Calosoma (Ctenosta) senegalense Dejean, 1831

Calosoma senegalense Dejean, 1831: 562 (described from: Sénegal); lectotype ♂ designated by Deuve (1978: 247) in Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris [examined]
Calosoma mosabicense Klug, 1853: 247 (described from: Tette = Tete) original material and depository not stated
Calosoma (Ctenosta) senegalense Breuning, 1927: 187
Calosoma (Ctenosta) senegalense mossabicense Breuning, 1927: 187
Ctenosta senegalense Jeannel, 1940: 129


Length 25-30 mm. In this species, as it happens in C. planicolle, the sculpture of the elytra is heterodynamic, that is it is characterized by the tertiary intervals that are more elevated than the others and that are deeply incised, while the primary and secondary ones consist of rough grains.
However, C. senegalense easily stands out from C. planicolle by the dark bronze color of the upper body having brightly copper foveae on the primary intervals, and by the acuminate tip of the males' metatrochanter.
It occupies the entire Sub-Saharan Africa, including Madagascar and Cabo Verte islands.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Angola. Galinda (RMCA), Lobito (Serrano & al., 2017: 205)
Botswana. (= NW Bechuanaland) Massaringam (Breuning, 1927: 187); Ngamiland district, NE of Maun, Tamalakane (Häckel et al, 2016: 15); Southern distr: Sedibeng (www.inaturalist.org).
Burkina Fasu. Ouagadougou (SB), Nanoro (=Boulkiamdé) (EM) Yatenga: Ouahigouya; Dpt de Tangaye: Ouahigouya (www.insecte.org)
Cabo Verde (Republic of). Ilha de Boa Vista (SB); Ilha Brava: (Wollaston, 1867: 4), Cachaco 550-800m, Fajã d'Agua 300m, Nova Sintra, Lem, Covada 480m, Ribeira do Sorno, Santana 490m (Aistleitner & Baehr 2016: 53); Ilha do Fogo (Wollaston, 1867: 4); Ilha de Santo Antão (Oromí & al., 2005: 79); Ilha de São Nicolau (Oromí & al., 2005: 79); Ilha de Santiago: road from Cidade Velha to Santa Ana (Herbert, 1987: 97), , Sra. Malagueta occ. 750m (Aistleitner & Baehr 2016: 53); Ilha de São Vicente (Wollaston, 1867: 4)
Chad. Léré (SB), Bebedjia (RMCA)
Congo (Republic of Congo-Brazzaville). Kouilou dept., Kola (SB)
Congo (Democratic Republic of Congo). Haut Congo (RMCA); Boma (RMCA); Lemba (Jeannel, 1940: 130), Luvungi (sub senegalense ssp. mossambicense Burgeon, 1937: 18)
Eritrea. Ailet (AC, MGe), Ghinda (MGe), Ugaró (RMCA)
Ethiopia. Hararge: Harar, Dire Dawa (Rougemont, 1976: 248), Illubador: Gambela env., 400 m (Häckel et al, 2016: 15); Shewa: Awash nat.park (SB), Buffet d'Aouache (Rougemont, 1976: 248); Sidamo: lake Abaya (Margherita) (Alluaud 1923: 128) .
Gambia. Bakau, Kiang West National Park, Kolili (Baehr, 2003: 401, Janjanbureh (SB)
Ghana. Northern Prov., West Gonja district, Damongo env. (Häckel et al, 2016: 15)
Kenya. Nairobi (SB), Taveta 750 m (SB), Bura (SB), Rukanga (SB), South Turkana lake (Jeannel, 1940: 130); Eastern Province: Kitui (Breuning, 1927: 187); Coast Province: Tsavo National Park (www.kaefer-der-welt.de/), Voi (SB), Garissa (VV), Lamu: Garsen (VV)
Madagascar. Berenty reserve (SB), Rainomaìnty (EM); Ambovombe-Androy (RMCA); Antsiranana (RMCA), Moramanga district, Amboasary (SB); Toliara (= Tuléar) (Jeannel, 1940: 130) Toliara prov: Ejeda env., Mahajanga Prov: Ampatika env. (Häckel et al, 2016: 15), Tsimanampetsotsa (carabidae.org/)
Mali. Mopti (SB)
Mauritania. (NMP)
Moçambique. Maputo (SB); Gorongosa (RMCA), Tete, Beira (Breuning, 1927: 187)
Namibia. Omaruru (EM), Windhoek (EM), Otjiwarongo (SB), Maltahohe 1350m (SB), Arnhem cave & lodge 1543m (SB); Caprivi reg., Bagani-Popa Falls (Häckel et al, 2016: 15)
Nigeria. Sarkin Pawa (EM)
Senegal. ((lectotype of Calosoma senegalense MNHN); Dakar N'Gor (EM), Linguére (RMCA), Fatick (SB); Richard Toll (VV); Petite Côte, Nianing (www.insecte.org); M’bour dept., Saly Portudal (Häckel et al, 2016: 15)
Somalia. Lower Shebeli, Afgoi (AVT, SB), Togdheer, Gahan Libah (AVT)
South Africa. Gauteng: Pretoria (www.gbif.org); KwaZulu-Natal: Durban (Breuning, 1927: 188), Stanger (Durban National Science Museum, gbif.org); Northern Cape: Siyanda (www.inaturalist.org); Transvaal: Kruger park (SB), Warmbaths (EM), Johannesburg (Breuning, 1927: 188).
Tanzania. Arusha reg: Lake Eyasi (www.inaturalist.org/); Iringa reg: Ruaha NP (SB); Kilimanjaro reg: Kilema (SB), Moshi (Breuning, 1927: 187); Morogoro reg: Mikumi (Häckel et al, 2016: 15), Turiani (SB); Mwanza reg: Ukerewe (RMCA), Pwani reg: Bagamoyo (Chaudoir,1878: 72); Singida reg: Kintinku (SB)
Togo. Kuma Konda (SB), Badou (http://www.ebay/)
Uganda. Kikorongo (Jeannel, 1940: 130), Kazinga (SB)
Zambia. Lusaka (NMP); Myumbe (RMCA), 9 km S. Itezhi Tezhi (SB)
Zimbabwe. Mutare (VV), Harare (= Salisbury) (Breuning, 1927: 188); 20 km NE Shamva (Häckel et al, 2016: 15)

Notes: Diurnal and nocturnal, winged, attracted to light at night. In the savannah, C. senegalense is an active predator of other insects but it is worth noting that in turn it can be sometime preyed by large reptils (Cisse, 1972). It may be locally quite common and can easily fall under the eye of the local farmers. This is evidenced by the fact that it has earned a name from the Dogon people of Mali and it is known by them as "kękę’ gùmmomolo kù palá" that can be translated as "the elongated gibbous insect" (Griaule, 1961: 28).
Given the extent of the diffusion area, active individuals have been encountered during the whole year, more or less frequently depending on rainfall regime dominant in the different regions.

Calosoma (Ctenosta) senegalense
Dejean, 1831
Sénegal (lectotype)
(coll. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma (Ctenosta) senegalense
Dejean, 1831
Mali: Mopti, 8.VIII.2003 (at ligth), S. Bruschi lg.
Calosoma (Ctenosta) senegalense
Dejean, 1831
Mali: Mopti, 8.VIII.2003 (at ligth), S. Bruschi lg.

updated May 23 2020

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