whole year, more or less frequently depending on rainfall regime dominant in the different regions.

Calosoma (Ctenosta) senegalense
Dejean, 1831
Sénegal (lectotype)
(coll. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma (Ctenosta) senegalense
Dejean, 1831
Mali: Mopti, 8.VIII.2003 (at ligth), S. Bruschi lg.
Calosoma (Ctenosta) senegalense
Dejean, 1831
Mali: Mopti, 8.VIII.2003 (at ligth), S. Bruschi lg.

updated April 18 2024

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