Calosoma (Ctenosta) senegalense Dejean, 1831

Calosoma senegalense Dejean, 1831: 562 (type: Sénegal; Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma mossabicense Klug, 1853: 247 (type: Tete)
Calosoma (Ctenosta) senegalense Breuning, 1927: 187
Calosoma (Ctenosta) senegalense mossabicense Breuning, 1927: 187
Calosoma (Ctenosta) senegalensis Lapouge, 1932: 415
Ctenosta senegalense Jeannel, 1940: 129


Length 25-30 mm. The sculpture of elytra in this species, as it is in C. planicolle, is characterized by the tertiary intervals that are more elevated than the others ("hétérodyname" sculpture of Jeannel) and deeply incised, instead the primary and secondary ones consist of rough grains.
C. senegalense is easily distinguished by the dark bronze color of the upper body with foveae of the primaries brightly copper, and by the acuminate tip of the males' metatrochanter.
It occupies the entire Sub-Saharan Africa, Madagascar and Cabo Verte islands.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Angola: Galinda (RMCA)
Botswana: (= NW Bechuanaland) Massaringam (Breuning, 1927: 187); Ngamiland district, NE of Maun, Tamalakane (Häckel et al, 2016: 15)
Burkina Fasu: Ouagadougou (SB), Nanoro (=Boulkiamdé) (EM) Yatenga: Ouahigouya; Dpt de Tangaye: Ouahigouya (www.insecte.org)
Cabo Verde (Republic of): São Vicente, Fogo, Brava (Wollaston, 1867: 4); Boa Vista (SB); Santiago: road from Cidade Velha to Santa Ana (Herbert, 1987: 97); Santo Antão, São Nicolau (Oromí & al., 2005: 79)
Chad: Léré (SB), Bebedjia (RMCA)
Congo (Republic of Congo-Brazzaville): Kouilou dept., Kola (SB)
Congo (Democratic Republic of Congo): Haut Congo (RMCA); Boma (RMCA); Lemba (Jeannel, 1940: 130), Luvungi (sub senegalense ssp. mossambicense Burgeon, 1937: 18)
Eritrea: Ailet (AC, MGe), Ghinda (MGe), Ugaró (RMCA)
Ethiopia: Shewa, Awash nat.park (SB); Gambela env., 400 m (Häckel et al, 2016: 15), lake Abaya (Margherita) (Alluaud 1923: 128)
Gambia: Bakau, Kiang West National Park, Kolili (Baehr, 2003: 401)
Ghana. Northern Prov., West Gonja district, Damongo env. (Häckel et al, 2016: 15)
Kenya: Nairobi (SB), Taveta 750 m (SB), Bura (SB), Rukanga (SB), South Turkana lake (Jeannel, 1940: 130); Eastern Province: Kitui (Breuning, 1927: 187); Coast Province: Tsavo National Park (www.kaefer-der-welt.de/), Voi (SB), Garissa (VV), Lamu: Garsen (VV)
Madagascar: Berenty reserve (SB), Rainomaìnty (EM); Ambovombe-Androy (RMCA); Antsiranana (RMCA), Moramanga district, Amboasary (SB); Toliara (= Tuléar) (Jeannel, 1940: 130) Toliara prov: Ejeda env., Mahajanga Prov: Ampatika env. (Häckel et al, 2016: 15), Tsimanampetsotsa (carabidae.org/)
Mali: Mopti (SB)
Mauritania (NMP)
Moçambique: Maputo (SB); Gorongosa (RMCA), Tete, Beira (Breuning, 1927: 187)
Namibia: Omaruru (EM), Windhoek (EM), Otjiwarongo (SB), Maltahohe 1350m (SB), Arnhem cave & lodge 1543m (SB); Caprivi reg., Bagani-Popa Falls (Häckel et al, 2016: 15)
Nigeria: Sarkin Pawa (EM)
Senegal: ((lectotype of Calosoma senegalense MNHN); Dakar N'Gor (EM), Linguére (RMCA), Fatick (SB); Richard Toll (VV); Petite Côte, Nianing (www.insecte.org); M’bour dept., Saly Portudal (Häckel et al, 2016: 15)
Somalia: Lower Shebeli, Afgoi (AVT, SB), Togdheer, Gahan Libah (AVT)
South Africa. Transvaal: Kruger park (SB), Warmbaths (EM), Johannesburg (Breuning, 1927: 188); Natal: Durban (Breuning, 1927: 188)
Tanzania: Kilimanjaro, Kilema (SB), Moshi (Breuning, 1927: 187); Tuliani, Morogoro (SB); Ukerewe (RMCA), Bagamoyo (Breuning, 1927: 187); Arusha reg., Mto Wa Mbu; Morogoro reg., Mikumi (Häckel et al, 2016: 15)
Togo: Badou (http://www.ebay/)
Uganda: Kikorongo (Jeannel, 1940: 130)
Zambia: Lusaka (NMP); Myumbe (RMCA)
Zimbabwe: Mutare (VV), Harare (= Salisbury) (Breuning, 1927: 188); 20 km NE Shamva (Häckel et al, 2016: 15)

Notes: Diurnal and nocturnal, winged, attracted to light at night. In the savannah, C. senegalense is an active predator of other insects but it is worth noting that in turn it can be sometime preyed by large reptils (Cisse, 1972). It may be locally quite common and can easily fall under the eye of the local farmers. This is evidenced by the fact that it has earned a name from the Dogon people of Mali and it is known by them as "kękę’ gùmmomolo kù palá" that can be translated as "the elongated gibbous insect" (Griaule, 1961: 28).
Given the extent of the diffusion area, active individuals have been encountered during the whole year, more or less frequently depending on rainfall regime dominant in the different regions.

Calosoma (Ctenosta) senegalense
Dejean, 1831
Sénegal (lectotype)
(coll. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma (Ctenosta) senegalense
Dejean, 1831
Mali: Mopti, 8.VIII.2003 (at ligth), S. Bruschi lg.
Calosoma (Ctenosta) senegalense
Dejean, 1831
Mali: Mopti, 8.VIII.2003 (at ligth), S. Bruschi lg.

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