Calosoma (Callistenia) moniliatum LeConte, 1852

Callisthenes moniliatus LeConte, 1852: 200 (type locality: Oregon); syntype (Oregon & Washington) in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Ma. (https://mczbase.mcz.harvard.edu/)
Calosoma laqueatum LeConte, 1860: 318 (described from Saskatshewan); syntype in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Ma. (https://mczbase.mcz.harvard.edu/)
Carabus bicolor Walker, 1866: 313 (type locality: British Columbia or Vancouver Island, by the title of the work); syntype in Natural History Museum, London (Lindroth, 1961: 53) (preoccupied by Carabus violaceus var. bicolor Letzner, 1850)
Callisthenes concinnus Casey, 1913: 66 (described from Priest Lake, Idaho); lectotype ♂ in National Museum of Natural History, Washington (https://collections.nmnh.si.edu/)
Carabus taedatus var. vancouvericus Csiki, 1927: 286 (nomen novum pro bicolor Walker)
Calosoma (Callisthenes) moniliatum Breuning, 1928: 78
Calosoma (Callisthenes) moniliatum concinnum Breuning, 1928: 77
Callisthenes (Callistenia) moniliatus Lapouge, 1931: 378
Callisthenes (Callistenia) moniliatus var. concinna Lapouge, 1931: 378
Microcallisthenes (Callistenia) moniliatus Jeannel, 1940: 177
Callisthenes (Microcallisthenes) moniliatus Gidaspow, 1959: 305
Callisthenes (Callistenia) moniliatus Erwin, 2007: 79


Length 15-17 C. moniliatum, as C. wilkesii, can be easily sorted out by the elongated shape of the body. Both these two species have a transverse pronotum slightly narrower at the base, with well-conformed rear angles clearly protruding from the baseline.
The sculpture of the elytra of C. moniliatum is characterized by primary intervals with chain-like elevations interrupted by large foveae, these intervals have a glossy surface, while the remaining surface of the elytra is matt. The secondary intervals consist in series of aligned grains and the tertiary ones are transformed in a confuse granulation. The color of the upper body is dark bronze, almost blackish in some cases, in other cases the color can be clear and bright.
C. moniliatum is found in the mountainous areas of southern Canada and in the north western United States, on the slopes of the Rocky Mountains and it may be relatively common in some areas. However the presence of C. moniliatum in Arizona, California, Nebraska and Oregon, that has been firstly indicated without further precisions by Burgess & Collins (1917: 114) and then reported without comments by the later authors (Gidaspow, 1959: 305; Erwin, 2007: 79; Bosquet, 2012: 249), would deserve to be confirmed

Examined specimens and literature’s data
Canada. Alberta: Waterton Lakes National Park, Waghorn, Magrath, Happy Valley, Millarville, Didsbury, Olds, Bowden, Blackfalds (Lindroth, 1961: 53), Beauvais Lake Provincial Park (https://bugguide.net), Bragg Creek, Prairie Bluff (UASM), Jumping Pound Creek (UASM; www.inaturalist.org), Calgary (AC), Pincher Creek (www.inaturalist.org); British Columbia: Waneta, East Kootenay, Radium (UASM), Vancouver (EM), Creston (Lindroth, 1961: 53), Cranbrook (Lindroth, 1961: 53, www.inaturalist.org); Saskatchewan: Sylvan Lake NP, Saskatoon (Lindroth, 1961: 53), Baldwinton (UASM); Nova Scotia (http://carabidae.org/)
United States. Arizona, California, Nebraska, Oregon (Burgess & Collins, 1917: 114); Idaho: Priest Lake (lectotype of concinnus), Idaho city (Breuning, 1928b: 77), Bonner County (www.inaturalist.org), Coolin (www.gbif.org); Montana: Silver Bow County (Butte) (Jeannel, 1940: 178), Missoula County (www.inaturalist.org); Washington: Spokane County (Breuning, 1928b: 77): Spokane 514m., Colbert 559m. (www.inaturalist.org), Stevens County: Rice, Little Pend Oreille National Wildlife Refuge; Ferry Co (Colville National Forest) (https://bugguide.net); Wyoming: Cokeville 1.887m (www.inaturalist.org).

Notes: Contrary to the adjective “brachypterous” used by Jeannel (1940: 177), the wings of C. moniliatum are normally formed but, because of some peculiarities of their structure, Lindroth (1961: 51) expressed doubts about its ability to fly.
C. moniliatum is found from midlands to uplands, up to 2000m altitude, in praires and conifer forest. It is preferably nocturnal, taking refuge under stones or similar shelters in daytime. As is the habit of the other American species of the subgenus, the adults of C. moniliatum sometimes take refuge in burrows they have dug themselves. It could also happen to have the simultaneous presence of the two sexes in the same burrow, as it has been observed in similar circumstances also in the Callisthes of eastern Europe and central Asia. In these cases the behavior could be linked to reproductive needs.
Adults are active starting from early spring, but mainly from the end of April to June and they may remain active until October.

Calosoma (Callistenia) moniliatum
LeConte, 1851
Canada: Alberta, Calgary, 1911 (coll. A. Casale)
Calosoma (Callistenia) moniliatum
LeConte, 1851
Canada: British Columbia, Vancouver (coll Migliaccio)

updated April 18 2024

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