Calosoma (Orinodromus) neumanni Kolbe, 1895

Carabomorphus neumanni Kolbe, 1895: 60 (type locality: mont Gurui, NW Irangi); holotype ♂ in Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin (Basilewsky, 1967: 65)
Carabomorphus africanus Csiki, 1916: 122 (type locality: Moschi), holotype ♂ in Magyar Természettudományi Múzeum, Budapest (Basilewsky, 1967: 65)
Calosoma (Carabomorphus) brachycerum neumanni Breuning, 1928: 132
Carabomorphus (Carabomorphus) neumanni Lapouge, 1932: 396
Orinodromus Neumanni Jeannel, 1940: 147
Orinodromus Neumanni subsp. ufiomae Basilewsky, 1962: 65 (type locality: Ufiomi); holotype ♂ in Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin

Length 16-20 mm. As the other species of the sub-genus Orinodromus that are found on Kilimanjaro, C. neumanni has the rear lobes of pronotum, provided with one bristle. Basing on this characteristic, Jeannel (1940) placed it, together with the species of Kilimanjaro, in the subgenus Orinodromus s. str.
Unlike the other species of the group, however, that have smooth elytra, the ones of C. neumanni have 15 intervals of the same width and heigth, that means of triploid homodynamic type. The upper body is black with reddish elytra, in most cases with light metal luster.
These morphological characteristics make it at first sight very similar to C. (Carabomorphus) brachycerum of the nearby mounts Meru and Kilimanjaro and to the other species of the sub-genus Carabomorphus that live at medium altitudes on the slopes of Mount Kenya, and on the bottom and on both sides of the terminal part of the Rift Valley, namely C. masaicum masaicum and C. catenatum kenycola. However, C. neumanni differs from these species for its much smaller size and above all because of the ligule with a normal apex very different from the overdeveloped ligule which is characteristic of the sub-genus Carabomorphus.
On the other hand, C. neumanni, which lives at medium altitude, could representthe primitive model of the group Carabomorphus), taking into account the characteristics of his elytral sculpture, raised and of triploid, homodynamic type, and comparing it to the more advanced sculpture of the other species, that are isolated at higher altitudes (Jeannel , 1940: 140).
C. neumanni was described on specimens captured on the crater of mount Hanang, 250 km south west of Kilimanjaro. Subsequently Basilewsky (1962:65) described the subspecies ufiomiae from the crater of the mount Ufiomi, about 50 km from mount Hanang, near the nature park of Tarangire. The description was based on small differences concerning the sculpture of elytra, namely the reduction of the foveae on primary intervals, and the lack of any metallic luster on the entire upper body.
C. neumanni (including ufiomiae that we believe does not deserve to be considered at the level of subspecies) occupies then the two contiguous major mountain ranges in the south west of Mount Kilimanjaro (crater of mount Hanang, and mount Ufiomi), from 1900 up to 2400 m.

Examined specimens
Tanzania. Dar es Salaam (MNHN); Mt Hanang, vers. Sud, 2350m, (RMCA); Mount Hanang, 2200m. (SB); Manyara, Mount Hanang (SB); Ufiomi, D.O.A. (paratype of Orinodromus Neumanni subsp. ufiomae Basilewsky, RMCA); Mount Ufiomi (NMB); Mount Ufiomi, Babati 1900m (EM, SB).

Notes: Wingless. Contrary to the previously supposed rarity (Basilewsky, 1962: 64.), it has been found again recently living on the alpine meadows with Graminaeae, on both the typical localities.
Catches are reported from May to June, after the long rains, and from September to October, before the short rainy season, as it happens with most of the other alpine species of Kilimanjaro area.
The species is named after Oscar Rudolph Neumann (1867 – 1946) a German zoologist and ornithologist, who has traveled extensively in Africa, in particular between 1892 and 1894.

Calosoma (Orinodromus) neumanni
Kolbe, 1895
Dar es Salaam, R. V. Besingsen
(coll. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)

Calosoma (Orinodromus) neumanni
Kolbe, 1895
Mt Hanang, vers. Sud, 2350m, 29.5.1957, Miss. Zool.
IRSAC en Afrique Orientale (P.Basilewsky et N. Leleup)
(coll. Musée Royal de l'Afrique Central, Tervuren)
Calosoma (Orinodromus) neumanni
Kolbe, 1895
Ufiomi, D.O.A., Zool. Mus. Berlin
(paratype of Orinodromus Neumanni subsp. ufiomae)
(coll. Musée Royal de l'Afrique Central, Tervuren)
Calosoma (Orinodromus) neumanni
Kolbe, 1895
(coll. Naturhistorischen Museums Basel)

updated March 28 2020