Calosoma (Callistenia) luxatum Say, 1823

Calosoma luxata Say, 1823: 149 (described from Douglas Spring, Colorado; neotype in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Ma)
Carabus Zimmermanni LeConte, 1848: 145 (described from Rocky Mountains; holotype in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Ma)
Calosoma striatulum LeConte, 1859: 4 (nec Chevrolat, 1835)(described from Milk River, Montana; syntype in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA) (preoccupated by striatulum Chevrolat, 1835
Calosoma pimeliuoides Walker, 1866: 312 (described from British Columbia; syntype in Natural History Museum, London)
Callisthenes luxatus var. opacus Géhin, 1885: 70 (described from Oregon; syntype in Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Calosoma monticola Casey, 1897: 342 (described from Reno, Nevada; syntype in National Museum of Natural History, Washington)
Callisthenes exaratus Casey, 1913: 72 (described from Placer Co., California; syntype in National Museum of Natural History, Washington)
Callisthenes tegulatus Casey, 1913: 72 (described from California; syntype in National Museum of Natural History, Washington)
Callisthenes tegulatus viator Casey, 1913: 72 (described from Yreka, California; syntype in National Museum of Natural History, Washington)
Callisthenes pustulosus Casey, 1913: 73 (described from California; syntype in National Museum of Natural History, Washington)
Callisthenes nevadensis Casey, 1913: 74 (described from Reno, Nevada; syntype in National Museum of Natural History, Washington)
Callisthenes diffractus Casey, 1913: 75 (described from Coolidge, New Mexico; syntype in National Museum of Natural History, Washington)
Calosoma subasperatum Schaeffer, 1915: 235 (described from California)
Callisthenes reflexus Casey, 1920: 164 (described from Nortrhern Rocky Mountain; syntype in National Museum of Natural History, Washington)
Callisthenes utensis Casey, 1920: 165 (described from Stockton, Utah; syntype in National Museum of Natural History, Washington)
Callisthenes semotus Casey 1920: 165 (described from Stockton, Utah; syntype in National Museum of Natural History, Washington)
Callisthenes parowanus Casey 1920: 167 (described from Parowan, Utah; syntype in National Museum of Natural History, Washington)
Callisthenes debilis Casey, 1920: 169 (described from Oregon; syntype in National Museum of Natural History, Washington)
Callisthenes klamathensis Casey, 1920: 169 (described from Klamath Co., Oregon; syntype in National Museum of Natural History, Washington)
Calosoma (Callisthenes) luxatum Breuning, 1928: 83
Calosoma (Callisthenes) luxatum zimmermanni Breuning, 1928: 83
Calosoma (Callisthenes) luxatum zimmermanni ab. striata Breuning, 1928: 84; (nomen novum pro striatulum LeConte)
Callisthenes (Callistenia) luxata Lapouge, 1932: 378
Callisthenes (Callistenia) luxata zimmermanni Lapouge, 1932: 379
Callisthenes (Callistenia) luxata pimelioides Lapouge, 1932: 379
Callisthenes (Callistenia) luxata exarata Lapouge, 1932: 379
Callisthenes (Callistenia) luxata striatula Lapouge, 1932: 379
Callisthenes (Callistenia) luxata monticola Lapouge, 1932: 379
Callisthenes (Callistenia) luxata klamathensis Lapouge, 1932: 379
Callisthenes (Callistenia) luxata subasperata Lapouge, 1932: 379
Callisthenes (Callistenia) luxata diffracta Lapouge, 1932: 379
Callisthenes (Callistenia) luxata parowana Lapouge, 1932: 379
Callisthenes (Callistenia) luxata debilis Lapouge, 1932: 379
Microcallisthenes (Callistenia) luxata Jeannel, 1940: 173
Calosoma lariversi Van Dike, 1943: 17 (described from Lamaille, Nevada; holotype in California Academy of Sciences San Francisco)
Calosoma Zimmermanni tahoensis Van Dike, 1943: 18 (described from Lake Tahoe, Placer Co., California; holotype in California Academy of Sciences San Francisco)
Callisthenes (Microcallisthenes) luxatus Gidaspow, 1959: 310
Callisthenes (Microcallisthenes) monticola Gidaspow, 1959: 314
Callisthenes (Microcallisthenes) lariversi Gidaspow, 1959: 314
Callisthenes (Microcallisthenes) subasperatus Gidaspow, 1959: 315
Callisthenes (Microcallisthenes) pimelioides Gidaspow 1959: 316
Callisthenes (Microcallisthenes) oregonus Gidaspow, 1959: 317 (described from Oregon; holotype in Staten Island Museum of Art and Sciences, New York)
Callisthenes (Microcallisthenes) zimmermanni Gidaspow ,1959: 318
Callisthenes (Callistenia) lariversi Erwin, 2007: 77
Callisthenes (Callistenia) luxatus Erwin, 2007: 78
Callisthenes (Callistenia) monticola Erwin, 2007: 79
Callisthenes (Callistenia) oregonus Erwin, 2007: 80
Callisthenes (Callistenia) subasperatus Erwin, 2007:82


Length 13-23 mm. The pronotum of C. luxatum is a little narrowed behind, slightly heart-shaped and with acute hind angles, a little protruding from the base line. The elytron has 15 intervals (triploid type). The intervals are distinct, have the same width and are conformed in the same way, usually consisting of a series of subquadrate or rounded small elevations, separated by transverse wrinkles. The striae are not always visibly punctate..
C. luxatum is a very variable species and this variability, as in the case of C. discors, gave rise to the description of many forms, variously interpreted by the authors.
Of these forms, Gidaspow (1959) had reassessed as good species, within her genus Callisthenes, subgenus Microcallisthenes, the followings: zimmermanni, lariversi, monticola, subasperatus and pimelioides
Callisthenes (Microcallisthenes) zimmermanni essentially differes from C. luxatum, because of its pronotum that is much narrower behind. It was regarded by Breuning (1927) as subspecies but was placed in synonymy by Jeannel (1940:173). This view was recently echoed by Erwin (2007: 78). Callisthenes (Microcallisthenes) pimelioides that Gidaspow emphasized as a distinct species because of some minor differences in the chaetotaxy, by more recent authors has been considered a simple synonymous with luxatum (Bosquet, 1991: 11).
With regard to other forms, Callisthenes (Microcallisthenes) monticola, and Callisthenes (Microcallisthenes) subasperatus, can be differentiated between them and from the typical form, only for the chaetotaxy (mostly in terms of frequency statistics) and in particular to the bristles of pronotum and the supraorbital ones. Both were considered by Breuning (1927) as individual aberrations and consequently as synonyms of luxatum by Jeannel (1940: 173).
Callisthenes (Microcallisthenes) lariversi, described by Van Dike (1943), is characterized by the pronotum almost smooth and by the sculpture of elytra very flat, almost obliterated, where only the striae are indicated by series of small dots.
Finally, Gidaspow (1959) also described a further species: Callisthenes (Microcallisthenes) oregonus, which would be characterized by a slender body shape and minor differences in the shape of the apex of the penis and of the ligule.
All these forms come together in the same distribution area of the typical one along the ridge of the Rocky Mountains and, in order to take into account the sympatry, the current opinion is that at least some of them are distinct species.
However, the overlap of habitats, does not rule out the possibility of simple isolated populations, including the transitional forms in the areas of contact.
Alternatively, if we take into account the small differences between the various described forms, especially when confronted with the great differences that we find between individuals inside of each populations, we might consider most of these forms, as simple expressions of individual variability within a single species.
Because of all these considerations, we think that it is preferable, at least for the moment, to do not use further distinctions within the specific complex of luxatum, according to the opinion already expressed by the ancient authors about most of the described forms.
The only possible exception is the case of lariversi, which seems only being found in the Great Basin desert, and that undoubtedly belongs to the luxatum group, as already noted by Gidaspow (1959: 314), but which could well constitute a separate subspecies, geographically isolated.
All the populations that, basing on these criteria, can be attributed, for whatever reason, to luxatum, are found along the chain of the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada, from southwestern Canada to all the western United States.

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Canada. British Columbia: Osoyoos (Haynes Point) (UASM), Vancouver island (sub zimmermanni, Breuning 1928b: 85); Alberta: Medicine Hat (sub zimmermanni, SB), Stanley (EM), Calgary, Tilley, Jenner, Hilda (Gidaspow 1959: 311), 20.9 km north Hanna (UASM), Oldman River (UASM), 4.2 km W Empress (UASM); Saskatchewan: Pike Lake (SB), Saskatoon, Forget (Gidaspow 1959: 310).
United States. Colorado: Arkansas river, Denver, Fort Collins (Breuning 1928b: 85), Glenwood (Gidaspow 1959: 311); Idaho: Elmore Co. (Atlanta) (sub zimmermanni, Breuning 1928b: 86), Gooding Co. (sub zimmermanni, Gidaspow 1959: 318), Bannock Co. (Gidaspow 1959: 311), Lincoln Co. (8 km N Dietrich Butte) (UASM) Bingham Co (Blackfoot); Montana: Lewis and Clark Co. (Augusta) (Jeannel, 1940:176), Gallatin Co, Three Forks, Milk river (Gidaspow 1959: 311) Silver Bow Co, (26.7 km S Butte) (UASM); Nebraska: Brown Co., Kashopa, Sioux Co., Hat Creek Valley (Gidaspow 1959: 311); Arizona: Grand Canyon (Gidaspow 1959: 311); Washington: Whitman Co. (Pullman) (SB), Adams Co., Franklyn Co., Klickitat Co., Walla Walla Co., Yakima Co., (Gidaspow 1959: 311), Benton Co (24.0 km W Paterson) (UASM); California: Nevada County (EM), Eldorado Co. (Gidaspow 1959: 311), Alpine Co., Inyo Co., Sonoma Co., Tuolumne Co., (sub zimmermanni, Gidaspow 1959: 318) Plumas Co (UASM), Mono Co. (Sonora Pass) (UASM); Oregon: (holoype of Carabus opacus) (MNHN), Benton Co., Grant Co., Klamath Co., Lake Co., Polk Co., Umatilla Co., Wallowa Co., (Gidaspow 1959: 311) Baker Co. (Wallowa-Whitman National Forest) (UASM); Utah: Tooele Co., Utah Co., Wasatch Co., (Gidaspow 1959: 311) Cache Co. (6.4 km W Mendon) (UASM); Summit Co. (Park City), Grand Co. (Cisco) (sub zimmermanni, Breuning 1928b: 85); Wyoming: Carbon Co. (Como) (Breuning 1928b: 85), Yellowstone National Park (Jeannel, 1940:176), Laramie Co. (Gidaspow 1959: 311); Nevada: Humboldt Co. (sub zimmermanni, Gidaspow 1959: 318).

Notes: Brachypterous. It is found from midlands to alpine zones, from 800 to 4000m altitude, on praries and on open ground in dry forests. It is preferably nocturnal, taking refuge under stones in daytime. Adult are active from February to September, according to the characteristics of the different habitats (Erwin, 2007: 76 - 82).

Calosoma (Callistenia) luxatum
Say, 1823
Canada: Alberta, Medicine Hat, V. 18
Calosoma (Callistenia) luxatum
Say, 1823
United States: Washington, Pullman, March 27 1899
http://insects.oeb.harvard.edu/MCZ/
Callisthenes (Microcallisthenes) zimmermanni
(LeConte, 1848)
Oregon, Washington (Typus)
(coll. and photo: Museum of Comparative Zoology,
Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA)
a synonym of Calosoma (Callistenia) luxatum Say, 1823
http://insects.oeb.harvard.edu/MCZ/
Callisthenes (Microcallisthenes) zimmermanni
(LeConte, 1848)
Etats Unis, Oregon,
(holoype of Carabus opacus Géhin, 1885)
(coll. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
a synonym of Calosoma (Callistenia) luxatum Say, 1823
http://canopy.lifedesks.org/user/5/cmf?page=1
Callisthenes (Microcallisthenes) oregonum ♀ Gidaspow, 1959
(photo: Mackenzie Flight)
most probably a form related to
Calosoma (Callistenia) luxatum Say, 1823
http://canopy.lifedesks.org/user/5/cmf?page=1
Callisthenes (Microcallisthenes) monticola ♀ Casey, 1913
(photo: Mackenzie Flight)
most probably a form related to
Calosoma (Callistenia) luxatum Say, 1823
http://canopy.lifedesks.org/user/5/cmf?page=1
Callisthenes (Microcallisthenes) subasperatus ♀ Schaeffer, 1915
(photo: Mackenzie Flight)
most probably a form related to
Calosoma (Callistenia) luxatum Say, 1823
http://research.calacademy.org/redirect?url=http://researcharchive.calacademy.org/research/entomology/typesDB/default.asp
Callisthenes (Microcallisthenes) lariversi
Van Dike, 1943
Nevada, Lamaille, 25.VI.41, La R., coll. Van Dike (Typus)
(coll. and photo: California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco)
most probably a form related to
Calosoma (Callistenia) luxatum Say, 1823

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